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Agriculture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921965/mycelium-enhanced-bacterial-degradation-of-organic-pollutants-under-bioavailability-restrictions
#1
Rungroch Sungthong, Margalida Tauler, Magdalena Grifoll, Jose Julio Ortega-Calvo
This work examines the role of mycelia in enhancing the degradation by attached bacteria of organic pollutants that have poor bioavailability. Two oomycetes, Pythium oligandrum and Pythium aphanidermatum, were selected as producers of mycelial networks, while Mycobacterium gilvum VM552 served as a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degrading bacterium. The experiments consisted of bacterial cultures exposed to a nondisturbed nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) layer containing a heavy fuel spiked with 14 C-labeled phenanthrene that were incubated in the presence or absence of the mycelia of the oomycetes in both shaking and static conditions...
October 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923606/actinomycetes-benefaction-role-in-soil-and-plant-health
#2
REVIEW
Asma Absar Bhatti, Shamsul Haq, Rouf Ahmad Bhat
Actinomycetes are aerobic, spore forming gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the order actinomycetales characterized with substrate and aerial mycelium growth. They are the most abundant organisms that form thread-like filaments in the soil and are responsible for characteristically "earthy" smell of freshly turned healthy soil. They play major roles in the cycling of organic matter; inhibit the growth of several plant pathogens in the rhizosphere and decompose complex mixtures of polymer in dead plant, animal and fungal material results in production of many extracellular enzymes which are conductive to crop production...
October 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969802/agricultural-practices-to-improve-nitrogen-use-efficiency-through-the-use-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizae-basic-and-agronomic-aspects
#3
REVIEW
Julien Verzeaux, Bertrand Hirel, Frédéric Dubois, Peter J Lea, Thierry Tétu
Nitrogen cycling in agroecosystems is heavily dependent upon arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) present in the soil microbiome. These fungi develop obligate symbioses with various host plant species, thus increasing their ability to acquire nutrients. However, AMF are particularly sensitive to physical, chemical and biological disturbances caused by human actions that limit their establishment. For a more sustainable agriculture, it will be necessary to further investigate which agricultural practices could be favorable to maximize the benefits of AMF to improve crop nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), thus reducing nitrogen (N) fertilizer usage...
November 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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