INCIDENCE OF CENTRAL DIABETES INSIPIDUS IN CHILDREN PRESENTING WITH POLYDIPSIA AND POLYURIA
OBJECTIVE: Polydipsia and polyuria are common reasons for referral to the Pediatric Endocrine clinic. In the absence of hyperglycemia, diabetes insipidus (DI) should be considered. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of central DI (CDI) in a group of children presenting for evaluation of polydipsia and polyuria, and to determine if predictive features were present in patients in whom the diagnosis of DI was made.
METHODS: The study was a retrospective chart review of children presenting to the endocrine clinic with complaints of polydipsia and polyuria over a 5-year period.
RESULTS: The charts of 41 patients (mean age 4.9 ± 3.7 years, 28 males) were reviewed. CDI was diagnosed in 8 (20%) children based on abnormal water deprivation test (WDT) results. All but one patient had abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, the most common being pituitary stalk thickening. Children with DI were older (7.86 ± 4.40 vs. 4.18 ± 3.20 years, P = .01) and had a higher propensity for cold beverages intake and unusual water-seeking behaviors compared to those without DI. Baseline WDT also revealed higher serum sodium (Na) and osmolality.
CONCLUSION: The incidence of CDI in children presenting with polydipsia and polyuria is low. Factors associated with higher likelihood of pathology include older age, propensity for cold beverage intake, and higher baseline serum Na and osmolality on a WDT.
ABBREVIATIONS: BMI = body mass index CDI = central diabetes insipidus DI = diabetes insipidus Na = sodium WDT = water deprivation test.