Quality of Life in Pediatric Moyamoya Disease
BACKGROUND: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a progressive intracranial arteriopathy with high risk of stroke. Its impact on quality of life is unstudied. We surveyed children with moyamoya disease and compared their quality of life to chronically ill children and children with stroke to better understand the impact of this diagnosis.
METHODS: Children with moyamoya disease aged seven to 17 years from Stanford's Moyamoya Clinic between June 2014 and March 2015 were included. Children with syndromic neurodevelopmental diagnoses were excluded. Patients were surveyed using the Pediatric Quality of Life 4.0, in addition to the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure or Recovery Recurrence Questionnaire. Mean scores were compared to normative data sets. Linear regression models compared total quality of life scores in patients with and without stroke, after adjusting for confounders.
RESULTS: This cross-sectional study included 30 children with moyamoya disease; ten were male, and the median age was 13.5 years (range, 7 to 17 years). Twenty children (67%) had a stroke, and 14 of these had good neurological outcome (70%). Mean parent-proxy Pediatric Quality of Life scores were lower in all domains compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05), and all scores were comparable to chronically ill children and children with non-moyamoya disease stroke. There was no significant difference in total quality of life between patients with and without stroke.
CONCLUSIONS: Even in the absence of stroke, children with moyamoya disease have lower quality of life than healthy controls and a similar quality of life to chronically ill children and those with non-moyamoya disease stroke. Children with moyamoya disease would benefit from mental health support beyond what a mild physical presentation may indicate.