2014 Eighth Joint National Committee panel recommendation for blood pressure targets revisited: results from the INVEST study
BACKGROUND: The 2014 Eighth Joint National Committee panel recommendations for management of high blood pressure (BP) recommend a systolic BP threshold for initiation of drug therapy and a therapeutic target of <150 mm Hg in those ≥60 years of age, a departure from prior recommendations of <140 mm Hg. However, it is not known whether this is an optimal choice, especially for the large population with coronary artery disease (CAD).
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate optimal BP in patients ≥60 years of age.
METHODS: Patients 60 years of age or older with CAD and baseline systolic BP >150 mm Hg randomized to a treatment strategy on the basis of either atenolol/hydrochlorothiazide or verapamil-SR (sustained release)/trandolapril in INVEST (INternational VErapamil SR Trandolapril STudy) were categorized into 3 groups on the basis of achieved on-treatment systolic BP: group 1, <140 mm Hg; group 2, 140 to <150 mm Hg; and group 3, ≥150 mm Hg. Primary outcome was first occurrence of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), or nonfatal stroke. Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, total MI, nonfatal MI, total stroke, nonfatal stroke, heart failure, or revascularization, tabulated separately. Outcomes for each group were compared in unadjusted and multiple propensity score-adjusted models.
RESULTS: Among 8,354 patients included in this analysis with an accumulated 22,308 patient-years of follow-up, 4,787 (57%) achieved systolic BP of <140 mm Hg (group 1), 1,747 (21%) achieved systolic BP of 140 to <150 mm Hg (group 2), and 1,820 (22%) achieved systolic BP of ≥150 mm Hg (group 3). In unadjusted models, group 1 had the lowest rates of the primary outcome (9.36% vs. 12.71% vs. 21.32%; p < 0.0001), all-cause mortality (7.92% vs. 10.07% vs. 16.81%; p < 0.0001), cardiovascular mortality (3.26% vs. 4.58% vs. 7.80%; p < 0.0001), MI (1.07% vs. 1.03% vs. 2.91%; p < 0.0001), total stroke (1.19% vs. 2.63% vs. 3.85%; p <0.0001), and nonfatal stroke (0.86% vs 1.89% vs 2.86%; p<0.0001) compared with groups 2 and 3, respectively. In multiple propensity score-adjusted models, compared with the reference group of <140 mm Hg (group 1), the risk of cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 1.77; p = 0.04), total stroke (adjusted HR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.26 to 2.82; p = 0.002) and nonfatal stroke (adjusted HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.72; p = 0.03) was increased in the group with BP of 140 to <150 mm Hg, whereas the risk of primary outcome, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, total MI, nonfatal MI, total stroke, and nonfatal stroke was increased in the group with BP ≥150 mm Hg.
CONCLUSIONS: In hypertensive patients with CAD who are ≥60 years of age, achieving a BP target of 140 to <150 mm Hg as recommended by the JNC-8 panel was associated with less benefit than the previously recommended target of <140 mm Hg.