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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Development and validation of a novel vancomycin dosing nomogram for achieving high-target trough levels at 2 canadian teaching hospitals

Rosanne Thalakada, Michael Legal, Tim T Y Lau, Tiffany Luey, Josh Batterink, Mary H H Ensom
Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 2012, 65 (3): 180-7
22783028

BACKGROUND: Recent guidelines recommend a vancomycin trough (predose) level between 15 and 20 mg/L in the treatment of invasive gram-positive infections, but most initial dosing nomograms are designed to achieve lower targets (5-15 mg/L). Clinicians need guidance about appropriate initial dosing to achieve the higher target.

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a high-target vancomycin dosing nomogram to achieve trough levels of 15-20 mg/L.

METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at 2 teaching hospitals, St Paul's Hospital and Vancouver General Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia. Patients who were treated with vancomycin between January 2008 and June 2010 and who had achieved a trough level of 14.5-20.5 mg/L were identified. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Multiple linear regression was used to develop a vancomycin dosing nomogram for each hospital site. An integrated nomogram was constructed by merging the data from the 2 hospitals. A unique set of patients at each institution was used for validating their respective nomograms and a pooled group of patients for validating the integrated nomogram. Predictive success was evaluated, and a nomogram was deemed significantly different from another nomogram if p < 0.05 via "χ(2) testing.

RESULTS: Data from 78 patients at one hospital and 91 patients at the other were used in developing the respective institutional nomograms. For each hospital's data set, both age and initial serum creatinine were significantly associated with the predicted dosing interval (p < 0.001). Validation in a total of 105 test patients showed that the integrated nomogram had a predictive success rate of 56%.

CONCLUSIONS: A novel vancomycin dosing nomogram was developed and validated at 2 Canadian teaching hospitals. This integrated nomogram is a tool that clinicians can use in selecting appropriate initial vancomycin regimens on the basis of age and serum creatinine, to achieve high-target levels of 15-20 mg/L. The nomogram should not replace clinical judgment for patients with unstable and/or reduced renal function.

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