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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Optimal dose of vancomycin for treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in critically ill patients

J Chung, J M Oh, E M Cho, H J Jang, S B Hong, C M Lim, Y S Koh
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 2011, 39 (6): 1030-7
22165354
A prospective cohort study was performed to determine the optimal dose of vancomycin to maintain a serum trough concentration of at least 15 to 20 mg/l and to assess the efficacy of this target vancomycin concentration in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. Vancomycin pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a CAPSIL software program from serum concentrations of 141 patients with pneumonia treated with vancomycin, regardless of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus status, at a 28-bed medical intensive care unit. Vancomycin trough concentrations and other pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between five groups of patients differing in their renal function: (1) creatinine clearance > or =60 ml/minute, (2) creatinine clearance 30 to 60 ml/minute, (3) creatinine clearance <30 ml/minute, (4) on intermittent haemodialysis, and (5) on continuous renal replacement therapy. More than 70% of patients failed to reach the recommended therapeutic serum trough concentrations: a higher dose of vancomycin is necessary to maintain serum trough concentration at 15 to 20 mg/l, particularly in critically ill patients with creatinine clearance above 60 ml/minute and in those on intermittent haemodialysis. Among patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, no significant differences were observed in the treatment success rate, length of intensive care unit stay, and intensive care unit mortality rate between patients with vancomycin trough concentrations of >20 mg/l, 15 to 20 mg/l and <15 mg/l.

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