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Relationship between vancomycin trough concentrations and nephrotoxicity: a prospective multicenter trial

John A Bosso, Jean Nappi, Celeste Rudisill, Marlea Wellein, P Brandon Bookstaver, Jenna Swindler, Patrick D Mauldin
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2011, 55 (12): 5475-9
Several single-center studies have suggested that higher doses of vancomycin, aimed at producing trough concentrations of >15 mg/liter, are associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. We prospectively assessed the relative incidence of nephrotoxicity in relation to trough concentration in patients with documented methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections at seven hospitals throughout South Carolina. Adult patients receiving vancomycin for at least 72 h with at least one vancomycin trough concentration determined under steady-state conditions were prospectively studied. The relationship between vancomycin trough concentrations of >15 mg/ml and the occurrence of nephrotoxicity was assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses, controlling for age, gender, race, dose, length of therapy, use of other nephrotoxins (including contrast media), intensive care unit (ICU) residence, episodes of hypotension, and comorbidities. Nephrotoxicity was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of 0.5 mg/dl or a ≥ 50% increase from the baseline for two consecutive measurements. MICs of vancomycin for the MRSA isolates were also determined. A total of 288 patients were studied between February 2008 and June 2010, with approximately one-half having initial trough concentrations of ≥ 15 mg/ml. Nephrotoxicity was observed for 42 patients (29.6%) with trough concentrations >15 mg/ml and for 13 (8.9%) with trough concentrations of ≤ 15 mg/ml. Multivariate analysis revealed vancomycin trough concentrations of >15 mg/ml and race (black) as risk factors for nephrotoxicity in this population. Vancomycin trough concentrations of >15 mg/ml appear to be associated with a 3-fold increased risk of nephrotoxicity.


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