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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229385/early-pregnancy-biochemical-predictors-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#1
REVIEW
Camille E Powe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Universal oral glucose tolerance-based screening is employed to identify pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), as treatment of this condition decreases the risk of associated complications. A simple and accurate blood test which identifies women at low or high risk for GDM in the first trimester would have the potential to decrease costs and improve outcomes through prevention or treatment. This review summarizes published data on early pregnancy biomarkers which have been tested as predictors of GDM...
February 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228318/endocrine-and-cardiometabolic-cord-blood-characteristics-of-offspring-born-to-mothers-with-and-without-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#2
Nadine M P Daan, Maria P H Koster, Regine P Steegers-Theunissen, Marinus J C Eijkemans, B C J M Fauser
OBJECTIVE: To compare the endocrine and cardiometabolic cord blood characteristics of offspring of mothers with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with those of healthy controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional case control study. SETTING: University medical centers. PATIENT(S): Offspring from mothers with PCOS (n = 61) and healthy controls (n = 82). INTERVENTION(S): Cord blood withdrawal from neonates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Cord blood estradiol, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free androgen index (FAI), insulin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, c-reactive protein, adiponectin, and leptin...
January 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222718/abnormal-epigenetic-changes-during-differentiation-of-human-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-from-obese-subjects
#3
Cajsa Davegårdh, Christa Broholm, Alexander Perfilyev, Tora Henriksen, Sonia García-Calzón, Lone Peijs, Ninna Schiøler Hansen, Petr Volkov, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Maria Pedersen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Dov B Ballak, Charles A Dinarello, Bas Heinhuis, Leo A B Joosten, Emma Nilsson, Allan Vaag, Camilla Scheele, Charlotte Ling
BACKGROUND: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. Epigenetic alterations taking place during myogenesis might contribute to these defects. METHODS: We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA methylation and transcription before versus after differentiation of primary human myoblasts from 14 non-obese and 14 obese individuals...
February 22, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220636/identification-of-candidate-biomarkers-for-the-prediction-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-early-stages-of-pregnancy-using-itraq-quantitative-proteomics
#4
Danqing Zhao, Liming Shen, Yan Wei, Jiaming Xie, Shuqiang Chen, Yi Liang, Youjiao Chen, Haorong Wu
PURPOSE: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common medical problems of pregnancy. This study is designed to identify serum biomarkers which can predict the subsequent development of GDM at early stages. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Maternal blood was obtained prospectively from pregnant women at 12-16 weeks of pregnancy. Among these, 30 women were subsequently diagnosed with GDM at 24 to 28 weeks and were selected as case studies along with 30 normoglycemic women as controls...
February 21, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213921/maternal-igf1-and-igf1r-polymorphisms-and-the-risk-of-spontaneous-preterm-birth
#5
Jian-Rong He, Yu-Mian Lai, Hui-Hui Liu, Guang-Jian Liu, Wei-Dong Li, Xue-Jiao Fan, Xue-Ling Wei, Xiao-Yan Xia, Ya-Shu Kuang, Xiao-Dan Liu, Nian-Nian Chen, Jin-Hua Lu, Qiao-Zhu Chen, Wei-Bi Mai, Hui-Min Xia, Xiu Qiu
BACKGROUND: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway was involved in the occurrence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB), but little is known regarding the relationship between genetic variations in IGF pathway and the risk of SPTB. We aimed to investigate the associations of IGF1 rs972936 and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) rs2229765 polymorphisms with SPTB risk in a Chinese population. METHOD: A total of 114 cases of SPTB and 250 controls of term delivery were included from Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, China...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213010/the-pathogenesis-and-pathophysiology-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-deductions-from-a-three-part-longitudinal-metabolomics-study-in-china
#6
REVIEW
Kai P Law, Hua Zhang
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes that is first recognised during pregnancy, with no evidence of pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of GDM has been rising steadily over the past few decades, coinciding with the ongoing epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although GDM normally disappears after delivery, women who have been previously diagnosed with GDM are at a greater risk of developing gestational diabetes in subsequent pregnancies, and type 2 diabetes later in life...
February 14, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208845/role-of-altered-venous-blood-lactate-and-hba1c-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#7
C S Nagalakshmi, N U Santhosh, N Krishnamurthy, Chethana Chethan, M K Shilpashree
INTRODUCTION: Being a mirror image of metabolic syndrome, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity. Increased blood lactate concentration and alterations of substrate utilization are partly involved in development of insulin resistance in GDM. Fetuses born to such mothers have shown low umbilical vein oxygen saturation and low oxygen content and increased lactate concentrations. These changes may certainly reflect enhanced fetal metabolism as a result of hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinemia and therefore, these fetuses deserve intense surveillance at term and during delivery...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195554/fetal-thymus-size-in-pregnant-women-with-diabetic-diseases
#8
Ria Dörnemann, Raphael Koch, Ute Möllmann, Maria Karina Falkenberg, Mareike Möllers, Walter Klockenbusch, Ralf Schmitz
AIM: The aim of our study was to assess fetal thymus size in diabetic pregnancies compared with normal pregnancies. METHODS: Sonographic fetal thymus size was retrospectively assessed in 161 pregnancies with maternal diabetes and in 161 uncomplicated pregnancies matched by gestational age. The anteroposterior thymic and the intrathoracic mediastinal diameter were measured and the quotient was calculated [thymic-thoracic ratio (TT-ratio)]. In addition, we defined the quotient of the anteroposterior thymic diameter and the head circumference as thymus-head ratio (TH-ratio)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194805/fetal-adaptations-in-insulin-secretion-result-from-high-catecholamines-during-placental-insufficiency
#9
Sean W Limesand, Paul J Rozance
Placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) of the fetus affects approximately 8% of all pregnancies and is associated with short- and long-term disturbances in metabolism. In pregnant sheep, experimental models with a small, defective placenta that restricts delivery of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus result in IUGR. Low blood oxygen concentrations increase fetal plasma catecholamine concentrations, which lower fetal insulin concentrations. All of these observations in sheep models with placental insufficiency are consistent with cases of human IUGR...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193219/the-effect-of-an-antenatal-lifestyle-intervention-in-overweight-and-obese-women-on-circulating-cardiometabolic-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-secondary-analyses-from-the-limit-randomised-trial
#10
Lisa J Moran, Louise M Fraser, Tulika Sundernathan, Andrea R Deussen, Jennie Louise, Lisa N Yelland, Rosalie M Grivell, Anne Macpherson, Matthew W Gillman, Jeffrey S Robinson, Julie A Owens, Jodie M Dodd
BACKGROUND: Maternal overweight and obesity during pregnancy is associated with insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and a low-grade state of chronic inflammation. The aim of this pre-specified analysis of secondary outcome measures was to evaluate the effect of providing antenatal dietary and lifestyle advice on cardiometabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre trial in which pregnant women who were overweight or obese were randomised to receive either Lifestyle Advice or Standard Care...
February 14, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191333/effects-of-fish-oil-supplementation-on-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-gdm-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Alireza Ostadrahimi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh, Mozhgan Mirgafourvand, Sina Yaghoubi, Elham Shahrisa, Azizeh Farshbaf-Khalili
CONTEXT: One of the most common complications of pregnancy is gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which is increasing worldwide. Experimental and epidemiological studies have shown that higher intake of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may decrease the risk of various diseases such as diabetes. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of fish oil supplementation on the prevention and treatment of GDM. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: This systematic review was performed by searching several databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Science Direct SID, Magiran and IranMedex since 1983...
November 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190890/c-peptide-baseline-and-postprandial-insulin-resistance-after-a-carbohydrate-rich-test-meal-evidence-for-an-increased-insulin-clearance-in-pcos-patients
#12
J Stassek, J Erdmann, F Ohnolz, F D Berg, M Kiechle, V Seifert-Klauss
Introduction Known characteristics of patients with PCOS include infertility, menstrual disorders, hirsutism and also often insulin resistance. These symptoms increase with increasing body weight. In the LIPCOS study (Lifestyle Intervention for Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome [PCOS]) long-term changes of the PCOS in dependence on pregnancy and parenthood were systematically assessed. In the framework of the LIPCOS study, PCOS patients were given a standardised carbohydrate-rich test meal in order to examine glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion...
January 2017: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183456/regulation-of-the-novel-adipokines-hepatokines-fetuin-a-and-fetuin-b-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Susan Kralisch, Annett Hoffmann, Ulrike Lössner, Jürgen Kratzsch, Matthias Blüher, Michael Stumvoll, Mathias Fasshauer, Thomas Ebert
OBJECTIVE: Fetuin B has recently been introduced as a novel adipokine/hepatokine which is significantly increased in hepatic steatosis and mediates impaired insulin action, as well as glucose intolerance. However, regulation of fetuin B in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), as well as its longitudinal changes in the peripartum period, have not been elucidated, so far. DESIGN AND METHODS: Circulating fetuin A and fetuin B were quantified in 74 women with GDM and 74 healthy and gestational age-matched controls by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during pregnancy (median gestational age: 201days)...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183365/calm-merino-ewes-have-a-higher-ovulation-rate-and-more-multiple-pregnancies-than-nervous-ewes
#14
E van Lier, K W Hart, C Viñoles, B Paganoni, D Blache
In 1990, two selection lines of Merino sheep were established for low and high behavioural reactivity (calm and nervous temperament) at the University of Western Australia. Breeding records consistently showed that calm ewes weaned 10% to 19% more lambs than the nervous ewes. We hypothesise that calm ewes could have a higher ovulation rate than nervous ewes and/or calm ewes could have a lower rate of embryo mortality than nervous ewes. We tested these hypotheses by comparing the ovulation rate and the rate of embryo mortality between the calm and nervous lines before and after synchronisation and artificial insemination...
February 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179448/the-igf-system-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-associations-with-markers-of-cardiovascular-target-organ-damage
#15
Rikke Hjortebjerg, Esben Laugesen, Pernille Høyem, Claus Oxvig, Brian Stausbøl-Grøn, Søren Tang Knudsen, Won Y Kim, Per Løgstrup Poulsen, Tk K Hansen, Mette Bjerre, Jan Frystyk
OBJECTIVE: Perturbations in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system may contribute to the accelerated cardiovascular disease (CVD) that occurs in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, it remains unknown whether the IGF system is also involved in the development of early, subclinical CVD. We characterised the IGF system in T2D patients and matched controls and examined associations with markers of subclinical target organ damage. METHODS: The study included 99 patients with recently diagnosed T2D and 99 age- and sex-matched controls...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179267/obesity-and-pregnancy-mechanisms-of-short-term-and-long-term-adverse-consequences-for-mother-and-child
#16
REVIEW
Patrick M Catalano, Kartik Shankar
Obesity is the most common medical condition in women of reproductive age. Obesity during pregnancy has short term and long term adverse consequences for both mother and child. Obesity causes problems with infertility, and in early gestation it causes spontaneous pregnancy loss and congenital anomalies. Metabolically, obese women have increased insulin resistance in early pregnancy, which becomes manifest clinically in late gestation as glucose intolerance and fetal overgrowth. At term, the risk of cesarean delivery and wound complications is increased...
February 8, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177374/influence-of-dietary-arginine-supplementation-of-sows-during-late-pregnancy-on-piglet-birth-weight-and-sow-and-litter-performance-during-lactation
#17
B E Bass, C L Bradley, Z B Johnson, C E Zier-Rush, R D Boyd, J L Usry, C V Maxwell, J W Frank
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feeding supplemental -Arg during late pregnancy on piglet birth weight and preweaning performance. In Exp. 1, 97 gilts and sows were allotted (gestation d 93) to receive a control diet (CON; 19.8 g standardized ileal digestible [SID] Arg/d) or the CON + 1.0% -Arg (ARG; 46.6 g SID Arg/d). Gilts and sows were weighed on gestation d 93 and 110, 48 h after farrowing, and at weaning. Data, including number born alive, number weaned, individual birth and weaning weight, and placenta weight, were recorded...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168960/sex-specific-neurodevelopmental-programming-by-placental-insulin-receptors-on-stress-reactivity-and-sensorimotor-gating
#18
Stefanie L Bronson, Jennifer C Chan, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Diabetes, obesity, and overweight are prevalent pregnancy complications that predispose offspring to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Although male individuals are three to four times more likely than female individuals to develop these disorders, the mechanisms driving the sex specificity of disease vulnerability remain unclear. Because defective placental insulin receptor (InsR) signaling is a hallmark of pregnancy metabolic dysfunction, we hypothesized that it may be an important contributor and novel mechanistic link to sex-specific neurodevelopmental changes underlying disease risk...
December 30, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161306/a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-exercise-during-pregnancy-to-prevent-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-and-improve-pregnancy-outcome-in-overweight-and-obese-pregnant-women
#19
Chen Wang, Yumei Wei, Xiaoming Zhang, Yue Zhang, Qianqian Xu, Yiying Sun, Shiping Su, Li Zhang, Chunhong Liu, Yaru Feng, Chong Shou, Kym J Guelfi, John P Newnham, Huixia Yang
BACKGROUND: Obesity and being overweight are becoming epidemic, and indeed, the proportion of such women of reproductive age has increased in recent times. Being overweight or obese prior to pregnancy is a risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome for both mothers and their offspring. Furthermore, the combination of GDM with obesity/overweight status may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome attributable to either factor alone...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156005/different-insulin-types-and-regimens-for-pregnant-women-with-pre-existing-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Sinéad M O'Neill, Louise C Kenny, Ali S Khashan, Helen M West, Rebecca Md Smyth, Patricia M Kearney
BACKGROUND: Insulin requirements may change during pregnancy, and the optimal treatment for pre-existing diabetes is unclear. There are several insulin regimens (e.g. via syringe, pen) and types of insulin (e.g. fast-acting insulin, human insulin). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different insulin types and different insulin regimens in pregnant women with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 October 2016), ClinicalTrials...
February 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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