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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448277/long-term-consequences-of-obesity-on-female-fertility-and-the-health-of-the-offspring
#1
Suchitra Chandrasekaran, Genevieve Neal-Perry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has reached near epidemic levels among reproductive age women with a myriad of consequences. Obesity adversely affects the maternal milieu by creating conditions that decrease fertility and increase the risk of gestational diabetes, hypertensive disease in pregnancy, fetal growth abnormalities and congenital anomalies. The effects of obesity are not limited to pregnancy. Indeed, beyond the immediate postpartum period, obese women maintain a higher prevalence of insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease...
April 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447735/mice-endometrium-receptivity-in-early-pregnancy-is-impaired-by-maternal-hyperinsulinemia
#2
Runqin Li, Juan Wu, Junlin He, Yingxiong Wang, Xueqing Liu, Xuemei Chen, Chao Tong, Yubin Ding, Yan Su, Wenqi Chen, Chen Zhang, Rufei Gao
Previous studies have investigated the lower embryo implantation rates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity and type 2 diabetes, and specifically the association between the abnormal oocyte and embryo and hyperinsulinemia. The importance of hyperinsulinemia on maternal endometrium receptivity remains to be elucidated. The present study used a hyperinsulinemic mouse model to determine whether hyperinsulinemia may affect endometrial receptivity. An insulin intervention mouse model was first established...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446846/insulin-sensitivity-and-plasma-glucose-response-to-aerobic-exercise-in-pregnant-women-at-risk-for-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Heba Embaby, Enas Elsayed, Mohamed Fawzy
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the common complications that occur during pregnancy. Early intervention is essential to prevent the development of the disease in the non-pregnant state but also helpful in preventing the occurrence of GDM. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of aerobic exercises on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma glucose level in pregnant women with risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty multigravidae women between 20-24 weeks of gestation with risk for GDM were randomly selected (age range was 25-35 years), body mass index ranged from 30-35 kg/m(2)...
September 2016: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441837/-characteristics-of-pre-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-diagnosed-during-pregnancy-and-the-effects-on-pregnancy-outcomes
#4
Y M Wei, H X Yang
Objective: To analyze the characteristics of pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) diagnosed during pregnancy (missed diagnosis before pregnancy), and to evaluate the effects of diagnostic time on pregnancy outcomes. Methods: A retrospective study of 746 pregnant women who were diagnosed PGDM and delivered in Peking University First Hospital from January 1st, 2005 to December 31st, 2015 was conducted. The patients were divided into 2 group. Those diagnosed PGDM before pregnancy were defined as Group diagnosed before pregnancy, and those diagnosed during pregnancy were defined as Group diagnosed during pregnancy...
April 25, 2017: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438765/longitudinal-characterization-of-renal-proximal-tubular-markers-in-normotensive-and-preeclamptic-pregnancies
#5
Elisabeth Codsi, Vesna D Garovic, Maria L Gonzalez-Suarez, Natasa Milic, Kristi S Borowski, Carl H Rose, Norman P Davies, Kianoush Kashani, John C Lieske, Wendy M White
Glomerular damage is common in preeclampsia (PE), but the extent and etiology of tubular injury are not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate tubular injury in patients with PE and to assess whether it predates clinical disease. We performed a prospective cohort study of 315 pregnant women who provided urine samples at the end of the second trimester and at delivery. This analysis included women who developed PE (n=15), gestational hypertension (GH) (n=14), and normotensive controls (NC) (n=44)...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434207/maternal-rates-of-lipolysis-and-glucose-production-in-late-pregnancy-are-independently-related-to-fetal-weight
#6
Barbro Diderholm, Kathryn Beardsall, Peter Murgatroyd, Christoph Lees, Jan Gustafsson, David Dunger
OBJECTIVE: Associations between maternal glucose levels and increased fetal growth are well established and independent relationships with maternal weight, weight gain and insulin resistance are also observed. The relative roles of lipolysis and glucose production in the determination of these observations remain unclear. DESIGN: We examined, through detailed physiological studies, the relationship between maternal late gestational energy substrate production (glucose and glycerol), maternal weight and weight gain, and estimated fetal size in the third trimester...
April 23, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430907/food-intake-affects-sperm-egg-fusion-through-the-gip-psg17-axis-in-mice
#7
Tatsunori Shimizu, Takehiro Sato, Katsushi Tsukiyama, Hiroki Fujita, Shunsuke Kato, Manabu Hoizumi, Hiromitsu Shirasawa, Takuma Narita, Yukihiro Terada, Yutaka Seino, Yuichiro Yamada
In addition to overeating, starvation also reduces fecundity in mammals. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms linking food intake to fertility, especially in males. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), which is released from intestinal K-cells after meal ingestion, stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells through the action of incretin and has several extra-pancreatic effects. Here, we identified GIP receptor (Gipr) expression in mouse spermatids. Microarray analysis revealed that pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 17 (Psg17), a potential CD9-binding partner, was significantly decreased in GIP receptor-knockout (Gipr-/-) testes...
April 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429514/maternal-metabolic-adaptations-to-pregnancy-among-young-women-in-cebu-philippines
#8
Ruby L Fried, Nanette L Mayol, Thom W McDade, Christopher W Kuzawa
OBJECTIVES: Evidence that fetal development has long-term impacts on health has increased interest in maternal-fetal nutrient exchange. Although maternal metabolism is known to change during gestation to accommodate fetal nutrient demands, little is known about these modifications outside of a Western, clinical context. This study characterizes maternal metabolic adaptations to pregnancy, and their associations with offspring birth weight (BW), among women living in the Philippines. METHODS: Fasting glucose, triglycerides, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were assessed in 808 participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines)...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427492/maternal-lead-exposure-induces-down-regulation-of-hippocampal-insulin-degrading-enzyme-and-nerve-growth-factor-expression-in-mouse-pups
#9
Xing Li, Ning Li, Hua Lei Sun, Jun Yin, Yu Chang Tao, Zhen Xing Mao, Zeng Li Yu, Wen Jie Li, John D Bogden
Lead exposure is a known potential risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Exposure to lead during the critical phase of brain development has been linked with mental retardation and hypophrenia in later life. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of lead exposure of pregnant mice on the expressions of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampus of their offspring. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein, and after anesthetizing the pups, the brain was excised on postnatal day 21...
March 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427440/hypoglycemia-identified-by-a-continuous-glucose-monitoring-system-in-a-second-trimester-pregnant-woman-with-insulinoma-a-case-report
#10
Marjeta Tomazic, Andrej Janez, Maja Ravnik Oblak
BACKGROUND: Insulinoma associated with pregnancy is a very rare condition and can be difficult to diagnose. Here, we present an interesting case of insulinoma occurring during pregnancy with special attention paid to the use of a continuous glucose monitoring system to detect hypoglycemia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old white woman in the second trimester of pregnancy presented with recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia associated with neuroglycopenic symptoms. The use of a continuous glucose monitoring system confirmed hypoglycemia...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423082/comparative-analysis-of-two-different-models-of-swimming-applied-to-pregnant-rats-born-small-for-pregnant-age
#11
Silvana B Corvino, Débora C Damasceno, Yuri K Sinzato, Aline O Netto, Nathália C D Macedo, Elena Zambrano, Gustavo T Volpato
The aim of this study was to compare two models of swimming applied to pregnant rats born small for pregnancy age (SPA). Diabetes was chemically induced in adult female rats to develop an inadequate intrauterine environment, leading to birth of a SPA offspring. In adulthood, the female SPA rats were mated and submitted to different swimming programs. The exercise program 1 (Ex1) consisted of swimming for 15 minutes, followed by 15 minutes of rest and another 15 minutes of swimming, 3 days a week before and during pregnancy...
January 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420820/high-insulin-impaired-ovarian-function-in-early-pregnant-mice-and-the-role-of-autophagy-in-this-process
#12
Yan Su, Juan Wu, Junlin He, Xueqing Liu, Xuemei Chen, Yubin Ding, Chen Zhang, Wenqi Chen, Yingxiong Wang, Rufei Gao
Metabolic disorders, such as PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) and T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus), are associated with menstrual dysfunction, anovulation, infertility, and early pregnancy loss. Ovarian dysfunction is not only related to low pregnancy rates but also to the increased risk of miscarriage. Women with PCOS or T2DM, characterized by hyperinsulinemia, commonly experience ovarian dysfunction. In this study, we first explored whether high insulin levels directly affected ovarian functioning during embryo implantation...
April 18, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410130/ghrelin-doesn-t-limit-insulin-release-in-pregnant-rats-fed-low-protein-diet
#13
Haijun Gao, Eric Ho, Chandra Yallampalli
To test the hypothesis that insulin secretion in pregnant rats fed LP diet is reduced by ghrelin signaling in pancreatic islets,  we investigated plasma insulin levels, expression of ghrelin and its receptor and glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) of pancreatic islets in response to ghrelin. Plasma insulin levels were lower and ghrelin receptor abundance in islets was unaltered in LP rats. In the presence of both 2.8 and 16.7 mM glucose, GSIS was lower in LP compared to CT rats. In the presence of 2...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404630/mir-424-322-503-is-a-breast-cancer-tumor-suppressor-whose-loss-promotes-resistance-to-chemotherapy
#14
Ruth Rodriguez-Barrueco, Erin A Nekritz, François Bertucci, Jiyang Yu, Felix Sanchez-Garcia, Tizita Z Zeleke, Andrej Gorbatenko, Daniel Birnbaum, Elena Ezhkova, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Pascal Finetti, David Llobet-Navas, Jose M Silva
The female mammary gland is a very dynamic organ that undergoes continuous tissue remodeling during adulthood. Although it is well established that the number of menstrual cycles and pregnancy (in this case transiently) increase the risk of breast cancer, the reasons are unclear. Growing clinical and experimental evidence indicates that improper involution plays a role in the development of this malignancy. Recently, we described the miR-424(322)/503 cluster as an important regulator of mammary epithelial involution after pregnancy...
March 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402555/deregulation-of-the-endometrial-stromal-cell-secretome-precedes-embryo-implantation-failure
#15
Ruban Rex Peter Durairaj, Asma Aberkane, Lukasz Polanski, Yojiro Maruyama, Miriam Baumgarten, Emma S Lucas, Siobhan Quenby, Jerry K Y Chan, Nick Raine-Fenning, Jan J Brosens, Hilde Van de Velde, Yie Hou Lee
STUDY QUESTION: Is implantation failure following ART associated with a perturbed decidual response in endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Dynamic changes in the secretome of decidualizing EnSCs underpin the transition of a hostile to a supportive endometrial microenvironment for embryo implantation; perturbation in this transitional pathway prior to ART is associated with implantation failure. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Implantation is the rate-limiting step in ART, although the contribution of an aberrant endometrial microenvironment in IVF failure remains ill defined...
April 10, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399529/in-utero-exposure-to-germinated-brown-rice-and-its-gaba-extract-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-in-rat-offspring
#16
Hadiza Altine Adamu, Mustapha Umar Imam, Ooi Der-Jiun, Maznah Ismail
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported on the influence of diet on insulin resistance. Our study provides insight into the effect of germinated brown rice (GBR) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on early environment-driven programming and susceptibility to insulin resistance in rat offspring. METHODS: Male rat offspring from female Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) alone, HFD + GBR, or HFD + GABA extract throughout pregnancy and lactation were weaned 4 weeks after delivery and followed up for 8 weeks...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391432/thyroxine-exposure-effects-on-the-cranial-base
#17
Emily Durham, R Nicole Howie, Trish Parsons, Grace Bennfors, Laurel Black, Seth M Weinberg, Mohammed Elsalanty, Jack C Yu, James J Cray
Thyroid hormone is important for skull bone growth, which primarily occurs at the cranial sutures and synchondroses. Thyroid hormones regulate metabolism and act in all stages of cartilage and bone development and maintenance by interacting with growth hormone and regulating insulin-like growth factor. Aberrant thyroid hormone levels and exposure during development are exogenous factors that may exacerbate susceptibility to craniofacial abnormalities potentially through changes in growth at the synchondroses of the cranial base...
April 8, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391275/carbohydrate-counting-during-pregnancy-in-women-with-type-1-diabetes-are-there-predictable-changes-that-we-should-know
#18
Roberto Luís Zagury, Melanie Rodacki, Larissa Mello de Oliveira, Claudia Saunders, Patricia de Carvalho Padilha, Lenita Zajdenverg
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carbohydrate counting (CC) is a helpful strategy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and the main parameters used in this method are the insulin to carbohydrate ratio (ICR) and the sensitivity factor (SF). Throughout pregnancy, a state of insulin resistance develops. Therefore, we hypothesized that ICR and SF change and our aim was to describe the pattern of modification of these parameters in pregnant women with T1DM on CC. METHODS: This study followed 21 women with T1DM throughout pregnancy...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388652/evaluation-of-circulating-mirnas-during-late-pregnancy-in-the-mare
#19
Shavahn C Loux, Kirsten E Scoggin, Jason E Bruemmer, Igor F Canisso, Mats H T Troedsson, Edward L Squires, Barry A Ball
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs which are produced throughout the body. Individual tissues tend to have a specific expression profile and excrete many of these miRNAs into circulation. These circulating miRNAs may be diagnostically valuable biomarkers for assessing the presence of disease while minimizing invasive testing. In women, numerous circulating miRNAs have been identified which change significantly during pregnancy-related complications (e.g. chorioamnionitis, eclampsia, recurrent pregnancy loss); however, no prior work has been done in this area in the horse...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382681/a-western-style-obesogenic-diet-alters-maternal-metabolic-physiology-with-consequences-for-fetal-nutrient-acquisition-in-mice
#20
Barbara Musial, Owen R Vaughan, Denise S Fernandez-Twinn, Peter Voshol, Susan E Ozanne, Abigail L Fowden, Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri
KEY POINTS: In the Western world, obesogenic diets containing high fat and high sugar (HFHS) are commonly consumed during pregnancy, although their effects on the metabolism of the mother, in relation to feto-placental glucose utilization and growth, are unknown. In the present study, the consumption of an obesogenic HFHS diet compromised maternal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in late pregnancy in association with dysregulated lipid and glucose handling by the dam. These maternal metabolic changes induced by HFHS feeding were related to altered feto-placental glucose metabolism and growth...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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