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insulin of pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774465/effect-of-inositol-stereoisomers-at-different-dosages-in-gestational-diabetes-an-open-label-parallel-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Federica Fraticelli, Claudio Celentano, Isaia Al Zecca, Giacoma Di Vieste, Basilio Pintaudi, Marco Liberati, Marica Franzago, Marta Di Nicola, Ester Vitacolonna
AIMS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic disorder of pregnancy. The aim of the study is to compare the effect of different dosages of inositol stereoisomers supplementation on insulin resistance levels and several maternal-fetal outcomes in GDM women. METHODS: Participants were randomly allocated to receive daily: 400 mcg folic acid (control treatment), 4000 mg myo-inositol plus 400 mcg folic acid (MI treatment), 500 mg D-chiro-inositol plus 400 mcg folic acid (DCI treatment) or 1100/27...
May 17, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769162/increased-pregnancy-losses-following-serial-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-in-goats
#2
Min Yang, Iuri Perisse, Zhiqiang Fan, Misha Regouski, Mirella Meyer-Ficca, Irina A Polejaeva
Serial cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a critical tool for the expansion of precious transgenic lines or resetting the lifespan of primary transgenic cells for multiple genetic modifications. We successfully produced second-generation cloned goats using donor neonatal fibroblasts from first-generation clones. However, our attempts to produce any third-generation clones failed. SCNT efficiency decreased progressively with the clonal generations. The rate of pregnancy loss was significantly greater in recloning groups (P<0...
May 17, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767680/propensity-for-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-in-african-american-women-may-be-explained-by-low-energy-expenditure-in-early-pregnancy
#3
Jasper Most, L Anne Gilmore, Abby D Altazan, Marshall St Amant, Robbie A Beyl, Eric Ravussin, Leanne M Redman
Background: African-American (AA) women have poorer pregnancy outcomes and studies in nonpregnant women suggest a different etiology of weight gain in AA compared with white women. We hypothesized that physiologic factors such as low energy expenditure and physical activity would be present in AA compared with white women in pregnancy. Objective: We aimed to identify physiologic risk factors for disordered energy balance in AA and white women early in pregnancy...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764499/gestational-diabetes-is-associated-with-change-in-the-gut-microbiota-composition-in-third-trimester-of-pregnancy-and-postpartum
#4
Mie Korslund Wiinblad Crusell, Tue Haldor Hansen, Trine Nielsen, Kristine Højgaard Allin, Malte C Rühlemann, Peter Damm, Henrik Vestergaard, Christina Rørbye, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Ole Bjarne Christiansen, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Andre Franke, Torben Hansen, Jeannet Lauenborg, Oluf Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Imbalances of gut microbiota composition are linked to a range of metabolic perturbations. In the present study, we examined the gut microbiota of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and normoglycaemic pregnant women in late pregnancy and about 8 months postpartum. METHODS: Gut microbiota profiles of women with GDM (n = 50) and healthy (n = 157) pregnant women in the third trimester and 8 months postpartum were assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of the V1-V2 region...
May 15, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763375/chromosomal-architecture-and-placental-expression-of-the-human-growth-hormone-gene-family-are-targeted-by-pre-pregnancy-maternal-obesity
#5
Yan Jin, Hana Vakili, SongYan Liu, Savas Menticoglou, Margaret E Bock, Peter A Cattini
The human (h) placental lactogenic hormone chorionic somatomammotropin (CS) is highly produced during pregnancy and acts as a metabolic adaptor in response to maternal insulin resistance. Maternal obesity can exacerbate this "resistance" and a >75% decrease in CS RNA levels was observed in term placentas from obese versus lean women. The genes coding for hCS (hCS-A and hCS-B) and placental growth hormone (hGH-V) as well as the hCS-L pseudogene and pituitary growth hormone (GH) gene (hGH-N) are located at a single locus on chromosome 17...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758169/nutritional-recovery-from-low-protein-diet-during-pregnancy-does-not-restore-the-kinetics-of-insulin-secretion-and-ca2-or-alterations-in-the-camp-pka-and-plc-pkc-pathways-in-islets-from-adult-rats
#6
Leonardo Marin, Hellen Barbosa Farias Silva, Gabriela Damin, Leticia Martins Ignacio-Souza, Silvia Regina de Lima Reis, Camila Aparecida Machado de Oliveira, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro, Marise A Reis, Marcia Queiroz Latorraca, Fabiano Ferreira, Vanessa Cristina Arantes
We investigated the insulin release induced by glucose, the Ca2+ oscillatory pattern and the cAMP/PKA and PLC/PKC pathways in islets from adult rats that were reared under diets with 17% protein (C) or 6% protein (LP) during gestation, suckling and after weaning and in rats receiving diets with 6% protein during gestation, followed by a 17% protein diet after birth (R). Glucose-induced first-phase insulin secretion was reduced in LP and R islets, and the second phase was partially restored in the R group. Glucose stimulation did not modify [Ca2+]i, but it reduced the [Ca2+] oscillatory frequency in the R group compared to the C group...
May 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749501/placental-protein-14-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-diagnosis-of-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes
#7
Yanyun Wang, Haibo Luo, Guanglu Che, Yanqin Li, Jun Gao, Qiongli Yang, Bin Zhou, Linbo Gao, Tao Wang, Yujie Liang, Lin Zhang
Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is a common pregnancy complication that frequently results in maternal and perinatal morbidity. The present methods for diagnosing PROM do not satisfy clinical requirements. The present study aimed to examine the proteome profile of amniotic fluid (AF) and maternal plasma, screen unique proteins in AF, and evaluate their diagnostic value for diagnosing PROM. The proteome profiles of AF and maternal plasma were examined via liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry‑based proteomic techniques...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749110/metformin-for-the-prevention-of-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-and-obesity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Erkan Kalafat, Yavuz Emre Sukur, Abdulkadir, Basky Thilaganathan, Asma Khalil
OBJECTIVES: Metformin has been reported to reduce the risk of preeclampsia. It is also known to influence soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) levels, which correlate significantly with the gestation of onset and severity of preeclampsia. The main aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine whether metformin use is associated with the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). METHODS: MEDLINE (1947 - September 2017), Scopus (1970 - September 2017) and the Cochrane Library (since inception - September 2017) were searched for relevant citations in English language...
May 10, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747733/pregestational-diabetes-in-pregnancy
#9
REVIEW
Ronan Sugrue, Chloe Zera
Diabetes is a common chronic condition in women of reproductive age. Preconception care is crucial to reducing the risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, such as hypertensive disorders, abnormal fetal growth, traumatic delivery and stillbirth, associated with poor glycemic control. Insulin is the preferred medication to optimize glucose control in women with pregestational diabetes. Frequent dose adjustments are needed during pregnancy to achieve glycemic goals, and team-based multidisciplinary care may help...
June 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747601/pregnancy-outcomes-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-diagnosed-according-to-the-who-2013-and-who-1999-diagnostic-criteria-a-multicentre-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Eva A R Goedegebure, Sarah H Koning, Klaas Hoogenberg, Fleurisca J Korteweg, Helen L Lutgers, Mattheus J M Diekman, Eva Stekkinger, Paul P van den Berg, Joost J Zwart
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) adopted more stringent diagnostic criteria for GDM in 2013, to improve pregnancy outcomes. However, there is no global consensus on these new diagnostic criteria, because of limited evidence. The objective of the study was to evaluate maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in two cohorts in the Netherlands applying different diagnostic criteria for GDM i.e. WHO-2013 and WHO-1999. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study involving singleton GDM pregnancies in two regions, between 2011 and 2016...
May 10, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745913/benefits-of-early-screening-and-proper-treatment-in-patient-with-significant-risk-factors-for-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-case-report
#11
V Limani
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) occurs in 2-9% of all pregnancies. Evidence suggests that the use of insulin in treating hyperglycemia in GDM patients reduces the risk of perinatal morbidity. Pregnancy is an exciting time in a woman's life. However, once patient is diagnosed with GDM, she will be managed more intensively. GDM is managed using diet and exercise but one in six women with GDM requires insulin. A 35-year-old woman at the 14th gestational week of her tenth pregnancy was seen for routine prenatal care...
April 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744612/maternal-non-glycemic-contributors-to-fetal-growth-in-obesity-and-gestational-diabetes-spotlight-on-lipids
#12
REVIEW
Linda A Barbour, Teri L Hernandez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Excess fetal growth is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for childhood obesity, and mounting evidence supports that maternal glucose is not the only driver. This review focuses on the role of clinically applicable maternal non-glycemic contributors to excess fetal growth, particularly lipids, in addition to amino acids (AA), insulin resistance, inflammation, maternal nutrition, and gestational weight gain (GWG) in obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)...
May 9, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743342/the-role-of-obesity-and-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Patrik Šimják, Anna Cinkajzlová, Kateřina Anderlová, Antonín Pařízek, Milos Mraz, Michal Kršek, Martin Haluzik
Gestational diabetes mellitus is defined as diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy in patients with no history of diabetes prior to gestation. It is the most common complication of pregnancy. The underlying pathophysiology shares some common features with type 2 diabetes mellitus combining relatively insufficient insulin secretion with increased peripheral insulin resistance. While a certain degree of insulin resistance is the physiological characteristics of the second half of pregnancy, it is significantly more pronounced in patients with gestational diabetes...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742696/acute-starvation-ketoacidosis-in-pregnancy-with-severe-hypertriglyceridemia-a-case-report
#14
Li Hui, Li Shuying
RATIONALE: Pregnant women are more prone to ketosis due to the relative insulin resistance, accelerated lipolysis and increased free fatty acids. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a pregnant woman with hyperlipidemia, who experienced severe metabolic acidosis after a short period of starvation. DIAGNOSES: Based on her clinical symptoms, exclusion diagnosis and therapeutic diagnosis, her condition was diagnosed as starvation ketoacidosis. INTERVENTIONS: An emergency caesarean section under general anesthesia was implemented 2 hours after her admission...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740916/real-world-management-of-pregestational-diabetes-not-achieving-glycemic-control-for-many-patients-in-the-uk
#15
Lucia Cea-Soriano, Luis A García-Rodríguez, Kimberly G Brodovicz, Elvira Gonzalez-Masso, Dorothee B Bartels, Sonia Hernández-Díaz
PURPOSE: Our goal was to describe the management of pregestational diabetes in pregnant women in the United Kingdom. METHODS: We used electronic medical records from The Health Improvement Network database between January 1995 and June 2012 to identify the first pregnancy in women 15 to 45 years of age with pregestational diabetes type 1 or type 2. Information on lifestyle factors, demographic characteristics, prescription of specific antidiabetic medications, and glycemic control measures (HbA1c) was obtained from primary care provider records...
May 8, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740395/maternal-diet-metabolic-state-and-inflammatory-response-exert-unique-and-long-lasting-influences-on-offspring-behavior-in-non-human-primates
#16
Jacqueline R Thompson, Hanna C Gustafsson, Madison DeCapo, Diana L Takahashi, Jennifer L Bagley, Tyler A Dean, Paul Kievit, Damien A Fair, Elinor L Sullivan
Nutritional status influences brain health and gestational exposure to metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and diabetes) increases the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the role of maternal Western-style diet (WSD), metabolic state, and inflammatory factors in the programming of Japanese macaque offspring behavior. Utilizing structural equation modeling, we investigated the relationships between maternal diet, prepregnancy adiposity, third trimester insulin response, and plasma cytokine levels on 11-month-old offspring behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740335/amniotic-fluid-insl3-measured-during-the-critical-time-window-in-human-pregnancy-relates-to-cryptorchidism-hypospadias-and-phthalate-load-a-large-case-control-study
#17
Ravinder Anand-Ivell, Arieh Cohen, Bent Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bo A G Jönsson, Jens-Peter Bonde, David M Hougaard, Christian H Lindh, Gunnar Toft, Morten S Lindhard, Richard Ivell
The period of the first to second trimester transition in human pregnancy represents a sensitive window for fetal organogenesis, particularly in regard to the development of the male reproductive system. This is a time of relative analytical inaccessibility. We have used a large national biobank of amniotic fluid samples collected at routine amniocentesis to determine the impacts of exogenous endocrine disruptor load on specific fetal biomarkers at this critical time. While adrenal and testicular steroids are highly correlated, they are also mostly positively influenced by increasing phthalate load, represented by the metabolites 7cx-MMeHP and 5cx-MEPP, by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure, and by smoking, suggesting an adrenal stress response...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739870/pregnancy-associated-plasma-protein-aa-pappaa-regulates-photoreceptor-synaptic-development-to-mediate-visually-guided-behavior
#18
Andrew H Miller, Hollis B Howe, Bryan M Krause, Scott A Friedle, Matthew I Banks, Brian D Perkins, Marc A Wolman
To guide behavior, sensory systems detect the onset and offset of stimuli and process these distinct inputs via parallel pathways. In the retina, this strategy is implemented by splitting neural signals for light onset and offset via synapses connecting photoreceptors to ON and OFF bipolar cells, respectively. It remains poorly understood which molecular cues establish the architecture of this synaptic configuration to split light onset and offset signals. A mutant with reduced synapses between photoreceptors and one bipolar cell type, but not the other, could reveal a critical cue...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736403/temporal-trends-in-gestational-diabetes-prevalence-treatment-and-outcomes-at-aarhus-university-hospital-skejby-between-2004-and-2016
#19
Per Glud Ovesen, Jens Fuglsang, Mette Bisgaard Andersen, Charlotte Wolff, Olav Bjørn Petersen, H David McIntyre
Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM) is increasing worldwide. The most important risk of GDM in pregnancy is excessive fetal growth, increasing the risk of complications during delivery as well as long-term complications like obesity and diabetes in both the mother and the offspring. Method: All women with GDM who delivered a singleton between 2004 and 2016 were included. The treatment of GDM patients sought to achieve normal blood glucose levels, primarily by diet and exercise...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730391/pharmacotherapy-for-hyperglycemia-in-pregnancy-the-new-insulins
#20
REVIEW
Yoel Toledano, Eran Hadar, Moshe Hod
Hyperglycemia in pregnancy may lead to adverse maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes. Tight glycemic control is prudent in order to reduce pregnancy complications. For many years, the gold standard pharmacological therapy during pregnancy was human insulin. Recently, insulin analogues were also introduced to clinical use in pregnancy. This brief review aims to summarize the information on the efficacy and safety of insulin analogue therapy during gestation. The strengths and pitfalls of insulin analogue administration during gestation, compared with human insulin, are presented...
May 3, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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