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insulin of pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155142/microrna-30a-3p-is-overexpressed-in-the-placentas-of-patients-with-preeclampsia-and-affects-trophoblast-invasion-and-apoptosis-by-its-effects-on-igf-1
#1
Zi-Ru Niu, Tao Han, Xiao-Luan Sun, Li-Xia Luan, Wen-Li Gou, Xiao-Ming Zhu
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) affects many women globally and remains as a primary cause for neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Aberrant placental microRNAs (miRNAs) expression might associated with PE. Previously, thirty-three PE-related miRNAs, with eleven up-regulated and twenty-three down-regulated were detected in severe-PE placentas when compared with normal patients. One of the most up-regulated miRNAs in PE is miR-30a-3p. The predicted target of it, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which has been reported to have a relatively low expression level in PE patients...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155136/adipose-tissue-and-reproductive-health
#2
REVIEW
Hannah Mathew, V Daniel Castracane, Christos Mantzoros
The understanding of adipose tissue role has evolved from that of a depot energy storage organ to a dynamic endocrine organ. While genetics, sexual phenotype and sex steroids can impact the mass and distribution of adipose tissue, there is a counter-influence of white adipocytes on reproduction. This primarily occurs via the secretion of adipokines, the most studied of which- leptin and adiponectin- are highlighted in this article. Leptin, the "satiety hormone" primarily acts on the hypothalamus via pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) NPY neurons to translate acute changes in nutrition and energy expenditure, as well as chronic adipose accumulation into changes in appetite and potentially mediate insulin resistance via shared pathway and notably impacting reproductive health via influence on GnRH secreting neurons...
November 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154467/central-and-peripheral-leptin-and-agouti-related-protein-during-and-after-pregnancy-in-relation-to-weight-change
#3
Ulrika Andersson Hall, Pernilla Svedin, Ulf Andreasson, Magnus Gren, Ameli Ingemansson, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Aurimantas Pelanis, Carina Mallard, Agneta Holmäng
OBJECTIVE: To study changes of neuropeptides and adipokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from pregnancy to post-pregnancy in relation to weight changes, fat mass and glucose metabolism. CONTEXT: With high postpartum weight retention being a risk factor in future pregnancies and of life-long obesity we evaluated neuropeptide and adipokine changes in women who either gained weight or were weight stable. DESIGN: Women were followed for 5±1 years after pregnancy and divided into two groups, Weight-Stable and Weight-Gain, by weight change from start of pregnancy...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153679/hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-from-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#4
Luciana Lourenço Gomes Dos Santos da Silva, Cláudia Saunders, Aline Bull Ferreira Campos, Gabriella Pinto Belfort, Patricia de Carvalho Padilha, Rosangela Alves Pereira, Rita Guérios Bornia
Pregnant women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) have a greater chance of developing Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP) by the effect of insulin resistance in nitric oxide action.This study aims to describe factors associated with the development of HDP in pregnant women with GDM, assisted in a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study including 292 pregnant adult women with GDM assisted at Maternidade Escola of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro...
October 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153669/maternal-serum-igf-1-igfbp-1-and-3-and-placental-growth-hormone-at-20weeks-gestation-in-pregnancies-complicated-by-preeclampsia
#5
Shutan Liao, Mark H Vickers, Rennae S Taylor, Beatrix Jones, Mhoyra Fraser, Lesley M E McCowan, Philip N Baker, Jo K Perry
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of placental growth hormone (GH-V), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 and 2, and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) 1 and 3 were altered in pregnancies complicated by later preeclampsia (PE). STUDY DESIGN: In a nested case-control study, PE cases (n=71) and matched controls (n=71) were selected from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) biobank in Auckland, New Zealand. Maternal serum hormone concentrations at 20weeks of gestation were determined by ELISA...
October 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150756/impact-of-risk-factors-for-gestational-diabetes-gdm-on-pregnancy-outcomes-in-women-with-gdm
#6
T Filardi, F Tavaglione, M Di Stasio, V Fazio, A Lenzi, S Morano
PURPOSE: In this study, we evaluated the impact of risk factors for gestational diabetes on clinical/biochemical parameters and maternal/fetal outcomes. METHODS: One hundred eighty-three (n 183) women (age 33.8 ± 5.5 years, 59% Caucasians, 41% non-Caucasians) with gestational diabetes were included in the study. Anamnestic information, anthropometric and laboratory parameters, and maternal and fetal outcomes at delivery were collected. RESULTS: Insulin therapy prevalence was higher in Asians vs Caucasians (p = 0...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144833/low-dietary-fiber-intake-increases-collinsella-abundance-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-overweight-and-obese-pregnant-women
#7
Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, Shelley A Wilkinson, Leonie K Callaway, H David McIntyre, Mark Morrison, Marloes Dekker Nitert
The gut microbiota contributes to the regulation of glucose metabolism in pregnancy. Abundance of the genus Collinsella is positively correlated with circulating insulin; however, it is unclear what determines Collinsella abundance. This study aims to validate the correlation between Collinsella and insulin and to elucidate if macronutrient intake alters Collinsella abundance and gut microbiota composition. Gut microbiota profiles were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing in 57 overweight and 73 obese pregnant women from the SPRING (Study of PRobiotics IN Gestational diabetes) trial at 16 weeks gestation and correlated with metabolic hormone levels and macronutrient intake...
November 16, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142885/successful-glycemic-control-using-a-flash-glucose-monitoring-system-for-a-pregnant-woman-with-diabetes-a-case-report
#8
Miyako Kishimoto, Saori Tamada, Yoko Oshiba
Background: Glucose control for pregnant women with glucose intolerance is important, as hyperglycemia may adversely affect the mother and the fetus. Case presentation: We report the case of a pregnant Japanese woman who experienced gestational diabetes mellitus during her first pregnancy and developed impaired glucose tolerance after the delivery. During her second pregnancy with twins, she required up to 75 units of injected insulin to control her postprandial hyperglycemia and occasionally experienced hypoglycemia...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142651/prevention-of-insulin-resistance-by-dietary-intervention-among-pregnant-mothers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Masoomeh Goodarzi-Khoigani, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Mohammad Hossein Baghiani Moghadam, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Farahnaz Mardanian, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Azam Dadkhah-Tirani
Background: Chronic insulin resistance (IR) is a basic part of the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus. Nutrition significantly impacts IR and weight loss reduces insulin levels, whereas weight gain increases the concentrations. Therefore, we surveyed the effect of nutrition intervention on IR in pregnant women and whether this effect is irrespective of weight gaining in accordance with Institute of Medicine limits. Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial was carried out among 150 primiparous pregnant mothers in fifteen health centers, five hospitals, and 15 private obstetrical offices in Isfahan...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142561/feto-maternal-outcomes-and-glycemic-control-in-metformin-versus-insulin-treated-gestational-diabetics
#10
Rabia Arshad, Samia Khanam, Fuad Shaikh, Nasim Karim
Objective: To evaluate and compare feto-maternal outcomes and glycemic control in metformin versus insulin treated gestational diabetics. Methods: The study was conducted in 2010- 2012 as a part of M. Phil at Civil hospital, Lyari General Hospital and Mamji Hospital in Karachi. After written informed consent, 71 GDM diagnosed females with WHO criteria were enrolled. They were divided into two groups. Group-A, 32 females were given oral metformin 500 mg TDS while Group-B, 39 females were given insulin 0...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125636/very-tight-versus-tight-control-which-should-be-the-criteria-for-pharmacologic-therapy-dose-adjustment-in-diabetes-in-pregnancy-evidence-from-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
Claudia Caissutti, Gabriele Saccone, Andrea Ciardulli, Vincenzo Berghella
INTRODUCTION: There is inconclusive evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support any specific criteria for pharmacologic therapy dose adjustment in diabetes in pregnancy. Our objective was to analyze the criteria for dose adjustment of pharmacologic treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM) in pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data sources: MEDLINE, OVID and Cochrane Library were searched from their inception to September 2017. Selection criteria included all trials of DM in pregnancy managed by oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin reporting criteria for pharmacologic therapy dose adjustment...
November 10, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122892/subclinical-first-trimester-renal-abnormalities-are-associated-with-preeclampsia-in-normoalbuminuric-women-with-type-1-diabetes
#12
Clare B Kelly, Michelle B Hookham, Jeremy Y Yu, Alicia J Jenkins, Alison J Nankervis, Kristian F Hanssen, Satish K Garg, James A Scardo, Samar M Hammad, M Kathryn Menard, Christopher E Aston, Timothy J Lyons
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the utility of tubular (urinary/plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL] and urinary kidney injury molecule 1 [KIM-1]) and glomerular (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]) biomarkers in predicting preeclampsia (PE) in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who were free of microalbuminuria and hypertension at the first trimester. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective study of T1DM pregnancy...
November 9, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111856/vascular-derived-connective-tissue-growth-factor-ctgf-is-critical-for-pregnancy-induced-%C3%AE-cell-hyperplasia-in-adult-mice
#13
Raymond C Pasek, Jennifer C Dunn, Joseph M Elsakr, Mounika Aramandla, Anveetha R Matta, Maureen Gannon
During pregnancy, maternal β cells undergo compensatory changes including hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Failure of these adaptations to occur can result in gestational diabetes mellitus. The secreted protein, Connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), is critical for normal β cell development and promotes regeneration after partial β cell ablation. During embryogenesis, Ctgf is expressed in pancreatic ducts, vasculature, and β cells. In the adult pancreas, Ctgf is expressed only in the vasculature...
November 7, 2017: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110650/group-based-developmental-bmi-trajectories-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-gestational-diabetes-a-community-based-longitudinal-study
#14
Nadira Sultana Kakoly, Arul Earnest, Lisa J Moran, Helena J Teede, Anju E Joham
BACKGROUND: Obesity is common in young women, increasing insulin resistance (IR) and worsening pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes (GDM). Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are commonly obese, which aggravates the severity of PCOS clinical expression. Relationships between these common insulin-resistant conditions, however, remain unclear. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) database, including data from 8009 women aged 18-36 years across six surveys...
November 6, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109760/influence-of-serum-hmw-adiponectin-level-in-patients-with-pregnancy-induced-hypertension-syndrome-on-the-occurrence-of-eclampsia-in-secondary-pregnancy
#15
Qian Xu, Dongmei Fan, Fahong Li, Zhanhong Zhang
In the present study, we studied the influence of serum high-molecular weight adiponectin (HMWA) levels in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) on the occurrence of eclampsia in secondary pregnancy and its related mechanisms. In total, 130 patients who were diagnosed with PIH for the first time were selected for this study; the median interval of the secondary pregnancy was 28.5 months. The serum HMWA and leptin levels both times were detected, and the insulin resistance indexes (HOMA-IR) were calculated...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108634/maternal-growth-restriction-and-stress-exposure-in-rats-differentially-alters-expression-of-components-of-the-placental-glucocorticoid-barrier-and-nutrient-transporters
#16
Jessica F Briffa, Sogand S Hosseini, Melanie Tran, Karen M Moritz, James S M Cuffe, Mary E Wlodek
The placenta plays a major role in the development of fetal growth restriction, which affects 10% of pregnancies and contributes to chronic adult disease risk. We have reported that female rats born small develop cardiometabolic dysfunction only during pregnancy. The physiological tests performed during pregnancy induced a maternal stress response as indicated by increased maternal corticosterone concentrations. This stress effected placental growth compared to females who were unhandled during pregnancy. Maternal stress and growth restriction independently program F2 offspring metabolic dysfunction...
November 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108631/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-isolated-from-gestationally-diabetic-human-placenta-exhibit-insulin-resistance-decreased-clonogenicity-and-angiogenesis
#17
Suja Ann Mathew, Ramesh Bhonde
Pregnancy is known to be a diabetogenic state. With sedentary lifestyle and wrong dietary choices, gestational diabetes mellitus is on the rise. This raises a concern as placenta is becoming an acceptable choice, as a source of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs). In our current study we questioned whether there exists a difference between MSCs isolated from normal and diabetic (Gd-P-MSCs) placenta, as the health of the cells used in therapy is of prime importance. We isolated and verified the Gd-P-MSCs based on their surface markers and differentiation potential...
November 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106783/gestational-diabetes-is-diet-and-insulin-the-only-solution
#18
(no author information available yet)
Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a relatively common complication of pregnancy. Maternal hyperglycemia causes many serious side effects for mothers, fetuses and newborns. In 90% of women diagnosed with GDM, a dietary treatment results in satisfactory levels of blood glucose. The remaining 10% require insulin therapy to achieve the recommended glycemic levels. The majority of recent studies show the efficiency of metformin in gestational diabetes and prove that it is not a cause for any harmful side effects to the embryo and/or fetus...
October 6, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104874/akt-mtor-role-in-human-foetoplacental-vascular-insulin-resistance-in-diseases-of-pregnancy
#19
REVIEW
Roberto Villalobos-Labra, Luis Silva, Mario Subiabre, Joaquín Araos, Rocío Salsoso, Bárbara Fuenzalida, Tamara Sáez, Fernando Toledo, Marcelo González, Claudia Quezada, Fabián Pardo, Delia I Chiarello, Andrea Leiva, Luis Sobrevia
Insulin resistance is characteristic of pregnancies where the mother shows metabolic alterations, such as preeclampsia (PE) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), or abnormal maternal conditions such as pregestational maternal obesity (PGMO). Insulin signalling includes activation of insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS1/2) as well as Src homology 2 domain-containing transforming protein 1, leading to activation of 44 and 42 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinases and protein kinase B/Akt (Akt) signalling cascades in the human foetoplacental vasculature...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103210/insulin-for-the-treatment-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Luke Grzeskowiak, Kathryn Williamson, Michelle R Downie, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with short- and long-term complications for the mother and her infant. Women who are unable to maintain their blood glucose concentration within pre-specified treatment targets with diet and lifestyle interventions will require anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies. This review explores the safety and effectiveness of insulin compared with oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies, non-pharmacological interventions and insulin regimens...
November 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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