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Molecular-epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915307/diversity-and-antifungal-drug-susceptibility-of-cryptococcus-isolates-in-thailand
#1
Navaporn Worasilchai, Marut Tangwattanachuleeporn, Kornvalee Meesilpavikkai, Claudia Folba, Mourine Kangogo, Uwe Groß, Michael Weig, Oliver Bader, Ariya Chindamporn
Yeasts of the Cryptococcus species complex are the causative agent of cryptococcosis, especially in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals. Cerebral or disseminated cryptococcosis has a very high mortality rate worldwide, including in Thailand. Additionally, an increasing rate of antifungal drug resistant cryptococcal isolates has been reported in several neighboring countries, complicating therapeutic approaches. To understand the situation of this infection in Thailand, we retrospectively investigated the molecular epidemiology and antifungal drug resistance in a collection of 74 clinical, 52 environmental and two veterinary isolates using the URA5-RFLP for typing and the EUCAST guideline for susceptibility testing...
December 3, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915089/complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-parasitic-nematode-cylicocyclus-nassatus-and-comparative-analyses-with-cylicocyclus-insigne
#2
Yuan Gao, Jian-Hua Qiu, Bing-Bing Zhang, Xin Su, Xue Fu, Dong-Mei Yue, Chun-Ren Wang
Cylicocyclus nassatus is a common and important parasite in the large intestine of equine. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of C. nassatus was determined and comparatively analysed with Cylicocyclus insigne. The mt genome size of C. nassatus was 13,846 bp, 18 bp longer than that of C. insigne. The circular mt genome includes 12 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and two non-coding regions. All the genes are transcribed in the same direction and gene arrangement is consistent with that of gene arrangement 3 (GA3)...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909909/obesity-biomarkers-metabolism-and-risk-of-cancer-an-epidemiological-perspective
#3
Katharina Nimptsch, Tobias Pischon
Obesity is associated with metabolic alterations that may pose a biological link between body fatness and risk of cancer. Elucidating the role of obesity-related biomarkers in cancer development is essential for developing targeted strategies aiming at obesity-associated cancer prevention. Molecular epidemiological studies of the past decades have provided evidence that major hormonal pathways linking obesity and cancer risk include the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, sex-steroid hormones, adipokines and chronic low-grade inflammation...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908998/whole-genome-sequencing-applied-to-the-molecular-epidemiology-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-in-argentina
#4
Claudia Carolina Carbonari, Nahuel Fittipaldi, Sarah Teatero, Taryn B T Athey, Luis Pianciola, Marcelo Masana, Roberto G Melano, Marta Rivas, Isabel Chinen
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains are worldwide associated with sporadic human infections and outbreaks. In this work, we report the availability of high-quality draft whole-genome sequences for 19 O157:H7 strains isolated in Argentina.
December 1, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908420/biological-effects-of-tolerable-level-chronic-boron-intake-on-transcription-factors
#5
Seda Orenay Boyacioglu, Mehmet Korkmaz, Erkan Kahraman, Hatice Yildirim, Selin Bora, Osman Yavuz Ataman
The mechanism of boron effect on human transcription and translation has not been fully understood. In the current study it was aimed to reveal the role of boron on the expression of certain transcription factors that play key roles in many cellular pathways on human subjects chronically exposed to low amounts of boron. The boron concentrations in drinking water samples were 1.57±0.06mg/l for boron group while the corresponding value for the control group was 0.016±0.002mg/l. RNA isolation was performed using PAX gene RNA kit on the blood samples from the subjects...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906002/hiv-1-genetic-diversity-and-its-distribution-characteristics-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-1-individuals-in-hebei-province-china
#6
Xinli Lu, Cuiying Zhao, Wei Wang, Chenxi Nie, Yuqi Zhang, Hongru Zhao, Suliang Chen, Ze Cui
BACKGROUND: Since the first HIV-1 case in 1989, Hebei province has presented a clearly rising trend of HIV-1 prevalence, and HIV-1 genetic diversity has become the vital barrier to HIV prevention and control in this area. To obtain detailed information of HIV-1 spread in different populations and in different areas of Hebei, a cross-sectional HIV-1 molecular epidemiological investigation was performed across the province. METHODS: Blood samples of 154 newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals were collected from ten prefectures in Hebei using stratified sampling...
January 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902376/detection-of-a-novel-equine-like-g3-rotavirus-associated-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-brazil
#7
Sylvia F S Guerra, Luana S Soares, Patrícia S Lobo, Edvaldo T Penha Júnior, Edivaldo C Sousa Júnior, Delana A M Bezerra, Lívia R Vaz, Alexandre C Linhares, Joana D P Mascarenhas
Genotype G3P[8] of rotavirus A (RVA) is detected worldwide, usually associated with Wa-like constellation and exhibiting a long RNA migration pattern. More recently, a novel intergenogroup, G3P[8] reassortant variant with a short electropherotype has emerged in Asia, Oceania and Europe, denoting an overall potential of unusual rotavirus strains. During a RVA surveillance in Brazil, G3P[8] strains were found displaying a short electropherotype pattern, which had not been detected before in this region. This study aims to characterize the complete genomes of 10 G3P[8] strains detected in Northern region of Brazil...
October 18, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899155/comparative-sequence-analysis-of-cyclospora-cayetanensis-apicoplast-genomes-originating-from-diverse-geographical-regions
#8
Hediye Nese Cinar, Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Yuping Wei-Pridgeon, Wen Li, Fernanda S Nascimento, Michael J Arrowood, Helen R Murphy, AhYoung Jang, Eunje Kim, RaeYoung Kim, Alexandre da Silva, Gopal R Gopinath
BACKGROUND: Cyclospora cayetanensis is an emerging coccidian parasite that causes endemic and epidemic diarrheal disease called cyclosporiasis, and this infection is associated with consumption of contaminated produce or water in developed and developing regions. Food-borne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have occurred almost every year in the USA since the 1990s. Investigations of these outbreaks are currently hampered due to lack of molecular epidemiological tools for trace back analysis...
November 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893750/molecular-epidemiology-of-agents-of-human-chromoblastomycosis-in-brazil-with-the-description-of-two-novel-species
#9
Renata R Gomes, Vania A Vicente, Conceição M P S de Azevedo, Claudio G Salgado, Moises B da Silva, Flávio Queiroz-Telles, Sirlei G Marques, Daniel W C L Santos, Tania S de Andrade, Elizabeth H Takagi, Katia S Cruz, Gheniffer Fornari, Rosane C Hahn, Maria L Scroferneker, Rachel B Caligine, Mauricio Ramirez-Castrillon, Daniella P de Araújo, Daiane Heidrich, Arnaldo L Colombo, G S de Hoog
The human mutilating disease chromoblastomycosis is caused by melanized members of the order Chaetothyriales. To assess population diversity among 123 clinical strains of agents of the disease in Brazil we applied sequencing of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region, and partial cell division cycle and β-tubulin genes. Strains studied were limited to three clusters divided over the single family Herpotrichiellaceae known to comprise agents of the disease. A Fonsecaea cluster contained the most important agents, among which F...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893696/molecular-epidemiological-study-of-enteroviruses-associated-with-encephalitis-in-children-from-hangzhou-china
#10
Wei Li, Zhang Qiong, Shen Xiao-Ting, Liu Yu-Jie, Mao Jian-Hua, Shu Qiang, Shang Shi-Qiang
Enterovirus (EV) has over 100 serotypes of species A-D, which can cause various symptoms in infants. Enterovirus encephalitis (EVE) is serve disease with high morbidity and mortality in children. To well define the epidemiology of EVE, we wanted to know more about EV and EV molecular typing by conducting this study in Hangzhou.Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from children with diagnosis of encephalitis. Meanwhile, one-step real-time RT-PCR was used for the detection of EV, and we also identified the serotypes of EV by using gene sequencing of VP1 or 5'UTR region...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893424/accumulated-promoter-methylation-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-esophageal-cancer
#11
Xianzhen Peng, Hengchuan Xue, Lingshuang Lü, Peiyi Shi, Jianping Wang, Jianming Wang
We performed a two-stage molecular epidemiological study to explore DNA methylation profiles for potential biomarkers of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a Chinese population. Infinium Methylation 450K BeadChip was used to identify genes with differentially methylated CpG sites. Sixteen candidate genes were validated by sequencing 1160 CpG sites in their promoter regions using the Illumina MiSeq platform. When excluding sites with negative changes, 10 genes (BNIP3, BRCA1, CCND1, CDKN2A, HTATIP2, ITGAV, NFKB1, PIK3R1, PRDM16 and PTX3) showed significantly different methylation levels among cancer lesions, remote normal-appearing tissues, and healthy controls...
November 22, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892857/genotyping-of-german-and-austrian-taylorella-equigenitalis-isolates-using-repetitive-extragenic-palindromic-rep-pcr-and-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis-pfge
#12
Reinhard Sting, Christoph Seeh, Norman Mauder, Michaela Maurer, Igor Loncaric, Beatrix Stessl, Peter Kopp, Klaus Banzhaf, Brigitte Martin, Falk Melzer, Astrid Raßbach, Joachim Spergser
A total of 124 Taylorella (T.) equigenitalis and five T. asinigenitalis field isolates collected between 2002 and 2014 were available for genotyping using REP- (repetitive extragenic palindromic) PCR and PFGE (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis). The study comprised 79 T. equigenitalis field isolates originating from ten defined breeds of German horses and revealed a spectrum of five REP (rep-E1-E4, rep-E3a) and 15 PFGE (TE-A1-A9, TE-B1-B3, TE-C, TE-E1, and TE-E2) genotypes. T. equigenitalis field isolates (n=40) obtained from Austrian Lipizzaner horses were differentiated into three REP (rep-E1, rep-E3a, and rep-E4) and three PFGE genotypes (TE-A2, TE-A5, and TE-D); those isolated from four Austrian Trotters belonged to the REP/PFGE genotype rep-E2/TE-A1...
October 4, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888586/sequence-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-the-nsp2-and-orf5-genes-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-boars-from-south-china-in-2015
#13
P P Wang, J G Dong, L Y Zhang, P S Liang, Y L Liu, L Wang, F H Fan, C X Song
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is highly genetically diverse; however, little is known about the molecular epidemiology of PRRSV in the boar farms of South China. In this study, 367 samples were collected from boar farms in South China in 2015. The Nsp2 hypervariable region and ORF5 gene were PCR amplified from 66 PRRSV-positive samples, followed by sequencing and analysis. The percentage of PRRSV antigen-positive samples was 17.98%; 8.72% were positive for highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), and 9...
November 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887624/detection-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-in-central-china-based-on-the-orf3-gene-and-the-s1-gene
#14
Yunfang Su, Yunchao Liu, Yumei Chen, Baolei Zhao, Pengchao Ji, Guangxu Xing, Dawei Jiang, Chang Liu, Yapeng Song, Guoqiang Wang, Dongliang Li, Ruiguang Deng, Gaiping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has increased in severity in China since 2010. To investigate further the infectivity, genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of its causative agent, the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), we assessed 129 clinical samples, which were the intestinal tissue of piglets with severe diarrhea, from 17 cities in central China. Both the spike (S) glycoprotein (S1, 1-789 amino acids (aa)) and the full-length ORF3 gene of 21 representative field strains from 21 farms in 11 cities were sequenced and analysed...
November 25, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885466/molecular-epidemiology-and-multilocus-sequence-analysis-of-potentially-zoonotic-giardia-spp-from-humans-and-dogs-in-jamaica
#15
Mellesia F Lee, Paul Cadogan, Sarah Eytle, Sonia Copeland, Julia Walochnik, John F Lindo
Giardia spp. are the causative agents of intestinal infections in a wide variety of mammals including humans and companion animals. Dogs may be reservoirs of zoonotic Giardia spp.; however, the potential for transmission between dogs and humans in Jamaica has not been studied. Conventional PCR was used to screen 285 human and 225 dog stool samples for Giardia targeting the SSU rDNA gene followed by multilocus sequencing of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and β-giardin (bg) genes...
November 25, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884652/clinical-and-molecular-epidemiologic-trends-reveal-the-important-role-of-rotavirus-in-adult-infectious-gastroenteritis-in-shanghai-china
#16
Yan Wang, Jinan Zhang, Pengbo Liu
As a leading cause of severe diarrhea in children, the pathogenic role of rotavirus in adults has been underestimated for a long time. A hospital-based prospective clinical and molecular epidemiologic study of rotavirus infections in adults was performed between April 2014 and March 2015 in Shanghai, China. Overall, rotavirus was detected in 48 of 441 (10.9%) specimens with prevalence peaking in December (33.3%) and January (27.9%), whereas bacteria were identified in 45 of 846 (5.3%) samples (p<0.01). The rotavirus winter-spring seasonality (November-March) contrasts with the marked summer-fall seasonality (April-October) of bacterial pathogens (p<0...
November 21, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882036/molecular-epidemiology-and-clinical-features-of-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-in-epidemic-areas-of-interior-sindh-pakistan
#17
Shameem Bhatti, Sobia Manzoor
OBJECTIVE: Highly variable genome of HCV and high prevalence in many geographical areas made it necessary to conduct local population studies. This study has been conducted to show HCV parameters along with clinical features in the local population of interior Sindh, province of Pakistan. METHODS: Present study was conducted in from August 2010 to November 2015 in the rural areas of Sindh, Pakistan. All the 31560 screened samples selected for the study were tested by second Generation Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA Biokit 480&96)...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881654/identification-of-new-world-quails-susceptible-to-alv-j-infection
#18
Jiří Plachý, Markéta Reinišová, Dana Kučerová, Filip Šenigl, Volodymyr Stepanets, Tomáš Hron, Kateřina Trejbalová, Daniel Elleder, Jiří Hejnar
: The J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infects domestic chicken, jungle fowl, and turkey. This virus enters the host cell through a receptor encoded by the tvj locus and identified as Na+/H+ exchanger 1. The resistance to J subgroup avian leukosis virus in a great majority of galliform species was explained by deletions or substitutions of the critical tryptophan 38 in the first extracellular loop of Na+/H+ exchanger 1. Because there are concerns of transspecies virus transmission, we studied the natural polymorphisms and susceptibility/resistance in wild galliforms and found the presence of tryptophan 38 in four species of New World quails...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876783/genetic-characterization-of-novel-fowl-aviadenovirus-4-isolates-from-outbreaks-of-hepatitis-hydropericardium-syndrome-in-broiler-chickens-in-china
#19
Yanke Liu, Wenyan Wan, Dongsheng Gao, Yongtao Li, Xia Yang, Hongying Liu, Huixia Yao, Lu Chen, Chuanqing Wang, Jun Zhao
Since May 2015, severe outbreaks of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) associated with infections of fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) have emerged in broiler chickens in several Chinese provinces. To identify the genotype and gain a better understanding of the genetic properties of the FAdV strains responsible for the recent HHS outbreaks in China, the complete genome sequences of five isolates from outbreaks of HHS in broiler chickens in five provinces were determined. The results demonstrated that a novel fowl aviadenovirus 4 (FAdV-4) genotype was epidemic in China...
November 23, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876201/changing-molecular-epidemiology-of-rotavirus-infection-after-introduction-of-monovalent-rotavirus-vaccination-in-scotland
#20
Indrani Mukhopadhya, Heather Murdoch, Susan Berry, Alison Hunt, Miren Iturriza-Gomara, Alison Smith-Palmer, J Claire Cameron, Georgina L Hold
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses (RV) are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in children less than five years of age worldwide. Rotarix®, a live attenuated monovalent vaccine containing a RV strain of G1P[8] specificity has been included in the childhood immunisation schedule from June 2013 in Scotland. This study aimed to characterise the prevalent RV strains in Scotland before and after the introduction of the RV vaccine. METHODS: RV positive faecal samples from Scottish virology laboratories covering the years 2012-2015 were genotyped...
November 18, 2016: Vaccine
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