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Isabel Cristina Padula Paz, Rita de Cássia Madail Santin, Alexandre Martins Guimarães, Osmar Paulo Pereira da Rosa, Maria Carolina Quecine, Michele de Cássia Pereira E Silva, João Lúcio Azevedo, Aida Terezinha Santos Matsumura
The clonal Eucalyptus plants are commonly obtained by vegetative propagation under a protected environment. This system improves the Botrytis cinerea and Calonectria spp infection on the young eucalypts plantings, resulting gray mold and cutting rot respectively. Currently, the unique available control method is based on chemicals. As alternative, novel methods to manage plant diseases, endophytic microorganisms could be an interesting alternative. Thus, we aimed to evaluate endophytic Bacillus isolated from eucalypts as a biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea and Calonectria gracilis, important fungal pathogens in the greenhouse, using clonal plantlets of E...
May 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Chang-Gen Li, Bo Yuan, Meng-Meng Dong, Pin-Yu Zhou, Yu-Xin Hao, Ying-Ying Sun, Meng-Ke Xu, Dan Li, Guo-Yin Kai, Ji-Hong Jiang
Actinomycetes are main producers of antibiotics and targeted screening could improve the efficiency of discovering new drugs. This study describes, for the first time, the isolation of endophytic actinomycetes from the macrofungus Ganoderma applanatum. To increase the efficiency of screening, novel actinomycin D (Act D) molecularly-imprinted polymers were adsorbed to the surface of Fe3 O4 @SiO2 magnetic microspheres (MMIPs) and using in the isolation. A monolithic column prepared with magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers was employed to adsorb actinomycin D and its analogues for selective analysis and identification via MS/MS spectroscopy...
May 16, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Sohrab Arora, Craig Rogers
Nephron-sparing surgery, especially through a minimally invasive approach, is increasingly being performed for incidentally detected renal masses with excellent outcomes. Tumors in central location remain a surgical challenge during nephron-sparing surgery. In this chapter, we discuss the minimally invasive management of these tumors, which include complex hilar tumors and endophytic central tumors, with a focus on surgical technique. The key to management of these tumors is to maintain good preoperative hydration, achieving adequate exposure of tumor, and the use of intraoperative ultrasound to plan the resection plane...
May 2018: Journal of Endourology
Soleiman E Helaly, Benjarong Thongbai, Marc Stadler
Covering: up to December 2017The diversity of secondary metabolites in the fungal order Xylariales is reviewed with special emphasis on correlations between chemical diversity and biodiversity as inferred from recent taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. The Xylariales are arguably among the predominant fungal endophytes, which are the producer organisms of pharmaceutical lead compounds including the antimycotic sordarins and the antiparasitic nodulisporic acids, as well as the marketed drug, emodepside. Many Xylariales are "macromycetes", which form conspicuous fruiting bodies (stromata), and the metabolite profiles that are predominant in the stromata are often complementary to those encountered in corresponding mycelial cultures of a given species...
May 18, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Yu-Ling Huang, Naupaka B Zimmerman, A Elizabeth Arnold
Fungal endophytes are diverse and widespread symbionts that occur in the living tissues of all lineages of plants without causing evidence of disease. Culture-based and culture-free studies indicate that they often are abundant in the leaves of woody angiosperms, but only a few studies have visualized endophytic fungi in leaf tissues, and the process through which most endophytes colonize leaves has not been studied thoroughly. We inoculated leaf discs and the living leaves of a model woody angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa , which has endophytes that represent three distantly-related genera ( Cladosporium , Penicillium , and Trichoderma )...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Gary Strobel
As is true with animal species, plants also have an associated microflora including endophytes as well as microbes associated with the phyllosphere and rhizosphere (plant surfaces) and this is considered the plant microbiome. However, those organisms within virtually all tissues and organs of the plant are known as endophytes. Most often fungi are the most frequently recovered endophytes from plant tissues, but bacterial forms generally occur in greater numbers, but not in species varieties. The exact biological/biochemical role of the endophyte in the plant and how it interacts with the plant and other endophytes and plant associated organisms has not been intensely and carefully examined...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Samad Ashrafi, Dániel G Knapp, Damien Blaudez, Michel Chalot, Jose G Maciá-Vicente, Imre Zagyva, Abdelfattah A Dababat, Wolfgang Maier, Gábor M Kovács
Fungal root endophytes, including the common group of dark septate endophytes (DSEs), represent different taxonomic groups and potentially diverse life strategies. In this study, we investigated two unidentified helotialean lineages found previously in a study of DSE fungi of semiarid grasslands, from several other sites, and collected recently from a pezizalean truffle ascoma and eggs of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi. The taxonomic positions and phylogenetic relationships of 21 isolates with different hosts and geographic origins were studied in detail...
March 26, 2018: Mycologia
Ming-Hua Yang, Mei-Ling Gu, Chao Han, Xiao-Jiang Guo, Guo-Ping Yin, Pei Yu, Ling-Yi Kong
Aureochaeglobosins A-C (1-3), three novel [4 + 2] cycloaddition heterodimers of chaetoglobosin and aureonitol derivatives, were obtained from the culture of endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum, representing the first adduct examples of chaetoglobosins. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and a modified Mosher's method. Compounds 2 and 3 showed significant cytotoxicities against human MDA-MB-231 cancer cells with IC50 values of 7.6 and 10...
May 17, 2018: Organic Letters
Shuangshuang Xie, Ye Wu, Yuben Qiao, Yi Guo, Jianping Wang, Zhengxi Hu, Qing Zhang, Xiaonian Li, Jinfeng Huang, Qun Zhou, Zengwei Luo, Junjun Liu, Hucheng Zhu, Yongbo Xue, Yonghui Zhang
To explore the chemical diversity of metabolites from endophytic fungi, the strain Phomopsis sp. TJ507A, isolated from the medicinal plant Phyllanthus glaucus, was investigated. A 2,3- seco-protoilludane-type sesquiterpenoid (1), eight protoilludane-type sesquiterpenoids (2-9), four illudalane-type sesquiterpenoids (10a/10b, 11, and 12), and a botryane-type sesquiterpenoid (13) in addition to seven known sesquiterpenoids (14-20) were identified from the liquid culture of the fungus. Structures of the isolated compounds, including their absolute configurations, were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses, a modified Mosher analysis, electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, and [Rh2 (OCOCF3 )4 ]-induced ECD spectra as well as X-ray crystallographic analyses...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Yan Liang, Weifeng Xu, Chengmei Liu, Dexiong Zhou, Xiaobo Liu, Yuyue Qin, Fei Cao, Jun Li, Ruiyun Yang, Jiangke Qin
A new eremophilane sesquiterpene, xylareremophil (1), together with five known eremophilanes, 1α,10α-epoxy-3α-hydroxyeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8β-olide (2), 1,10α,13-trihydroxyeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8-olide (3), 1α,10α-epoxy-13-hydroxyeremophil-7(11)-en-12,8β-olide (4), mairetolides B (5) and G (6) were isolated from the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp. GDG-102 cultured from Sophora tonkinensis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. The absolute configurations of 1 was determined by comparing computed electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and optical rotation (OR) with experimental results...
May 15, 2018: Natural Product Research
Guangfu Zhang, Qian Li, Shucun Sun
Parasitic plants are an important component of vegetation worldwide, but their diversity and distribution in China have not been systematically reported. This study aimed to (1) explore floral characteristics of China's parasitic plants, (2) map spatial distribution of diversity of these species, and (3) explore factors influencing the distribution pattern. We compiled a nationwide species list of parasitic plants in China, and for each species, we recorded its phylogeny, endemism, and life form (e.g., herb vs...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Vishal Sharma, Venugopal Singamaneni, Nisha Sharma, Amit Kumar, Divya Arora, Manoj Kushwaha, Shashi Bhushan, Sundeep Jaglan, Prasoon Gupta
Addition of the valproic acid (histone deacetylases inhibitor) to a culture of an endophytic fungus Diaporthe sp. harbored from Datura inoxia significantly altered its secondary metabolic profile and resulted in the isolation of three novel compounds, identified as xylarolide A (1), diportharine A (2) and xylarolide B (3) along with one known compound xylarolide (4). The structures of all the compounds (1-4) were determined by detailed analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The relative configurations of compounds 1-3 were determined with the help of NOESY data and comparison of optical rotations with similar compounds with established stereochemistry...
April 10, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Elizabeth A Bowman, A Elizabeth Arnold
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Understanding distributions of plant-symbiotic fungi is important for projecting responses to environmental change. Many coniferous trees host ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) in association with roots and foliar endophytic fungi (FE) in leaves. We examined how EM and FE associated with Pinus ponderosa each vary in abundance, diversity, and community structure over a spatially constrained elevation gradient that traverses four plant communities, 4°C in mean annual temperature, and 15 cm in mean annual precipitation...
May 13, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Fazilath Uzma, Chakrabhavi D Mohan, Abeer Hashem, Narasimha M Konappa, Shobith Rangappa, Praveen V Kamath, Bhim P Singh, Venkataramana Mudili, Vijai K Gupta, Chandra N Siddaiah, Srinivas Chowdappa, Abdulaziz A Alqarawi, Elsayed F Abd Allah
Cancer is a major cause of death worldwide, with an increasing number of cases being reported annually. The elevated rate of mortality necessitates a global challenge to explore newer sources of anticancer drugs. Recent advancements in cancer treatment involve the discovery and development of new and improved chemotherapeutics derived from natural or synthetic sources. Natural sources offer the potential of finding new structural classes with unique bioactivities for cancer therapy. Endophytic fungi represent a rich source of bioactive metabolites that can be manipulated to produce desirable novel analogs for chemotherapy...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mei Wang, Xiao-Ming Tan, Fang Liu, Lei Cai
The genus Arthrinium includes important plant pathogens, endophytes and saprobes with a wide host range and geographic distribution. In this paper, 74 Arthrinium strains isolated from various substrates such as bamboo leaves, tea plants, soil and air from karst caves in China were examined using a multi-locus phylogeny based on a combined dataset of ITS rDNA, TEF1 and TUB2, in conjunction with morphological characters, host association and ecological distribution. Eight new species were described based on their distinct phylogenetic relationships and morphological characters...
2018: MycoKeys
Jing Zhou, Jiwei Duan, Mingkun Gao, Ying Wang, Xiaohua Wang, Kai Zhao
Termites are global pests and can cause serious damage to buildings, crops, and plantation forests. The symbiotic intestinal flora plays an important role in the digestion of cellulose and nitrogen in the life of termites. Termites and their symbiotic microbes in the gut form a synergistic system. These organism work together to digest lignocellulose to make the termites grow on nitrogen deficient food. In this paper, the diversity of symbiotic microorganisms in the gut of termites, including protozoan, spirochetes, actinomycetes, fungus and bacteria, and their role in the digestion of lignocellulose and also the biotechnological applications of these symbiotic microorganisms are discussed...
May 12, 2018: Current Microbiology
Er-Ping Cui, Feng Gao, Yuan Liu, Xiang-Yang Fan, Zhong-Yang Li, Zhen-Jie Du, Chao Hu, Andrew L Neal
The spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) has become a cause for serious concern because of its potential risk to public health. The use of unconventional water resources (e.g., reclaimed water or piggery wastewater) in agriculture to relieve groundwater shortages may result in an accumulation of ARGs in soil. Biochar addition has been proven to be a beneficial method to alleviate the pollution of ARGs in manure-amended soil. However, the role of biochar on ARGs in soil-plant systems repeatedly irrigated with unconventional water resources is unknown...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Shu-Yuan Wang, Ling-Shang Wu, Hong-Xiu Dong, Jin-Ping Si, Yu-Qiu Zhu
In order to investigate the effects of germplasm and host tree trunk on endophytic fungal communities in epiphytic Dendrobium catenatum, a total of 3 835 isolates were recovered from roots, stems and leaves of four D. catenatum germplasms attached to one kind of host tree trunk and one germplasm attached to four kinds of epiphyte-host tree trunks. A total of 152 taxa were identified and classified based on the fungal cultural characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of ITS sequences. The taxa were assigned to 60 genera, 35 families, 21 orders and 5 classes of 2 phyla...
April 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Lubna, Sajjad Asaf, Muhammad Hamayun, Abdul Latif Khan, Muhammad Waqas, Muhammad Aaqil Khan, Rahmatullah Jan, In-Jung Lee, Anwar Hussain
Abiotic stress resistance strategies are powerful approaches to sustainable agriculture because they reduce chemical input and enhance plant productivity. In current study, an endophytic fungus, Aspergillus flavus CHS1 was isolated from Chenopodium album Roots. CHS1 was initially screened for growth promoting activities like siderphore, phosphate solubilization, and the production of indole acetic acid and gibberellins and were further assayed for its ability to promote the growth of mutant Waito-C rice. The results revealed that different plant growth characteristic such as chlorophyll content, root-shoot length, and biomass production were significantly promoted during CHS1 treatment...
May 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Jin-Long Cui, Yan-Yan Zhang, Vinod Vijayakumar, Gang Zhang, Meng-Liang Wang, Jun-Hong Wang
Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. is a rare root-parasitic plant distributed in the desert ecosystem. Little is known about the role of endophytes in accumulation of metabolites in C. songaricum. Here, the correlationship between the seven active components i.e., total sugars, flavonoids, protocatechuic acid, catechins and tannins, gallic and ursolic acids and the endophytic fungi of C. songaricum were investigated, and their causal relationships are discussed further. The results showed that the accumulation of seven components and the assembly of endophytic fungi changed with different plant developmental stages...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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