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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160900/fusarium-graminearum-pathogen-or-endophyte-of-north-american-grasses
#1
Lotus A Lofgren, Nicholas R LeBlanc, Amanda K Certano, Jonny Nachtigall, Kathryn M LaBine, Jakob Riddle, Karen Broz, Yanhong Dong, Bianca Bethan, Christopher W Kafer, H Corby Kistler
Mycotoxin-producing Fusarium graminearum and related species cause Fusarium head blight on cultivated grasses, such as wheat and barley. However, these Fusarium species may have had a longer evolutionary history with North American grasses than with cultivated crops and may interact with the ancestral hosts in ways which are biochemically distinct. We assayed 25 species of asymptomatic native grasses for the presence of Fusarium species and confirmed infected grasses as hosts using re-inoculation tests. We examined seed from native grasses for the presence of mycotoxin-producing Fusarium species and evaluated the ability of these fungi to produce mycotoxins in both native grass and wheat hosts using biochemical analysis...
November 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160362/potential-of-endophytic-fungi-as-biocontrol-agents-of-duponchelia-fovealis-zeller-lepidoptera-crambidae
#2
R F Amatuzzi, N Cardoso, A S Poltronieri, C G Poitevin, P Dalzoto, M A Zawadeneak, I C Pimentel
This study reports the first assessment of endophytic fungi isolated from strawberry leaves and selection of isolates for the control of Duponchelia fovealis, a new pest of strawberries. A total of 400 strawberry leaves of the cultivar 'Albion' were collected in four commercial farms. Leaves were disinfected, cut in fragments, and placed on Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar media with tetracycline and incubated for 30 days. Following this time, 517 fungal colonies were isolated, and thirteen genera were identified: Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Nigrospora, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Chaetomium, Alternaria, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Bipolaris, Diaporthe, and Phoma...
November 9, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160086/anatomic-and-radiologic-study-of-renal-avascular-plane-brodel-s-line-and-its-potential-relevance-on-percutaneous-and-surgical-approaches-to-the-kidney
#3
Veronica Macchi, Edgardo Picardi, Antonino Inferrera, Andrea Porzionato, Alessandro Crestani, Giacomo Novara, Raffaele De Caro, Vincenzo Ficarra
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present anatomic and radiologic study was to evaluate the location, extension and characteristics of the Brödel's plane and eventually define its different patterns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated 15 human normal kidneys sampled from un-embalmed cadavers without clinical history or anatomical evidence of renal diseases. Kidneys with the surrounding perirenal fat tissue were removed en bloc with the abdominal segment of the aorta. The renal artery was injected with acrylic and radiopaque resins...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159690/fungal-endophyte-communities-in-begonia-species-from-the-brazilian-atlantic-rainforest
#4
Ana M L Correia, Simone P Lira, Marco A Assis, Andre Rodrigues
Tropical plants represent hotspots of endophytic fungal species diversity. Based on culture-dependent methods, we evaluated the endophytic fungal communities in leaves of three plant species found in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest: Begonia fischeri, Begonia olsoniae, and Begonia venosa. These species are found in two distant sites: a continental region and an insular area. A total of 426 fungal endophytes in 19 genera were isolated in pure culture including Colletotrichum (51.6% of isolates) and Diaporthe (22...
November 20, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159689/antibacterial-and-antioxidant-metabolites-of-diaporthe-spp-isolated-from-flowers-of-melodorum-fruticosum
#5
Chutima Tanapichatsakul, Sakon Monggoot, Eleni Gentekaki, Patcharee Pripdeevech
Fifty-two strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from flowers of the medicinal plant Melodorum fruticosum. Seven genera were identified including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Greeneria and Nigrospora. All strains were cultured for 30 days and further macerated in ethyl acetate solvent for 3 days. The obtained fungal extracts were examined for antibacterial activity using agar disc diffusion against nine pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholerae and V...
November 20, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158974/whole-genome-sequencing-of-rhodotorula-mucilaginosa-isolated-from-the-chewing-stick-distemonanthus-benthamianus-insights-into-rhodotorula-phylogeny-mitogenome-dynamics-and-carotenoid-biosynthesis
#6
Han Ming Gan, Bolaji N Thomas, Nicole T Cavanaugh, Grace H Morales, Ashley N Mayers, Michael A Savka, André O Hudson
In industry, the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is commonly used for the production of carotenoids. The production of carotenoids is important because they are used as natural colorants in food and some carotenoids are precursors of retinol (vitamin A). However, the identification and molecular characterization of the carotenoid pathway/s in species belonging to the genus Rhodotorula is scarce due to the lack of genomic information thus potentially impeding effective metabolic engineering of these yeast strains for improved carotenoid production...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157810/camptothecin-producing-endophytic-bacteria-from-pyrenacantha-volubilis-hook-icacinaceae-a-possible-role-of-a-plasmid-in-the-production-of-camptothecin
#7
K N Soujanya, R Siva, P Mohana Kumara, Amitava Srimany, G Ravikanth, F A Mulani, T Aarthy, H V Thulasiram, T R Santhoshkumar, Karaba N Nataraja, R Uma Shaanker
BACKGROUND: Camptothecin (CPT), a quinoline alkaloid, is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic topoisomerase I. Because of this property, several derivatives of CPT are used as chemotherapeutic agents. CPT is produced by several plant species belonging to the Asterid clade as well as by a number of endophytic fungal associates of these plants. In this study, we report the production of CPT by four bacterial endophytes and show the possible role of a plasmid in the biosynthesis of CPT. METHODS: Endophytic bacteria were isolated from leaves, stems and fruits of Pyrenacantha volubilis Hook...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156986/microbial-transformation-of-resveratrol-by-endophyte-streptomyces-sp-a12-isolated-from-polygonum-cuspidatum
#8
Tian Jiewei, Wang Lei, Long Xiufeng, Zhang Heming, Li Xiaoguang, Fu Haiyan, Tian Yongqiang
Resveratrol (1) undergoes microbial transformation when fermented with Streptomyces sp. A12 to yield 3, 5, 4'-trimethoxy-trans-stilbene (2). The structure of the compound 2 was elucidated using the modern spectroscopic techniques. This is the first report of the microbial transformation of resveratrol to compound 2 using the endophyte isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum.
November 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155067/contrasting-roles-of-fungal-siderophores-in-maintaining-iron-homeostasis-in-epichlo%C3%A3-festucae
#9
Natasha T Forester, Geoffrey A Lane, Melle Steringa, Iain L Lamont, Linda J Johnson
The symbiosis between Epichloë festucae and its host perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is a model system for mutualistic interactions in which the fungal endophyte grows between plant shoot cells and acquires host nutrients to survive. E. festucae synthesises the siderophore epichloënin A (EA) via SidN, a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS). EA is involved in the acquisition of iron, an essential micronutrient, as part of the process of maintaining a stable symbiotic interaction. Here, we mutated a different NRPS gene sidC and showed that it is required for production of a second siderophore ferricrocin (FC)...
November 15, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151994/antimicrobial-activity-of-cultivable-endophytic-fungi-associated-with-hancornia-speciosa-gomes-bark
#10
Mardonny Bruno de Oliveira Chagas, Irailton Prazeres Dos Santos, Luis Claudio Nascimento da Silva, Maria Tereza Dos Santos Correia, Janete Magali de Araújo, Marilene da Silva Cavalcanti, Vera Lucia de Menezes Lima
Introduction: In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial potential of cultivable endophytic fungi associated with Hancornia speciosa Gomes stem bark. Methods and Materials: Plant samples were collected in rainy (July 2010) and dry (January 2011) seasons. In total, 116 endophytic fungi strains were isolated from 90 fragments (64.4% frequency of colonization). Higher fungi frequency was observed in the rainy season (84.4%). The strains were grouped into 14 species; the most frequent were Phoma cava (13...
2017: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151960/r-e-n-a-l-nephrometry-score-a-preoperative-risk-factor-predicting-the-fuhrman-grade-of-clear-cell-renal-carcinoma
#11
Shao-Hao Chen, Yu-Peng Wu, Xiao-Dong Li, Tian Lin, Qing-Yong Guo, Ye-Hui Chen, Jin-Bei Huang, Yong Wei, Xue-Yi Xue, Qing-Shui Zheng, Ning Xu
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of the R.E.N.A.L. Nephrometry Score to postoperatively predict high-grade clear-cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC). Methods: The study included 288 patients diagnosed with ccRCC who had complete CT/CTA data and R.E.N.A.L. Nephrometry Scores and underwent renal surgery at our center between January 2012 and December 2015. The relationship between the pathological grade of renal masses and R.E.N.A.L. Nephrometry Score was evaluated. Results: Univariate analysis indicated that diagnostic modality, cystic necrosis, enlargement of the regional lymph node, distant metastasis, clinical T stage, TNM stage, surgical modality, tumor size, nearness of the tumor to the collecting system or sinus, total Nephrometry Score and individual anatomic descriptor components were significantly associated with postoperative tumor grade (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150254/subcellular-distribution-and-biotransformation-of-phenanthrene-in-pakchoi-after-inoculation-with-endophytic-pseudomonas-sp-as-probed-using-hrms-coupled-with-isotope-labeling
#12
Kai Sun, Mussie Y Habteselassie, Juan Liu, Shunyao Li, Yanzheng Gao
Contamination of food-crops with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) poses a grave concern to food safety, especially when PAHs are internalized. We have demonstrated in our previous study that inoculation of crop with a phenanthrene-degrading endophytic Pseudomonas sp. Ph6-gfp could overcome this problem. Here, the subcellular distribution and biotransformation mechanism of phenanthrene in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) seedlings with inoculation of Ph6-gfp were further investigated both in vitro and in vivo...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149421/kribbella-podocarpi-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-leaves-of-a-yellowwood-tree-podocarpus-latifolius
#13
Sarah M Curtis, Iulia Norton, Gareth J Everest, Paul R Meyers
An endophytic actinobacterial strain was isolated from a yellowwood tree growing on the slope of Devil's Peak, Cape Town, South Africa. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the strain belongs to the genus Kribbella. Phylogenetic analyses using the 16S rRNA gene and multilocus sequence analysis using the concatenated gene sequences of the gyrB, rpoB, relA, recA and atpD genes showed that strain YPL1(T) is closely related to the type strains of Kribbella karoonensis and Kribbella shirazensis. DDH experiments showed that strain YPL1(T) is a distinct genomic species from its close phylogenetic relative, K...
November 17, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146930/previous-crop-and-rotation-history-effects-on-maize-seedling-health-and-associated-rhizosphere-microbiome
#14
Maria-Soledad Benitez, Shannon L Osborne, R Michael Lehman
To evaluate crop rotation effects on maize seedling performance and its associated microbiome, maize plants were grown in the greenhouse in soils preceded by either maize, pea, soybean or sunflower. Soils originated from a replicated field experiment evaluating different four-year rotation combinations. In the greenhouse, a stressor was introduced by soil infestation with western corn rootworm (WCR) or Fusarium graminearum. Under non-infested conditions, maize seedlings grown in soils preceded by sunflower or pea had greater vigor...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146266/endophytism-or-saprophytism-decoding-the-lifestyle-transition-of-the-generalist-fungus-phomopsis-liquidambari
#15
Jun Zhou, Xin Li, Peng-Wei Huang, Chuan-Chao Dai
Filamentous ascomycete Phomopsis sp. are common inhabitants of natural ecosystems and, as saprophytes, are largely responsible for the destructive decay of litterfall, promoting the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Phomopsis liquidambari B3 can establish mutualistic symbiosis with a broad spectrum of crop plants. Colonizing dynamics observations and a growth promotion assay of rice and Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that the B3 colonization strategy is host-adapted and resulted in different growth promotions influenced by N availability...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146258/screening-of-tropically-derived-multi-trait-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-and-evaluation-of-corn-and-soybean-colonization-ability
#16
Bruna Durante Batista, Paulo Teixeira Lacava, Andrea Ferrari, Natalia Sousa Teixeira-Silva, Maria Letícia Bonatelli, Sarina Tsui, Mateus Mondin, Elliot Watanabe Kitajima, José Odair Pereira, João Lúcio Azevedo, Maria Carolina Quecine
The present study assessed the plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits and diversity of culturable rhizobacteria associated with guarana (Paullinia cupana), a typical tropical plant. Ninety-six bacteria were isolated, subjected to biochemical tests, and identified by partial or total 16S rDNA sequencing. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant rhizospheric phyla found, and Burkholderia and Bacillus were the most abundant genera. Thirteen strains exhibited the four PGP traits evaluated, and most of them belonged to the genus Burkholderia...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144843/brevicollum-a-new-genus-in-neohendersoniaceae-pleosporales
#17
Kazuaki Tanaka, Akira Hashimoto, Misato Matsumura, Toyozo Sato
A new genus, Brevicollum, is established for two new species, B. hyalosporum on Syzygium samarangense and B. versicolor on Volkameria inermis, in Japan. This genus is characterized by the presence of immersed ascomata with an excentric to central, short cylindrical ostiolar neck, thin ascomatal wall, clavate asci with a shallow ocular chamber, and broadly fusiform, hyaline to pale brown ascospores with a sheath. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on a combined data set of sequences of 18S and 28S nuc rDNA genes and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2) revealed that Brevicollum is a member of Neohendersoniaceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes)...
October 5, 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143925/production-of-fumonisins-by-endophytic-strains-of-tolypocladium-cylindrosporum-and-its-relation-to-fungal-virus-infection
#18
Iñigo Zabalgogeazcoa, Amador Alvarez, Noemi Herrero, Beatriz R Vazquez-de-Aldana
Fumonisins were first discovered in Fusarium verticillioides, a fungus associated to disease and asymptomatic infections in maize. Afterwards, other fungal taxa have been found to produce fumonisins. The entomopathogenic ascomycete Tolypocladium cylindrosporum has been isolated from soil and also as an endophyte from leaves of grasses. The objectives of this work were to determine the in vitro production of fumonisin B (FB) mycotoxins and the immunosuppressive compound cyclosporine A (CyA) in several strains of T...
November 16, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139291/an-integrative-approach-to-decipher-the-chemical-antagonism-between-the-competing-endophytes-paraconiothyrium-variabile-and-bacillus-subtilis
#19
Marine Vallet, Quentin P Vanbellingen, Tingting Fu, Jean-Pierre Le Caer, Serge Della-Negra, David Touboul, Katherine R Duncan, Bastien Nay, Alain Brunelle, Soizic Prado
An integrative approach combining traditional natural products chemistry, molecular networking, and mass spectrometry imaging has been undertaken to decipher the molecular dialogue between the fungus Paraconiothyrium variabile and the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, which were isolated as endophytes from the conifer Cephalotaxus harringtonia and are characterized by a strong and mutual antibiosis. From this study, we highlight that bacterial surfactins and a fungal tetronic acid are involved in such competition and that the fungus is able to hydrolyze surfactins to fight against the bacterial partner...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138624/entomopathogenic-fungi-as-dual-control-agents-against-both-the-pest-myzus-persicae-and-phytopathogen-botrytis-cinerea
#20
Hwi-Geon Yun, Dong-Jun Kim, Won-Seok Gwak, Tae-Young Shin, Soo-Dong Woo
The green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), a plant pest, and gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea, affect vegetables and fruit crops all over the world. To control this aphid and mold, farmers typically rely on the use of chemical insecticides or fungicides. However, intensive use of these chemicals over many years has led to the development of resistance. To overcome this problem, there is a need to develop alternative control methods to suppress populations of this plant pest and pathogen. Recently, potential roles have been demonstrated for entomopathogenic fungi in endophytism, phytopathogen antagonism, plant growth promotion, and rhizosphere colonization...
September 2017: Mycobiology
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