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Pan Wang, Jin-Hai Yu, Kongkai Zhu, Yinyin Wang, Zhi-Qiang Cheng, Cheng-Shi Jiang, Jun-Gui Dai, Jun Wu, Hua Zhang
Seven new phenolic bisabolane sesquiterpenoids, (7R,10S)-7,10-epoxysydonic acid (1), (7S,10S)-7,10-epoxysydonic acid (2), (7R,11S)-7,12-epoxysydonic acid (3), (7S,11S)-7,12-epoxysydonic acid (4), 7-deoxy-7,14-didehydro-12-hydroxysydonic acid (5), (Z)-7-deoxy-7,8-didehydro-12-hydroxysydonic acid (6), and (E)-7-deoxy-7,8-didehydro-12-hydroxysydonic acid (7), along with five known analogues (8-12), were obtained from the culture of an endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. xy02 isolated from the leaves of a Thai mangrove Xylocarpus moluccensis...
March 12, 2018: Fitoterapia
Hathairat Rachniyom, Atsuko Matsumoto, Yuki Inahashi, Akira Take, Yoko Takahashi, Arinthip Thamchaipenet
A novel actinomycete strain, designated GKU 128T , isolated from the roots of an Indian oak tree [Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn.] at Khao Khitchakut district, Chantaburi province, Thailand, was characterized by using a polyphasic approach. The strain formed a branched substrate and aerial mycelia which differentiated into straight to flexuous chains of smooth-ornamented spores. Analysis of the cell wall revealed the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid in the peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars were glucose, madurose, mannose, rhamnose and ribose...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
G Vinayarani, H S Prakash
Endophytic fungi have been isolated from the healthy turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes from South India. Thirty-one endophytes were identified based on morphological and ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The isolated endophytes were screened for antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., causing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric respectively. Results revealed that only six endophytes showed > 70% suppression of test pathogens in antagonistic dual culture assays...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Xiang-Mei Tan, Lu-Ying Li, Li-Yan Sun, Bing-Da Sun, Shu-Bin Niu, Meng-Hua Wang, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Wen-Song Sun, Gui-Shan Zhang, Hui Deng, Xiao-Ke Xing, Zhong-Mei Zou, Gang Ding
Endophytic fungi from desert, arid, and grassland areas are an ecologically important but unique group with poor chemical investigation. During our ongoing study to mine bioactive secondary metabolites from unique fungal environments, a new shunt product spiciferone F (1) including two new analogs spiciferones G (2) and H (3) together with four known ones spiciferone A (4), spiciferol A (5), 6, and 7 were isolated from endophytic fungus Phoma betae inhabiting in plant Kalidium foliatum (Pall.) Moq from Ningxia Province of West China...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
Christoph Stephan Schmidt, Libor Mrnka, Tomáš Frantík, Petra Lovecká, Miroslav Vosátka
Putative endophytes of Miscanthus × giganteus were isolated, and screened in the laboratory, greenhouse and field for their plant growth promoting properties in this host. Pantoea ananatis and Pseudomonas savastanoi were the predominant bacteria in leaves whereas other pseudomonads prevailed in roots. Almost all fungal endophytes belonged to the Pezizomycotina and most were isolated from roots; Fusarium oxysporum was most abundant, followed by the genera Periconia, Exophiala, Microdochium and Leptodontidium...
March 13, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Han Gao, Gang Li, Hong-Xiang Lou
Exploration of structurally novel natural products greatly facilitates the discovery of biologically active pharmacophores that are biologically validated starting points for the development of new drugs. Endophytes that colonize the internal tissues of plant species, have been proven to produce a large number of structurally diverse secondary metabolites. These molecules exhibit remarkable biological activities, including antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties, to name but a few...
March 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ajit Kumar Passari, Vineet Kumar Mishra, Garima Singh, Pratibha Singh, Brijesh Kumar, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Rupak Kumar Sarma, Ratul Saikia, Anthonia O' Donovan, Bhim Pratap Singh
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
D M Liebe, R R White
The objective of this study was to quantitatively summarize literature reporting endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) effects on cattle ADG. This meta-analysis evaluated endophyte infection level, climate, and forage yield using a literature dataset of 138 treatments from 20 articles. Three infection level measurements were tested: endophyte infection as a percentage of infected tillers (E%); ergovaline concentration in ppb ([E]); and total ergot alkaloid concentration ([TEA])...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Sophie de Vries, Janina K von Dahlen, Anika Schnake, Sarah Ginschel, Barbara Schulz, Laura E Rose
Phytophthora infestans is a devastating pathogen of tomato and potato. It readily overcomes resistance genes and applied agrochemicals and hence even today causes large yield losses. Fungal endophytes provide a largely unexplored avenue of control of Phytophthora infestans. Not only do endophytes produce a wide array of bioactive metabolites, they may also directly compete with and defeat pathogens in planta. Here, we tested twelve fungal endophytes isolated from different plant species in vitro for their production of metabolites with anti- Phytophthora activity...
March 8, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Sobia Ashraf, Muhammad Afzal, Khadeeja Rehman, Muhammad Naveed, Zahir Ahmad Zahir
Liquid effluent produced from tanning industries is loaded with organic and inorganic contaminants, particularly heavy metals, which may cause severe damage to the ecosystem. Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising product of the research in the field of ecological engineering which helps to overcome aquatic pollution. This investigation aims to develop a plant-endophyte synergism in CW for the efficient remediation of tannery effluent. In a vertical flow CW, Brachiaria mutica was vegetated and augmented with three endophytic bacterial strains...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Chong Shi, Shazhou An, Zhengpei Yao, Carolyn A Young, Daniel G Panaccione, Stephen T Lee, Christopher L Schardl, Chunjie Li
Cool-season grasses (Poaceae subfamily Poöideae) are an important forage component for livestock in western China, and many have seed-transmitted symbionts of the genus Epichloë, fungal endophytes that are broadly distributed geographically and in many tribes of the Poöideae. Epichloë strains can produce any of several classes of alkaloids, of which ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes can be toxic to mammalian and invertebrate herbivores, whereas lolines and peramine are more selective against invertebrates...
January 25, 2018: Mycologia
Zong-Sheng Yuan, Fang Liu, Bao-Gui Xie, Guo-Fang Zhang
The research results of the growth-promoting effects of endophytic bacteria on Phyllostachys edulis indicated that the growth-promoting endophytic bacteria could improve photosynthesis in P. edulis leaves. The photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and the stomatal conductance in P. edulis treated with endophytic bacteria were all higher than in the control group. Endophytic bacteria could also increase the chlorophyll content and the protective enzyme activities in P. edulis, improving their reactions to the adverse environmental conditions...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Govindan Rajivgandhi, Ramachandran Vijayan, Muthuchamy Maruthupandy, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Natesan Manoharan
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a diverse public health complication and are caused by range of pathogens, however most often by Gram negative bacteria which cause significant life threatening risks to different populations. The prevalence rate and antimicrobial resistance among the Gram negative uropathogens alarmed to significantly heighten the economic burden of these infections. In this study, we investigated the role of Pyrrolo[1,2-a] pyrazine-1,4-dione,hexahydro-3-(2-methylpropyl) on endophytic actinomycetes Nocardiopsis sp...
March 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Khan H Mohammed, Zhang Wanzhe, Paterson Catherine, Szewczyk-Bieda Magda, Stephen Lang, Nabi Ghulam
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Prediction of growth, in particular knowing the possibility of aggressive cancer in small renal masses on active surveillance, remains poorly understood. The study was designed to determine whether serial nephrometry score measurements could predict possibility of aggressive malignancy (grade of cancer) in patients with small renal masses opting for active surveillance initially. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred sixteen patients between January 2000 and December 2016 undergoing partial nephrectomy were recruited...
March 6, 2018: Academic Radiology
Chalairat Suk-Ouichai, Jitao Wu, Wen Dong, Hajime Tanaka, Yanbo Wang, J J H Zhang, Elvis Caraballo, Erick Remer, Jianbo Li, Sudhir Isharwal, Steven C Campbell
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate contact surface area (CSA) between the tumor and parenchyma as a predictor of ipsilateral parenchyma and function preserved after partial nephrectomy (PN). Previous studies suggested that CSA is a strong predictor of functional outcomes but the limitations of CSA have not been adequately explored. PATIENTS/METHODS: 419 patients managed with standard PN for solitary tumor with necessary studies to evaluate ipsilateral preoperative/postoperative parenchymal mass/function were analyzed...
March 6, 2018: Urology
Francisco X Nascimento, Márcio J Rossi, Bernard R Glick
Ethylene and its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) actively participate in plant developmental, defense and symbiotic programs. In this sense, ethylene and ACC play a central role in the regulation of bacterial colonization (rhizospheric, endophytic, and phyllospheric) by the modulation of plant immune responses and symbiotic programs, as well as by modulating several developmental processes, such as root elongation. Plant-associated bacterial communities impact plant growth and development, both negatively (pathogens) and positively (plant-growth promoting and symbiotic bacteria)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rajesh Padumane Shastry, Stephen K Dolan, Yassmin Abdelhamid, Ravishankar Rai Vittal, Martin Welch
The quorum quenching (QQ) activity of endophytic bacteria associated with medicinal plants was explored. Extracts of the Gram-negative Enterobacter sp. CS66 possessed potent N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) hydrolytic activity in vitro. Using degenerate primers, we PCR-amplified an open reading frame (denoted aiiE) from CS66 that was 96% identical to the well-characterised AHL-lactonase AiiA from Bacillus thuringiensis, but only 30% identical to AHL-lactonases from other Gram-negative species. This confirms that close AiiA homologs can be found in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
March 6, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Fei Li, Ximin Zhang, Jiyi Gong, Lunxian Liu, Yin Yi
Karst topography is formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks, such as limestone and dolomite. In soils of such a landform, excessive contents of exchangeable calcium seriously limit the growth of vegetations. Researches have proved that rhizosphere microorganisms and endophytes help host plants to adapt to various adverse environments. The adaptive capacity of plants that grow in adverse environment with salt, drought, thermal and heavy metal stresses partially or completely comes from symbiotic microorganisms...
2018: PloS One
Satish K Verma, Kathryn L Kingsley, Marshall S Bergen, Kurt P Kowalski, James F White
Non-cultivated plants carry microbial endophytes that may be used to enhance development and disease resistance of crop species where growth-promoting and protective microbes may have been lost. During seedling establishment, seedlings may be infected by several fungal pathogens that are seed or soil borne. Several species of Fusarium , Pythium and other water moulds cause seed rots during germination. Fusarium blights of seedlings are also very common and significantly affect seedling development. In the present study we screened nine endophytic bacteria isolated from the seeds of invasive Phragmites australis by inoculating onto rice, Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon ), or annual bluegrass ( Poa annua ) seeds to evaluate plant growth promotion and protection from disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum ...
March 8, 2018: Microorganisms
Ave Suija, Pieter van den Boom, Erich Zimmermann, Mikhail P Zhurbenko, Paul Diederich
The lichenicolous taxa currently included in the genus Hainesia were studied based on the nuclear rDNA (18S, 28S, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) genes. The authors found that lichenicolous taxa form a distinct lineage sister to Epiglia gloeocapsae (Phacidiales, Leotiomycetes), only distantly related to the type species of Hainesia (Chaetomellaceae, Helotiales). Owing to morphological similarities, the authors include the lichenicolous species into the previously monotypic genus Epithamnolia. A new species, Epithamnolia rangiferinae, is described, several names are reduced into synonymy, and a key to the species of Epithamnolia is provided...
December 13, 2017: Mycologia
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