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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074124/involvement-of-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-the-infertility-age-associated-diseases-and-cancer-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Antonin Bukovsky
Blood mononuclear cells consist of T cells and monocyte derived cells. Beside immunity, the blood mononuclear cells belong to the complex tissue control system (TCS), where they exhibit morphostatic function by stimulating proliferation of tissue stem cells followed by cellular differentiation, that is stopped after attaining the proper functional stage, which differs among various tissue types. Therefore, the term immune and morphostatic system (IMS) should be implied. The TCS-mediated morphostasis also consists of vascular pericytes controlled by autonomic innervation, which is regulating the quantity of distinct tissues in vivo...
December 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028909/regulation-of-injury-induced-ovarian-regeneration-by-activation-of-oogonial-stem-cells
#2
Piril Erler, Alexandra Sweeney, James R Monaghan
Some animals have the ability to generate large numbers of oocytes throughout life. This raises the question whether persistent adult germline stem cell populations drive continuous oogenesis and whether they are capable of mounting a regenerative response after injury. Here we demonstrate the presence of adult oogonial stem cells (OSCs) in the adult axolotl salamander ovary and show that ovarian injury induces OSC activation and functional regeneration of the ovaries to reproductive capability. Cells that have morphological similarities to germ cells were identified in the developing and adult ovaries via histological analysis...
January 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990249/sex-differences-in-sympathetic-innervation-and-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-of-mice
#3
Sang-Nam Kim, Young-Suk Jung, Hyun-Jung Kwon, Je Kyung Seong, James G Granneman, Yun-Hee Lee
BACKGROUND: The higher prevalence of obesity-related metabolic disease in males suggests that female sex hormones provide protective mechanisms against the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Because browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) is protective against obesity-related metabolic disease, we examined sex differences in β3-adrenergic remodeling of WAT in mice. METHODS: Effects of the β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316,243 (CL) on browning of white adipose tissue were investigated in male and female C57BL mice...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936533/endocrinology-update-testicular-hypogonadism
#4
Joel J Heidelbaugh
Testicular hypogonadism, or androgen deficiency, is defined as a clinical condition resulting from failure of the testes to produce physiologic levels of testosterone and a normal number of spermatozoa because of disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Testosterone deficiency (TD) is defined as a serum level less than 300 ng/dL on a morning total testosterone test. It is estimated that more than one-third of men 45 years and older have testosterone deficiency. Associated symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased physical stamina and strength, depressed mood, fatigue, increased visceral adiposity, sleep disturbance, and/or poor concentration and memory...
December 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898696/regulation-of-gonad-morphogenesis-in-drosophila-melanogaster-by-btb-family-transcription-factors
#5
Diane Silva, Kenneth W Olsen, Magdalena N Bednarz, Andrew Droste, Christopher P Lenkeit, Edwin Chaharbakhshi, Emily R Temple-Wood, Jennifer C Jemc
During embryogenesis, primordial germ cells (PGCs) and somatic gonadal precursor cells (SGPs) migrate and coalesce to form the early gonad. A failure of the PGCs and SGPs to form a gonad with the proper architecture not only affects germ cell development, but can also lead to infertility. Therefore, it is critical to identify the molecular mechanisms that function within both the PGCs and SGPs to promote gonad morphogenesis. We have characterized the phenotypes of two genes, longitudinals lacking (lola) and ribbon (rib), that are required for the coalescence and compaction of the embryonic gonad in Drosophila melanogaster...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770600/inf2-and-fhod-related-formins-promote-ovulation-in-the-somatic-gonad-of-c-elegans
#6
Anna Hegsted, Forrest A Wright, SarahBeth Votra, David Pruyne
Formins are regulators of actin filament dynamics. We demonstrate here that two formins, FHOD-1 and EXC-6, are important in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans for ovulation, during which actomyosin contractions push a maturing oocyte from the gonad arm into a distensible bag-like organ, the spermatheca. EXC-6, a homolog of the disease-associated mammalian formin INF2, is highly expressed in the spermatheca, where it localizes to cell-cell junctions and to circumferential actin filament bundles. Loss of EXC-6 does not noticeably affect the organization the actin filament bundles, and causes only a very modest increase in the population of junction-associated actin filaments...
December 2016: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753830/sy-03-3-overview-of-somatic-mutations-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-aldosterone-producing-adenoma-apa
#7
Satoshi Umemura
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders including both sporadic and familial forms (familial hyperaldosteronism type I, II and III). PA is the most frequent endocrine cause of secondary hypertension and associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular complications, compared with essential hypertension.Here I review the recent progress in understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to autonomous aldosterone production in PA.Systematic screening detects primary aldosteronism in 5 to 10% of all patients with hypertension and in approximately 20% of patients with resistant hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716277/array-cgh-diagnosis-in-ovarian-failure-identification-of-new-molecular-actors-for-ovarian-physiology
#8
Sylvie Jaillard, Linda Akloul, Marion Beaumont, Houda Hamdi-Roze, Christele Dubourg, Sylvie Odent, Solène Duros, Nathalie Dejucq-Rainsford, Marc-Antoine Belaud-Rotureau, Célia Ravel
BACKGROUND: Ovarian failure (OF) is considered premature if it occurs before the age of 40. This study investigates the genetic aetiology underlying OF in women under the age of 40 years. METHODS: We conducted an experimental prospective study performing all genome microarrays in 60 patients younger than 40 years presenting an OF revealed by a decrease of circulating Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) and leading to an oocyte donation program. RESULTS: We identified nine significant copy number variations (CNVs) including candidate genes potentially implicated in reproductive function...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697203/gonadotrope-tumors
#9
S L Asa, S Ezzat
Gonadotrope tumors arise from the gonadotropes of the adenohypophysis. These cells rarely give rise to hyperplasia, usually only in the setting of long-standing premature gonadal failure. In contrast, gonadotrope tumors represent one of the most frequent types of pituitary tumors. Despite their relatively common occurrence, the pathogenesis of gonadotrope tumors remains unknown. Effective nonsurgical therapies remain out of reach. We review the pituitary gonadotrope from the morphologic and functional perspectives to better understand its involvement as the cell of origin of a frequent type of pituitary tumor...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681884/induction-of-steroidogenic-cells-from-adult-stem-cells-and-pluripotent-stem-cells-review
#10
Takashi Yazawa, Yoshitaka Imamichi, Kaoru Miyamoto, Md Rafiqul Islam Khan, Junsuke Uwada, Akihiro Umezawa, Takanobu Taniguchi
Steroid hormones are mainly produced in adrenal glands and gonads. Because steroid hormones play vital roles in various physiological processes, replacement of deficient steroid hormones by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is necessary for patients with adrenal and gonadal failure. In addition to HRT, tissue regeneration using stem cells is predicted to provide novel therapy. Among various stem cell types, mesenchymal stem cells can be differentiated into steroidogenic cells following ectopic expression of nuclear receptor (NR) 5A subfamily proteins, steroidogenic factor-1 (also known as adrenal 4 binding protein) and liver receptor homolog-1, with the aid of cAMP signaling...
November 30, 2016: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650467/could-gonadal-and-adrenal-androgen-deficiencies-contribute-to-the-depressive-symptoms-in-men-with-systolic-heart-failure
#11
Katarzyna Kulej-Lyko, Jacek Majda, Stephan von Haehling, Wolfram Doehner, Monika Lopuszanska, Alicja Szklarska, Waldemar Banasiak, Stefan D Anker, Piotr Ponikowski, Ewa A Jankowska
BACKGROUND: Testosterone (TT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) are neurosteroids and their deficiencies constitute the hormone risk factors promoting the development of depression in elderly otherwise healthy men. We investigated the link between hypogonadism and depression in accordance with age and concomitant diseases in men with systolic HF using the novel scale previously dedicated for elderly population. METHODS: We analysed the prevalence of depression and severity of depressive symptoms in population of 226 men with systolic HF (40-80 years) compared to 379 healthy peers...
December 2016: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647650/-andrologic-consequences-of-chronic-renal-failure-state-of-the-art-for-the-yearly-scientific-report-of-the-french-national-association-of-urology
#12
Y Neuzillet, R Thuret, F Kleinclauss, M-O Timsit
OBJECTIVE: To describe the state of the art of current knowledge regarding gonadal consequences of end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A systematic review of the literature search was performed from the databases Medline (NLM, Pubmed) and Embase, focused on the following keywords: "chronic kidney disease"; "chronic renal failure"; "hypogonadism"; "kidney transplantation"; "testicular dysfunction"; "testosterone"...
November 2016: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642883/sy-03-3-overview-of-somatic-mutations-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-aldosterone-producing-adenoma-apa
#13
Satoshi Umemura
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders including both sporadic and familial forms (familial hyperaldosteronism type I, II and III). PA is the most frequent endocrine cause of secondary hypertension and associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular complications, compared with essential hypertension.Here I review the recent progress in understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms leading to autonomous aldosterone production in PA.Systematic screening detects primary aldosteronism in 5 to 10% of all patients with hypertension and in approximately 20% of patients with resistant hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637014/gonadal-function-is-associated-with-cardiometabolic-health-in-pre-pubertal-boys-with-klinefelter-syndrome
#14
S Davis, N Lahlou, M Bardsley, M-C Temple, K Kowal, L Pyle, P Zeitler, J Ross
The most common sex chromosome aneuploidy, Klinefelter syndrome (KS), is associated with primary gonadal failure and increased morbidity and mortality from cardiometabolic disorders in adulthood. Children with KS also have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) features. To assess the relationship of gonadal and cardiometabolic function in children with KS, we evaluated serum hormones [gonadotropins, inhibin B (INHB), anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), total testosterone (TT)], and features of MetS (waist circumference, fasting lipid panel, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and blood pressure) in 93 pre-pubertal boys with KS age 4-12 years (mean 7...
November 2016: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586847/gonadal-dysfunction-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
REVIEW
Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Sexual dysfunction is a common finding in both men and women with chronic kidney failure. Common disturbances include erectile dysfunction in men, menstrual abnormalities in women, and decreased libido and fertility in both sexes. These abnormalities are primarily organic in nature and are related to uremia as well as the other comorbid conditions that frequently occur in the chronic kidney failure patient. Fatigue and psycho social factors related to the presence of a chronic disease are also contributory factors...
September 1, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575027/hsd3b1-and-resistance-to-androgen-deprivation-therapy-in-prostate-cancer-a-retrospective-multicohort-study
#16
Jason W D Hearn, Ghada AbuAli, Chad A Reichard, Chandana A Reddy, Cristina Magi-Galluzzi, Kai-Hsiung Chang, Rachel Carlson, Laureano Rangel, Kevin Reagan, Brian J Davis, R Jeffrey Karnes, Manish Kohli, Donald Tindall, Eric A Klein, Nima Sharifi
BACKGROUND: HSD3B1 (1245A>C) has been mechanistically linked to castration-resistant prostate cancer because it encodes an altered enzyme that augments dihydrotestosterone synthesis from non-gonadal precursors. We postulated that men inheriting the HSD3B1 (1245C) allele would exhibit resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). METHODS: In this multicohort study, we determined HSD3B1 genotype retrospectively in men treated with ADT for post-prostatectomy biochemical failure and correlated genotype with long-term clinical outcomes...
October 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501986/stochastic-anomaly-of-methylome-but-persistent-sry-hypermethylation-in-disorder-of-sex-development-in-canine-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer
#17
Young-Hee Jeong, Hanlin Lu, Chi-Hun Park, Meiyan Li, Huijuan Luo, Joung Joo Kim, Siyang Liu, Kyeong Hee Ko, Shujia Huang, In Sung Hwang, Mi Na Kang, Desheng Gong, Kang Bae Park, Eun Ji Choi, Jung Hyun Park, Yeon Woo Jeong, Changjong Moon, Sang-Hwan Hyun, Nam Hyung Kim, Eui-Bae Jeung, Huanming Yang, Woo Suk Hwang, Fei Gao
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) provides an excellent model for studying epigenomic reprogramming during mammalian development. We mapped the whole genome and whole methylome for potential anomalies of mutations or epimutations in SCNT-generated dogs with XY chromosomal sex but complete gonadal dysgenesis, which is classified as 78, XY disorder of sex development (DSD). Whole genome sequencing revealed no potential genomic variations that could explain the pathogenesis of DSD. However, extensive but stochastic anomalies of genome-wide DNA methylation were discovered in these SCNT DSD dogs...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473876/characterization-of-the-pou5f1-homologue-in-nile-tilapia-from-expression-pattern-to-biological-activity
#18
Huang Xiaohuan, Zhao Yang, Liu Linyan, Fan Zhenhua, Zhou Linyan, Wang Zhijian, Wei Ling, Wang Deshou, Wei Jing
POU5F1 (OCT4) is a crucial transcription factor for induction and maintenance of cellular pluripotency, as well as survival of germ cells in mammals. However, the homologues of POU5F1 in teleost fish, including zebrafish and medaka, now named Pou5f3, exhibit considerable differences in expression pattern and pluripotency-maintaining activity. To what extent the POU5F1 homologues are conserved in vertebrates has been unclear. In this study, we report that the POU5F1 homologue from the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), OnPou5f3, displays an expression pattern and biological activity somewhat different from those in zebrafish or medaka...
September 15, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463801/nr5a1-loss-of-function-mutations-lead-to-46-xy-partial-gonadal-dysgenesis-phenotype-report-of-three-novel-mutations
#19
Helena C Fabbri, Juliana G Ribeiro de Andrade, Andréa T Maciel-Guerra, Gil Guerra-Júnior, Maricilda P de Mello
Mutations in the NR5A1 gene, which encodes the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), are responsible for different phenotypes of disorders of sex development (DSD), such as bilateral anorchia and hypospadias. Furthermore, they can be associated with primary amenorrhea, premature ovarian failure, male infertility, adrenal tumors, and endometriosis. Direct sequencing of the 7 NR5A1 exons including ∼1,000 bp of the 5'-upstream and 3'-downstream regions and all intron-exon boundaries was performed in patients with DSD...
2016: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454361/discovering-genes-essential-to-the-hypothalamic-regulation-of-human-reproduction-using-a-human-disease-model-adjusting-to-life-in-the-omics-era
#20
M I Stamou, K H Cox, William F Crowley
The neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction is an intricate process requiring the exquisite coordination of an assortment of cellular networks, all converging on the GnRH neurons. These neurons have a complex life history, migrating mainly from the olfactory placode into the hypothalamus, where GnRH is secreted and acts as the master regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Much of what we know about the biology of the GnRH neurons has been aided by discoveries made using the human disease model of isolated GnRH deficiency (IGD), a family of rare Mendelian disorders that share a common failure of secretion and/or action of GnRH causing hypogonadotropic hypogonadism...
February 2016: Endocrine Reviews
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