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Acute endocrinology

Henrik Hasle, Gertjan J L Kaspers
Over the last four decades the survival of paediatric patients with acute myeloid leukaemia has gradually increased to 70% in high-income countries. The therapy is very intensive and associated with many acute and long-term side effects. The early death rate has been reduced to 1-4%. The acute toxicity is a limiting factor for improving survival in low-income countries. Transplant is associated with more endocrinological late effects while cardiotoxicity is more common after relapse. Reducing the physical costs of therapy without jeopardizing survival may be accomplished by optimal supportive care, less cardiotoxic anthracyclines, less consolidation courses and strict indications for stem cell transplantation...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Derek S Boeldt, Ian M Bird
Maternal vascular adaptation to pregnancy is critically important in order to expand the capacity for blood flow through the uteroplacental unit to meet the needs of the developing fetus. Failure of the maternal vasculature to properly adapt can result in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy such as preeclampsia (PE). Herein, we review the endocrinology of maternal adaptation to pregnancy and contrast this with that of PE. Our focus is specifically on those hormones with directly impact endothelial cell function and dysfunction, as endothelial cell dysfunction is a hallmark of PE...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
A O'Loughlin, E Kellegher, C McCusker, R Canavan
BACKGROUND: Diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy (DCN) is a devastating complication for people with diabetes mellitus. The failure to diagnose DCN and institute treatment in the acute phase leads to permanent deformity and significant morbidity. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence and characteristics of patients who have developed this complication of diabetes. AIMS: To determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with DCN from 2006 to 2012...
October 6, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Marcel D Waldinger
For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE...
August 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
Ismail Yağmur, Burak Turna, Ali Tekin, Emir Akıncıoğlu, Bnu Sarsık, İbrahim Ulman
INTRODUCTION: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is generally common in men older than 50 years of age but is extremely rare in childhood. In the literature to date, fewer than five cases have been reported under 18 years of age. Owing to the limited number of cases, the etiology and management of BPH in the first two decades is not clear. OBJECTIVE: We herein report a 17-year-old boy who presented with acute urinary retention due to BPH and was treated with endoscopic transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P)...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Jurate Aleknaviciute, Joke H M Tulen, Mirjam Timmermans, Yolanda B de Rijke, Elisabeth F C van Rossum, Frank H de Jong, Steven A Kushner
STUDY QUESTION: Does adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) induce gonadotropin release in premenopausal women? SUMMARY ANSWER: Administration of ACTH stimulates gonadotropin release, most likely by stimulation of the production of cortisol, in premenopausal women. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In animal models, acute activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been shown to induce gonadotropin release in the presence of sufficiently high estrogen levels...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Rabih Hage, Sheila R Eshraghi, Nelson M Oyesiku, Adriana G Ioachimescu, Nancy J Newman, Valérie Biousse, Beau B Bruce
BACKGROUND: Pituitary apoplexy (PA) often presents with acute headache and neuro-ophthalmic manifestations, including ocular motility dysfunction (OMD) from cranial nerve palsies (CNPs). Our goal was to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of OMD in a large, single-center series of patients with PA. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients with PA seen in our pituitary center between January 1995 and December 2012. Presenting neuro-ophthalmic, endocrine, and radiologic data, as well as neuro-ophthalmology follow-up data, were collected...
October 2016: World Neurosurgery
Gerival Vieira, Lucas Alverne Freitas de Albuquerque, Ariane Bernardes Camilo Castilho de Avellar, Julio Leonardo Barbosa Pereira, Marcos Dellaretti, Paulo Augusto Carvalho Miranda, Rodrigo Alvares Paiva Macedo, Laura Amaral Quintino da Silva, Sebastião Nataniel Silva Gusmão
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hypopituitarism in the acute stage after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) as well at the chronic stage, at least 1 year after bleeding, to assess its implications and correlation with clinical features of the studied population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study that evaluated patients admitted between December 2009 and May 2011 with a diagnosis of SAH secondary to cerebral aneurysm rupture...
October 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Julianne M Winters, Wade C Carruth, James R Spotila, David C Rostal, Harold W Avery
Anthropogenic stressors such as habitat loss are a global problem for wildlife. Coastal development in the United States has replaced estuary shorelines with hard erosion barriers. In Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) encounters these barriers when approaching upland beaches for nesting. To determine the effects of shoreline barriers on this threatened species' nesting abilities, we measured adrenocortical response (i.e., stress response) by comparing natural corticosterone and testosterone levels of 91 terrapins following in situ exposure to either an experimentally blocked, or open nesting beach...
September 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Berend Olivier
Psychogenic fever reflects a phenomenon where core body temperature is high (up to 41°C) or low-grade high (37-38°C) during either acute or chronic stress. Underlying mechanisms are distinct from infection-induced fever and involve the central and sympathetic nervous systems. Psychogenic fever appears a complex psychological, physiological and endocrinological phenomenon.
July 2015: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
Moe Thuzar, Ken K Y Ho
The recent discovery that functional brown adipose tissue (BAT) persists in adult humans has enkindled a renaissance in metabolic research, with a view of harnessing its thermogenic capacity to combat obesity. This review focuses on the advances in the regulation and the metabolic significance of BAT in humans. BAT activity in humans is stimulated by cold exposure and by several factors such as diet and metabolic hormones. BAT function is regulated at two levels: an acute process involving the stimulation of the intrinsic thermogenic activity of brown adipocytes and a chronic process of growth involving the proliferation of pre-existing brown adipocytes or differentiation to brown adipocytes of adipocytes from specific white adipose tissue depots...
July 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Vivian A Fonseca, George Grunberger, Henry Anhalt, Timothy S Bailey, Thomas Blevins, Satish K Garg, Yehuda Handelsman, Irl B Hirsch, Eric A Orzeck, Victor Lawrence Roberts, William Tamborlane
OBJECTIVE/METHODS: Barriers to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use continue to hamper adoption of this valuable technology for the management of diabetes. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology convened a public consensus conference February 20, 2016, to review available CGM data and propose strategies for expanding CGM access. RESULTS: Conference participants agreed that evidence supports the benefits of CGM in type 1 diabetes and that these benefits are likely to apply whenever intensive insulin therapy is used, regardless of diabetes type...
August 2016: Endocrine Practice
Zhuoyun Wu, Qing Tian, Feng Li, Junqiao Gao, Yan Liu, Meng Mao, Jing Liu, Shuyan Wang, Genmao Li, Dongyu Ge, Yingqiu Mao, Wei Zhang, Zhaolan Liu, Yuehan Song
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is manifested as a persistent mental and emotional condition after potentially life-threatening events. Different animal models of PTSD have been developed for neuro-pathophysiology and pharmacological evaluations. A single prolonged stress (SPS) induced animal model has demonstrated to result in specific neuro-endocrinological dysregulation, and behavior abnormalities observed in PTSD. However, animal studies of PTSD have mostly been performed at one time point after SPS exposure...
March 2016: Behavioural Processes
Stefan R Bornstein, Bruno Allolio, Wiebke Arlt, Andreas Barthel, Andrew Don-Wauchope, Gary D Hammer, Eystein S Husebye, Deborah P Merke, M Hassan Murad, Constantine A Stratakis, David J Torpy
OBJECTIVE: This clinical practice guideline addresses the diagnosis and treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency. PARTICIPANTS: The Task Force included a chair, selected by The Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee of the Endocrine Society, eight additional clinicians experienced with the disease, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The co-sponsoring associations (European Society of Endocrinology and the American Association for Clinical Chemistry) had participating members...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ann Genovese, Teri Smith, Holly Kramer, Marilyn Augustyn
Beth, whom you have cared for in your primary care practice since she was born, is a 15-year-old adolescent girl with no prior psychiatric history who developed significant symptoms of clinical depression, associated with self-injurious behavior (cutting on wrists, arms, and thighs). She denied any known precipitant for her depression.She is a ninth grade honors student in the gifted program at a local high school and is described as a talented musician, playing multiple musical instruments as well as soccer and basketball...
January 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Daniel Erlij, Beatriz Calderón, Angela Rivera, Cristián Mella, Ximena Valladares, Emilio Roessler, María Teresa Rivera, Gonzalo Méndez
Paraneoplastic syndromes can be presented in multiple ways, which include endocrinological, hematologic, rheumatologic and nephrologic manifestations. While most of the publications described solid tumors as responsible for these manifestations, hematologic neoplasms are important cause to consider as part of the differential diagnosis. We report the case of a 46 year-old man with seronegative symmetric polyarthritis of large and small joints associated with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with deposits of immune complexes and acute impairment of renal function, as part of a paraneoplastic syndrome secondary of a classical Hodgkin lymphoma with bone marrow invasion, which reversed completely with chemotherapy treatment...
September 2016: Reumatología Clinica
Neil F Goodman, Rhoda H Cobin, Walter Futterweit, Jennifer S Glueck, Richard S Legro, Enrico Carmina
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women around the world. This document, produced by the collaboration of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the Androgen Excess Society aims to highlight the most important clinical issues confronting physicians and their patients with PCOS. It is a summary of current best practices in 2014. Insulin resistance is believed to play an intrinsic role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. The mechanism by which insulin resistance or insulin give rise to oligomenorrhea and hyperandrogenemia, however, is unclear...
December 2015: Endocrine Practice
S Moradi, A Keshavarzi, S-M Tabatabaee
OBJECTIVE: Stress hyperglycemia is a transient increase in blood glucose during an acute physiological stress in the absence of diabetes. Stress hyperglycemia can be occurred in certain clinical conditions such as trauma, burns, sepsis and strokes in adults. In this study we aimed to evaluate the incidence of stress hyperglycemia among patients admitted to the Firouzgar hospital. METHOD: In this analytical cross sectional study, all patients who referred to emergency department of Firouzgar hospital due to one of the causes of trauma, myocardial infarction (MI), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), head trauma, sepsis, CVA, and abdominal surgery and had stress hyperglycemia during 2012-2014 were evaluated...
November 2015: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
S Emir, M Aydin, G Can, I Bali, O Yildirim, M Öznur, Z D Yildiz, S Sözen, A Gürel
OBJECTIVE: Cancer-related inflammation affects many aspects of malignancy, including proliferation and survival of malignant cells, angiogenesis, and therapeutic response. Some biomarkers representing the degree of systemic inflammation, such as the Glasgow prognostic score, NLR and PLR, have been shown to have prognostic value in many kinds of cancer patients. Aim of this study to investigate to compare neutrophil/leukocyte (NLR) and platelet/lymphocyte (PLR) ratios of the patients with colorectal neoplastic polyps and colorectal cancer (CRC) and tried to determine whether this could be used as a biomarker in follow up of the patients with neoplastic polyps...
October 2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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