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Acute neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737987/factors-associated-with-patient-preferences-for-disease-modifying-therapies-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Ana L Hincapie, Jonathan Penm, Craig F Burns
BACKGROUND: Treatment adherence in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is essential to reduce the rate of acute neurological attacks, severity of relapses, and hospitalizations and to slow its progression. Adherence rates in MS patients have been shown to be affected by multiple factors, including physical or cognitive difficulties, perceived lack of treatment efficacy, treatment-related adverse events, injection anxiety, and frequency of administration. OBJECTIVE: To elicit the preferences of MS patients for noneconomic and economic attributes of current disease-modifying therapies (DMTs)...
August 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737865/unusual-increase-of-cases-of-myelitis-in-a-pediatric-hospital-in-argentina
#2
Guadalupe Pérez, María T Rosanova, María C Freire, María I Paz, Silvina Ruvinsky, Carlos Rugilo, Víctor Ruggieri, Daniel Cisterna, Soledad Martiren, Cristina Lema, Andrea Savransky, Soledad González, Leila Martínez, Diana Viale, Rosa Bologna
INTRODUCTION: The association between enterovirus D68 and acute flaccid myelitis was first described in the United States in 2014. Since then, sporadic cases have been reported in Canada and Europe. This study describes a series of cases of acute flaccid myelitis at Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan," in Buenos Aires, Argentina, during 2016. METHODS: Descriptive, retrospective study. All patients with acute flaccid myelitis and lesions in the spinal cord involving the gray matter, as observed in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, hospitalized from 04/01/2016 to 07/01/2016, were included in the study...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736353/sport-related-structural-brain-injury-three-cases-of-subdural-hemorrhage-in-american-high-school-football
#3
Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Ryan M Gardner, Andrew W Kuhn, Gary S Solomon, Christopher M Bonfield, Scott L Zuckerman
BACKGROUND: The risk of sport-related concussion (SRC) has emerged as a major public health concern. In rare instances, sport-related head injuries can be even more severe, such as subdural hemorrhage, epidural hemorrhage, or malignant cerebral edema. Unlike SRCs, sport-related structural brain injury (SRSBI) is rare, may require neurosurgical intervention, and can lead to permanent neurologic deficit or death. Data characterizing SRSBI is limited and many have recognized the need to better understand these catastrophic brain injuries...
July 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736324/survival-and-neurological-outcome-in-the-elderly-after-in-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#4
G Hirlekar, T Karlsson, S Aune, A Ravn-Fischer, P Albertsson, J Herlitz, B Libungan
BACKGROUND: There have been few studies of the outcome in elderly patients who have suffered in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and the association between cardiac arrest characteristics and survival. AIM: The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the survival and neurological outcome in the elderly after IHCA, and to identify which factors were associated with survival. METHODS: We investigated elderly IHCA patients (≥70years of age) who were registered in the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Registry 2007-2015...
July 20, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736035/propane-2-sulfonic-acid-octadec-9-enyl-amide-a-novel-ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-dual-agonist-protects-against-ischemia-induced-brain-damage-in-mice-by-inhibiting-inflammatory-responses
#5
Ying Li, Lanxi Xu, Kaiyue Zeng, Zhentian Xu, Daqin Suo, Lu Peng, Tong Ren, Zhiheng Sun, Wushuang Yang, Xin Jin, Lichao Yang
Propane-2-sulfonic acid octadec-9-enyl-amide (N15), an analogue of oleoylethanolamide (OEA), is a novel PPARα/γ dual agonist. Our previous studies verified the positive effects of OEA on the acute and delayed stages of cerebral ischemia. However, it is not clear whether N15 is effective against ischemic cerebral injury. In the present study, male Kunming mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). To evaluate its preventive effects, N15 (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg, ip) was administered for 3 days before ischemia...
July 20, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735650/prognostic-utility-of-neuroinjury-biomarkers-in-post-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-ohca-patient-management
#6
S S Gul, K W Huesgen, K K Wang, K Mark, J A Tyndall
Despite aggressive intervention, patients who survive an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) generally have very poor prognoses, with nationwide survival rates of approximately 10-20%. Approximately 90% of survivors will have moderate to severe neurological injury ranging from moderate cognitive impairment to brain death. Currently, few early prognostic indicators are considered reliable enough to support patients' families and clinicians' in their decisions regarding medical futility. Blood biomarkers of neurological injury after OHCA may be of prognostic value in these cases...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735240/therapeutic-effects-of-l-cysteine-in-newborn-mice-subjected-to-hypoxia-ischemia-brain-injury-via-the-cbs-h2s-system-role-of-oxidative-stress-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#7
Song Liu, Danqing Xin, Lingxiao Wang, Tiantian Zhang, Xuemei Bai, Tong Li, Yunkai Xie, Hao Xue, Shishi Bo, Dexiang Liu, Zhen Wang
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury is a major cause of neonatal death and neurological dysfunction. H2S has been shown to protect against hypoxia-induced injury and apoptosis of neurons. L-Cysteine is catalyzed by cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in the brain and sequentially produces endogenous H2S. The present study was designed to investigate whether L-Cysteine could attenuate the acute brain injury and improve neurobehavioral outcomes following HI brain injury in neonatal mice by releasing endogenous H2S...
July 14, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735140/isolated-subcallosal-artery-infarction-secondary-to-localised-cerebral-vasospasm-of-anterior-communicating-artery-complex-following-subarachnoid-haemorrhage
#8
Santhosh Kumar Kannath, Virender Malik, Jayadevan Enakshy Rajan
BACKGROUND: Subcallosal artery (ScA) infarction is a well-recognised, but uncommon complication of surgical treatment of anterior communicating artery (ACOM) aneurysms. CASE DESCRIPTION: An elderly man presented with massive subarachnoid haemorrhage due to left posterior communicating artery aneurysm with thick clots in the anterior interhemispheric fissure. The aneurysm was coiled with balloon protection and later, on the fifth day of ictus, the patient became acutely confused and developed memory disturbances...
July 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734938/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-and-acute-non-traumatic-neurological-injury-a-prospective-multicentre-study
#9
Harry R Dalton, Jeroen J J van Eijk, Pascal Cintas, Richie G Madden, Catherine Jones, Glynn W Webb, Benjamin Norton, Julie Pique, Suzanne Lutgens, Nikki Devooght-Johnson, Kathy Woolson, John Baker, Maria Saunders, Liz Househam, James Griffiths, Florence Abravanel, Jacques Izopet, Nassim Kamar, Nens van Alfen, Baziel G M van Engelen, Jeremy G Hunter, Annemiek A van der Eijk, Richard P Bendall, Brendan N Mclean, Bart C Jacobs
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: HEV has been associated with a number of neurological syndromes, but causality has not yet been established. AIM: to explore the relationship between HEV and neurological illness by prospective HEV-testing of patients presenting with acute non-traumatic neurological injury. METHODS: 464 consecutive patients presenting to hospital with acute non-traumatic neurological illnesses were tested for HEV by serology and PCR from 4 centres in the UK, France and the Netherlands...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733751/evaluation-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-metoprolol-infusion-for-children-and-adolescents-with-hypertensive-crises-a-retrospective-case-series
#10
Rola Saqan, Hanan Thiabat
BACKGROUND: Acute severe hypertension occurs infrequently in pediatric patients and, consequently, data on the efficacy and safety of most antihypertensive agents, as well as the adverse events associated with these agents, are very limited in this population. In this case series, we evaluated the use of metoprolol infusion in children with hypertensive emergencies. METHODS: The study population comprised children younger than 18 years who had been admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit at King Abdullah University Hospital with blood pressure above the 99th percentile for age, height, and sex and who were symptomatic at the time of presentation...
July 21, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733264/the-impact-of-toxicities-on-first-year-outcomes-after-ex-vivo-cd34-selected-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-in-adults-with-hematologic-malignancies
#11
Satyajit Kosuri, Diego Adrianzen Herrera, Michael Scordo, Gunjan L Shah, Christina Cho, Sean M Devlin, Molly A Maloy, Jimmy Nieves, Taylor Borrill, Dean C Carlow, Scott T Avecilla, Richard C Meagher, Richard J O'Reilly, Esperanza B Papadopoulos, Ann A Jakubowski, Guenther Koehne, Boglarka Gyurkocza, Hugo Castro-Malaspina, Brian C Shaffer, Roni Tamari, Sergio A Giralt, Miguel-Angel Perales
Factors that impact first year morbidity and mortality in adults undergoing myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with ex-vivo CD34+ selection have not been previously reported. We assessed all toxicities ≥ grade 3 from the start of conditioning to date of death, relapse, or last contact in 200 patients during the first year post-transplantation, identifying 1885 individual toxicities among 17 organ-based toxicity groups. The most prevalent toxicities in the 1(st) year were of infectious, metabolic, hematologic, oral/GI, hepatic, cardiac and pulmonary etiologies...
July 18, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732770/pharmacologic-modeling-of-primary-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-dysfunction-in-zebrafish
#12
James Byrnes, Rebecca Ganetzky, Richard Lightfoot, Michael Tzeng, Eiko Nakamaru-Ogiso, Christoph Seiler, Marni J Falk
Mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) disease is a heterogeneous and highly morbid group of energy deficiency disorders for which no proven effective therapies exist. Robust vertebrate animal models of primary RC dysfunction are needed to explore the effects of variation in RC disease subtypes, tissue-specific manifestations, and major pathogenic factors contributing to each disorder, as well as their pre-clinical response to therapeutic candidates. We have developed a series of zebrafish (Danio rerio) models that inhibit, to variable degrees, distinct aspects of RC function, and enable quantification of animal development, survival, behaviors, and organ-level treatment effects on function as well as mitochondrial biochemistry and physiology...
July 18, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731207/polyclonal-and-monoclonal-antibodies-for-treating-acute-rejection-episodes-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#13
REVIEW
Angela C Webster, Sunny Wu, Krishna Tallapragada, Min Young Park, Jeremy R Chapman, Sue J Carr
BACKGROUND: Registry data shows that the incidence of acute rejection has been steadily falling. Approximately 10% to 35% of kidney recipients will undergo treatment for at least one episode of acute rejection within the first post-transplant year. Treatment options include pulsed steroid therapy, the use of an antibody preparation, the alteration of background immunosuppression, or combinations of these options. Over recent years, new treatment strategies have evolved, and in many parts of the world there has been an increase in use of tacrolimus and mycophenolate and a reduction in the use of cyclosporin and azathioprine use as baseline immunosuppression to prevent acute rejection...
July 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730843/clinical-value-of-st-segment-change-after-return-of-spontaneous-cardiac-arrest-and-emergent-coronary-angiography-in-patients-with-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-importance-of-vasospastic-angina
#14
Kazuya Tateishi, Daisuke Abe, Tooru Iwama, Yuichi Hamabe, Kazutaka Aonuma, Akira Sato
BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between initial ST-segment change after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and the incidence of acute coronary lesions in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), and clinical outcomes of patients with OHCA caused by vasospastic angina pectoris (VSA). METHODS: Among 2779 OHCA patients in our institution, all patients with ROSC underwent emergent coronary angiography (CAG) except for those with an obvious extra-cardiac cause of OHCA...
July 1, 2017: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730332/-a%C3%A2-phase-model-of-trauma-rehabilitation-how-can-we-avoid-the-rehab-hole
#15
Stefan Simmel, Wolf-Dieter Müller, Christoph Reimertz, Christian Kühne, Jean-Jacques Glaesener
Advances in the rescue chain and first aid of polytrauma patients, which have consequently increased their chance of survival, have led to an increase in demands for rehabilitation. However, there is still a large hole in the continuity of rehabilitation between acute patient care and in-patient rehabilitation, the so-called "rehab-hole". The consequences are untapped rehabilitation potential, loss of strength, endurance and motivation as well as impairment of function of the patient.Based on the phase model of neurological/neurosurgical rehabilitation, we propose a step model for the rehabilitation of polytrauma patients that ensures an uninterrupted chain of rehabilitation...
July 20, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730313/derivatization-free-lc-ms-ms-method-for-estrogen-quantification-in-mouse-brain-highlights-a-local-metabolic-regulation-after-oral-versus-subcutaneous-administration
#16
Ecaterina Lozan, Svitlana Shinkaruk, Shaam Alice Al Abed, Valérie Lamothe, Mylène Potier, Aline Marighetto, Jean-Marie Schmitter, Catherine Bennetau-Pelissero, Corinne Buré
17β-Estradiol (17β-E2) is a steroid with pleiotropic actions. In addition to being a sexual hormone, it is also produced in the brain where it modulates the reproductive axis. It has been shown that 17β-E2 also acts on synaptic plasticity and plays a role in neurological pathways and in neurodegenerative diseases. Assaying this steroid in the brain is thus interesting to improve our knowledge of 17β-E2 effects in the brain. However, 17β-E2 concentration in the central nervous system has been reported to be of a few nanograms per gram wet weight (nanomolar range concentration); therefore, its quantification requires both an efficient extraction process and a sensitive detection method...
July 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729825/dexmedetomidine-protects-mouse-brain-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-inhibiting-neuronal-autophagy-through-up-regulating-hif-1%C3%AE
#17
Cong Luo, Ming-Wen Ouyang, Ying-Ying Fang, Shu-Ji Li, Quan Zhou, Jun Fan, Zai-Sheng Qin, Tao Tao
Stroke is the leading cause of death in China and produces a heavy socio-economic burden in the past decades. Previous studies have shown that dexmedetomidine (DEX) is neuroprotective after cerebral ischemia. However, the role of autophagy during DEX-mediated neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia is still unknown. In this study, we found that post-conditioning with DEX and DEX+3-methyladenine (3-MA) (autophagy inhibitor) reduced brain infarct size and improved neurological deficits compared with DEX+RAPA (autophagy inducer) 24 h after transient middle cerebral artery artery occlusion (tMCAO) model in mice...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725968/microglial-mediated-pdgf-cc-activation-increases-cerebrovascular-permeability-during-ischemic-stroke
#18
Enming Joseph Su, Chunzhang Cao, Linda Fredriksson, Ingrid Nilsson, Christina Stefanitsch, Tamara K Stevenson, Juanjuan Zhao, Margret Ragsdale, Yu-Yo Sun, Manuel Yepes, Chia-Yi Kuan, Ulf Eriksson, Dudley K Strickland, Daniel A Lawrence, Li Zhang
Treatment of acute ischemic stroke with the thrombolytic tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) can significantly improve neurological outcomes; however, thrombolytic therapy is associated with an increased risk of intra-cerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Previously, we demonstrated that during stroke tPA acting on the parenchymal side of the neurovascular unit (NVU) can increase blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and ICH through activation of latent platelet-derived growth factor-CC (PDGF-CC) and signaling by the PDGF receptor-α (PDGFRα)...
July 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725658/mesenchymal-stem-cells-overexpressing-interleukin-10-promote-neuroprotection-in-experimental-acute-ischemic-stroke
#19
Masataka Nakajima, Chikako Nito, Kota Sowa, Satoshi Suda, Yasuhiro Nishiyama, Aki Nakamura-Takahashi, Yuko Nitahara-Kasahara, Kiwamu Imagawa, Tohru Hirato, Masayuki Ueda, Kazumi Kimura, Takashi Okada
Interleukin (IL)-10 is a contributing factor to neuroprotection of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation after ischemic stroke. Our aim was to increase therapeutic effects by combining MSCs and ex vivo IL-10 gene transfer with an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector using a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 90 min MCAO followed by intravenous administration of MSCs alone or IL-10 gene-transferred MSCs (MSC/IL-10) at 0 or 3 hr after ischemia reperfusion...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725183/bile-acid-mediated-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-2-signaling-promotes-neuroinflammation-during-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-mice
#20
Matthew McMillin, Gabriel Frampton, Stephanie Grant, Shamyal Khan, Juan Diocares, Anca Petrescu, Amy Wyatt, Jessica Kain, Brandi Jefferson, Sharon DeMorrow
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric complication that occurs due to deteriorating hepatic function and this syndrome influences patient quality of life, clinical management strategies and survival. During acute liver failure, circulating bile acids increase due to a disruption of the enterohepatic circulation. We previously identified that bile acid-mediated signaling occurs in the brain during HE and contributes to cognitive impairment. However, the influences of bile acids and their downstream signaling pathways on HE-induced neuroinflammation have not been assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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