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M A Bakhrebah, M S Nassar, M S Alsuabeyl, W A Zaher, S A Meo
OBJECTIVE: Infectious diseases are one of the prime causes of death worldwide. An innovative sequence specific editing technology "Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)" has been tested on a broad range of microorganisms to target and destroy invading foreign DNA to human cells or tissues. This study aimed to discuss the mechanism and therapeutic usage of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology in the management of various infectious disease pathogens...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
José Eduardo Mateus, Carlos Silva, Sofia Beirão, Jorge Pimentel
Although foreign body ingestion is a common occurrence, perforation and penetration of the gastrointestinal tract is unusual and the development of a hepatic abscess is even more rare. The authors describe two cases of fish bone perforation of the gastrointestinal tract with hepatic perforation and abscess formation, from distinctive age groups and varying presentation, although both developed septic shock. The lack of history of ingestion of foreign bodies, non-specificity of both clinical presentation and complementary examinations all play a role in delaying the diagnosis and therefore in the prognosis itself...
May 30, 2018: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Ravikiran Vernekar, Maninder Singh Setia
Ingestion of foreign object is a common problem with children. These foreign bodies (FBs) can be in the respiratory tract of the aerodigestive tract. A 14-month-old male child presented to the emergency department of our hospital at 6.30 pm with irritability and continuous crying. On radiology, we found that the metallic body in the shape of a cycle was lodged in the upper esophagus. We decided to remove the FB endoscopically using an esophagoscope. We used meticulous and gentle manipulation around the edge of the metallic FB and did over a sufficient amount of time so as to dislodge the body from the impacted esophageal mucosa without causing any trauma or bleeding from the adjacent site...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Tomas Log, Svetlana Skurtveit, Aage Tverdal, Kari Furu, Ingeborg Hartz
Purpose To examine and compare dispensing of prescribed analgesics between young people with parents from countries with a Muslim majority and those with parents born in Norway. Methods Our study-population constituted 11,542 adolescents from the Norwegian Youth Health Surveys conducted in 2000-2003. Users and non-users of prescribed analgesics at baseline were analysed separately. Self-reported information on their parents' birth country was used to classify them into one of the three predefined groups: Norway, countries with a Muslim majority or others...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Emma Vanderveken, Julie Vastmans, Tom Verbelen, Peter Verbrugghe, Nele Famaey, Eric Verbeken, Tom Treasure, Filip Rega
OBJECTIVES: The Ross procedure involves replacing a patient's diseased aortic valve with their own pulmonary valve. The most common failure mode is dilatation of the autograft. Various strategies to reinforce the autograft have been proposed. Personalized external aortic root support has been shown to be effective in stabilizing the aortic root in Marfan patients. In this study, the use of a similar external mesh to support a pulmonary artery autograft was evaluated. METHODS: The pulmonary artery was translocated as an interposition autograft in the descending thoracic aortas of 10 sheep...
April 17, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Joseph Billingsley, Debra Lieberman, Joshua M Tybur
Why is disgust sensitivity associated with socially conservative political views? Is it because socially conservative ideologies mitigate the risks of infectious disease, whether by promoting out-group avoidance or by reinforcing norms that sustain antipathogenic practices? Or might it be because socially conservative ideologies promote moral standards that advance a long-term, as opposed to a short-term, sexual strategy? Recent attempts to test these two explanations have yielded differing results and conflicting interpretations...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Akiko Uemura, Toshiharu Fukayama, Takashi Tanaka, Yasuko Hasegawa-Baba, Makoto Shibutani, Ryou Tanaka
Background : The need to prevent postoperative adhesions after surgery has been considered a significant challenge in thoracic surgery, especially with the advent of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). While preventive materials for postoperative adhesions have been studied for many years, they are all still in the development phases. Methods : In this animal study, an insoluble hyaluronic acid membrane was used in VATS for wedge resection to test its operability and to examine the body's response to the membrane...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Takehiko Kenzaka, Madoka Yasui, Takashi Baba, Masao Nasu, Katsuji Tani
 Recent studies have shown that the genome of Legionella pneumophila is characterized by many foreign genes from a variety of eukaryotes. The eukaryotic like proteins are known to play a role in its multiplication within host cells; however, their evolutionary genetics of L. pneumophila in environments is unknown. In this study, we examined the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rate of eukaryotic like domain encoding genes among L. pneumophila strains. In silico analysis revealed that the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rate in F-box domain gene (lpp0233) was higher than those in other eukaryotic like domain and protein encoding genes and housekeeping genes...
2018: Biocontrol Science
Mark Collins, Adam McGauvran, Bassem Elhassan
High-pressure injection injuries of the hand are rare, but potentially devastating injuries. The amount of tissue damage is dependent on the magnitude of the pressure generated by the device and the composition of the injected material. The standard of care is emergent surgical debridement of the injected material and devitalized tissue. Although, preoperative advanced imaging is not routinely pursued, MRI may be helpful in determining the anatomic distribution of the foreign material, and associated soft tissue or osseous injury...
June 16, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
Chao Shi, Zhi-Chun Jing, De-Gang Yang, Jian-Yu Zhu
BACKGROUND: Type 1 leprosy reaction, also known as "reversal reaction", is related to cellular immune responses to Mycobacterium leprae antigens. The risk factors that trigger type 1 leprosy reactions are poorly understood. Leprosy with concurrent tetanus is rare, and there are no publicly available reports of a leprosy patient infected with tetanus that induced type 1 leprosy reactions. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old Chinese Han female presented to our hospital with symptoms of erythematous plaques and pain over her left upper limb for 2 days and foreign object sensation in her throat for 3 days...
June 17, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Luna Chang, Shu-Chuan Chen, Shu-Ling Hung
Based on 2015 annual report of foreign spouse populations were above 507,266 people in Taiwan. Most of them (68%) came from Mainland China, 29% from south-east Asia. 92% of foreign spouses were female (2015). Therefore, a challenge arises for nursing students to provide care to clients with multiple cultural variations in Taiwan. The study objectives were to explore the related factors of cultural care competence and estimate the effects of a short-term reinforced cultural course. The study used a quasi-experimental design...
May 19, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
Naveen Parmar, Pragya Chandrakar, Preeti Vishwakarma, Kavita Singh, Kalyan Mitra, Susanta Kar
IL-1R/TLR signaling plays a significant role in sensing harmful foreign pathogens and mounting effective innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the precise mechanism by which Leishmania donovani, an obligate intramacrophagic pathogen, breaches IL-1R/TLR signaling and host-protective immunity remains obscure. In this study, we report the novel biphasic role of Toll-interacting protein (Tollip), a negative regulator of the IL-1R/TLR pathway, in the disease progression of experimental visceral leishmaniasis...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Anne K Lorentzen, Luit Penninga
Greenland is not only the largest island in the world, it is also the least densely populated country on the globe. The majority of Greenland's landmass lies within the Arctic Circle. Weather conditions in Arctic areas can be extreme, thus exposing locals and visitors to a high risk of acquiring frostbite injuries. More than two thirds of Greenland is covered by a permanent ice sheet, and temperatures can drop to below -70°C. In addition, frequent storms, occupational exposure, and alcohol all contribute to an increased risk for frostbite injury...
June 12, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Alexandra Caniceiro, Sandra Plaut, Élyse Recoupe, Audrey Veaux
Cultural competency assumes an even greater dimension with foreign patients or when practising abroad. After travelling to Cambodia with the aim of enriching their nursing practices, four student nurses share their experiences, questions and reflections in this area.
June 2018: Revue de L'infirmière
E Chikvaidze, T Gogoladze, A Miminoshvili
Our results showed, that EPR method using DMPO spin-trapping is characterized with high sensitivity, which enables to define anti oxidative activity of very small concentration of major antioxidants in Georgian and foreign red and white wines and in red wine. It was concluded, that red as well as white wines have very high anti oxidative activities. Herewith it has to be mentioned, that anti oxidative activity of red wine does not always correlate with the total concentration of phenol in it and mostly depends on the concentration of different major antioxidants...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Jian Wang, Xiaobo Tang, Peilong Dong, Zhiyun Li
Objective: To explore the effectiveness of high strength suture fixation in treatment of patellar transverse fracture. Methods: Between June 2014 and June 2016, 38 patients with the patellar transverse fracture were treated with high strength suture internal fixation. There were 24 males and 14 females with the age of 26 to 64 years (mean, 45 years). There were 6 cases of accident injury and 32 cases of crashing injury. The time interval between injury and surgery was 2-8 days (mean, 5 days)...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
David L Leverenz, Christopher Henderson, Ankoor Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to provide the reader with an updated summary of the cutaneous manifestations of systemic sarcoidosis, with a particular emphasis on the predilection of sarcoidosis for scars, tattoos, and other areas of traumatized skin. RECENT FINDINGS: While the mechanism underlying the propensity for traumatized skin to develop sarcoidosis lesions remains unclear, several theories have been proposed including the idea that cutaneous sarcoidosis represents an exuberant, antigen-driven foreign-body response, as well as the theory that traumatized skin represents an immunocompromised district with altered local immune trafficking and neural signaling...
June 14, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Georgia Chronaki, Michael Wigelsworth, Marc D Pell, Sonja A Kotz
Humans have an innate set of emotions recognised universally. However, emotion recognition also depends on socio-cultural rules. Although adults recognise vocal emotions universally, they identify emotions more accurately in their native language. We examined developmental trajectories of universal vocal emotion recognition in children. Eighty native English speakers completed a vocal emotion recognition task in their native language (English) and foreign languages (Spanish, Chinese, and Arabic) expressing anger, happiness, sadness, fear, and neutrality...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ying Dai, Hua-Qiang Zhai, Lian-Yu Xiao, Xiao-Song Shan, Zhi-Han Liu, Ning-Ning Wang, Si-Yu Li, Guo-Xiu Liu
To study the evolution of Chinese ancient and modern pharmacopoeia standards and compare the domestic and foreign pharmacopoeias, further understand the international requirements on chrysanthemum quality, and establish a more suitable and modern standard system for high quality Chrysanthemi Flos pieces. Newly Revised Materia Medica, Welfare Pharmacy, Collected Essentials of Species of Materia Medica (Bencao Pinhui Jingyao), Chinese Pharmacopoeia and other herbal remedies in various generations were reviewed to summarize the evolution of domestic standards on Chrysanthemi Flos pieces...
May 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Angela Cannas, Serena Camassa, Michela Sali, Ornella Butera, Antonio Mazzarelli, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Antonino Di Caro, Giovanni Delogu, Enrico Girardi
BACKGROUND: The presence in a geographic area of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains belonging to different phylogeographic lineages and showing different drug susceptibility patterns may suggest recent transmission, with implications in terms of patient clinical management and disease control. The aim of this study was to carry out a preliminary epidemiological investigation of tuberculosis (TB) cases in Rome. METHODS: A total of 232 Mtb isolates, collected from new or previously treated patients, admitted between 2008 and 2014 at 2 hospital settings in Rome with a diagnosis of TB, were analyzed by spoligotyping and analyzing 24 variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit (MIRU) loci...
June 14, 2018: Chemotherapy
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