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Bret Pasch, Rachel Sanford, Steven M Phelps
Interspecific aggression between sibling species may enhance discrimination of competitors when recognition errors are costly, but proximate mechanisms mediating increased discriminative ability are unclear. We studied behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying responses to conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in Alston's singing mouse (Scotinomys teguina), a species in which males sing to repel rivals. We performed playback experiments using males in allopatry and sympatry with a dominant heterospecific (Scotinomys xerampelinus) and examined song-evoked induction of egr-1 in the auditory system to examine how neural tuning modulates species-specific responses...
October 18, 2016: Animal Cognition
Vincent Hok, Bruno Poucet, Éléonore Duvelle, Étienne Save, Francesca Sargolini
The increasing use of mice models in cognitive tasks that were originally designed for rats raises crucial questions about cross-species comparison in the study of spatial cognition. The present review focuses on the major neuroethological differences existing between mice and rats, with particular attention given to the neurophysiological basis of space coding. While little difference is found in the basic properties of space representation in these two species, it appears that the stability of this representation changes more drastically over time in mice than in rats...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Carolina E Reisenman, Hong Lei, Pablo G Guerenstein
Harmful insects include pests of crops and storage goods, and vectors of human and animal diseases. Throughout their history, humans have been fighting them using diverse methods. The fairly recent development of synthetic chemical insecticides promised efficient crop and health protection at a relatively low cost. However, the negative effects of those insecticides on human health and the environment, as well as the development of insect resistance, have been fueling the search for alternative control tools...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Julie M Butler, Karen E Field, Karen P Maruska
Fishes use multimodal signals during both inter- and intra-sexual displays to convey information about their sex, reproductive state, and social status. These complex behavioral displays can include visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and hydrodynamic signals, and the relative role of each sensory channel in these complex multi-sensory interactions is a common focus of neuroethology. The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects near-body water movements and is implicated in a variety of behaviors including schooling, rheotaxis, social communication, and prey detection...
2016: PloS One
Wan Dong, Yang Xian, Wang Yuan, Zhu Huifeng, Wang Tao, Liu Zhiqiang, Feng Shan, Fu Ya, Wang Hongli, Wang Jinghuan, Qin Lei, Zou Li, Qi Hongyi
ETHNOBOTANICAL RELEVANCE: Catalpol is the main active component of the radix from Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, which has pleiotropic protective effects in neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic stroke, metabolic disorders and others AIM: Catalpol has been shown to have neuroprotective, neurorepair, and angiogenesis effects following ischemic brain injury. However, its molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. In previous studies, the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway was found to play a role in neuroprotection and angiogenesis...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Diana Mihova, Julio C Hechavarría
A number of studies have successfully used electrocardiogram (ECG) signals to characterize complex physiological phenomena such as associative learning in bats. However, at present, no thorough characterization of the structure of ECG signals is available for these animals. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively characterize features of the ECG signals in the bat species Carollia perspicillata, a species that is commonly used in neuroethology studies. Our results show that the ECG signals of C. perspicillata follow the typical mammalian pattern, in that they are composed by a P wave, QRS complex and a T wave...
July 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Noga Zilkha, Yizhak Sofer, Yamit Beny, Tali Kimchi
A typical current study investigating the neurobiology of animal behavior is likely restricted to male subjects, of standard inbred mouse strains, tested in simple behavioral assays under laboratory conditions. This approach enables the use of advanced molecular tools, alongside standardization and reproducibility, and has led to tremendous discoveries. However, the cost is a loss of genetic and phenotypic diversity and a divergence from ethologically-relevant behaviors. Here we review the pros and cons in behavioral neuroscience studies of the new era, focusing on reproductive behaviors in rodents...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Érica Maria Granjeiro, Glauber S F da Silva, Humberto Giusti, José Antonio Oliveira, Mogens Lesner Glass, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the behavioral, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses elicited by acute exposure to both hypercapnic and hypoxic environments in Wistar audiogenic rats (WARs). The WAR strain represents a genetic animal model of epilepsy. METHODS: Behavioral analyses were performed using neuroethological methods, and flowcharts were constructed to illustrate behavioral findings. The body plethysmography method was used to obtain pulmonary ventilation (VE) measurements, and body temperature (Tb) measurements were taken via temperature sensors implanted in the abdominal cavities of the animals...
2016: PloS One
Raphaël Olive, Sébastien Wolf, Alexis Dubreuil, Volker Bormuth, Georges Debrégeas, Raphaël Candelier
Awake animals unceasingly perceive sensory inputs with great variability of nature and intensity, and understanding how the nervous system manages this continuous flow of diverse information to get a coherent representation of the environment is arguably a central question in systems neuroscience. Rheotaxis, the ability shared by most aquatic species to orient toward a current and swim to hold position, is an innate and robust multi-sensory behavior that is known to involve the lateral line and visual systems...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
John H Krystal
The article by Latzman et al. in the current special issue utilizes a novel dataset consisting of behavioral, brain, and genomic data from a sample of 76 captive chimpanzees to make the case that negative affective expression is influenced by variation in the gene coding for arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A), in a sex-linked manner. A novel feature of this study is the ethological approach employed by the authors, i.e., the use of scratching as a behavioral indicator of negative affective state. I comment on conceptual and methodological aspects of this work, and consider how it interfaces with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework as described by Kozak and Cuthbert in their article for this issue...
March 2016: Psychophysiology
B Barrera-Bailón, J A C Oliveira, D E López, L J Muñoz, N Garcia-Cairasco, C Sancho
The present study aimed to investigate the behavioral and anticonvulsant effects of lamotrigine (LTG) on the genetic audiogenic seizure hamster (GASH:Sal), an animal model of audiogenic seizure that is in the validation process. To evaluate the efficiency of acute and chronic treatments with LTG, GASH:Sals were treated with LTG either acutely via intraperitoneal injection (5-20mg/kg) or chronically via oral administration (20-25mg/kg/day). Their behavior was assessed via neuroethological analysis, and the anticonvulsant effect of LTG was evaluated based on the appearance and the severity of seizures...
February 11, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Sonia Pascoal, Peter Moran, Nathan W Bailey
A study of tropical crickets suggests that a twitchy response to ultrasonic bat calls has been co-opted for mate location. The neuroethological approach picks apart some surprising evolutionary steps that could inform the widespread occurrence of complex duetting behaviour.
January 25, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Si-Da Wang, Shu-Yuan Liang, Xin-Hong Liao, Xiang-Fa Deng, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Chun-Yan Liao, Lei Wang, Shi Tang, Zhi-Xian Li
OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlation between pathological and ultrasound changes applying conventional ultrasound, Color Doppler ultrasound andVirtual Touch Tissue Quantification (VTQ) technique in newborn hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) rat models. To provide theoretical basis for early diagnosis and treatment of HIBD neonatal. METHODS: A total of 90 newborn Wistar rats were divided into ischemia, asphyxia and control group according to different HIBD molding methods...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Michael Thoma, Bill S Hansson, Markus Knaden
In their natural environment, insects such as the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster are bombarded with a huge amount of chemically distinct odorants. To complicate matters even further, the odors detected by the insect nervous system usually are not single compounds but mixtures whose composition and concentration ratios vary. This leads to an almost infinite amount of different olfactory stimuli which have to be evaluated by the nervous system. To understand which aspects of an odor stimulus determine its evaluation by the fly, it is therefore desirable to efficiently examine odor-guided behavior towards many odorants and odor mixtures...
2015: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Audrey Francisco Biagioni, Tayllon dos Anjos-Garcia, Farhad Ullah, Isaac René Fisher, Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Renato Leonardo de Freitas, Tatiana Tocchini Felippotti, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
Inhibition of GABAergic neural inputs to dorsal columns of the periaqueductal grey matter (dPAG), posterior (PH) and dorsomedial (DMH) hypothalamic nuclei elicits distinct types of escape behavioural reactions. To differentiate between the variety and intensity of panic-related behaviours, the pattern of defensive behaviours evoked by blockade of GABAA receptors in the DMH, PH and dPAG were compared in a circular open-field test and in a recently designed polygonal arena. In the circular open-field, the defensive behaviours induced by microinjection of bicuculline into DMH and PH were characterised by defensive alertness behaviour and vertical jumps preceded by rearing exploratory behaviour...
February 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Stanley Heinze
Three recent studies have significantly advanced our understanding of the highly conserved central complex of the insect brain, showing how it provides an internal representation of body orientation, encodes behaviorally relevant sensory cues, and at the same time controls motor actions.
November 2, 2015: Current Biology: CB
Joseph A Sisneros, Peter H Rogers
Evidence suggests that the capacity for sound source localization is common to mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians, but surprisingly it is not known whether fish locate sound sources in the same manner (e.g., combining binaural and monaural cues) or what computational strategies they use for successful source localization. Directional hearing and sound source localization in fishes continues to be important topics in neuroethology and in the hearing sciences, but the empirical and theoretical work on these topics have been contradictory and obscure for decades...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Nicole H Scheidler, Cheng Liu, Kelly A Hamby, Frank G Zalom, Zainulabeuddin Syed
Drosophila have evolved strong mutualistic associations with yeast communities that best support their growth and survival, resulting in the development of novel niches. It has been suggested that flies recognize their cognate yeasts primarily based on the rich repertoire of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) derived from the yeasts. Thus, it remained an exciting avenue to study whether fly spp. detect and discriminate yeast strains based on odor alone, and if so, how such resolution is achieved by the olfactory system in flies...
2015: Scientific Reports
Liyan Qin, Xufang Dai
OBJECTIVE: To test the effect of sulindac on autistic behaviors in a rat model and explore the possible mechanisms. METHODS: Autistic rat models were established by a single intraperitoneal injection of sodium valproate (VPA) at 12.5 days of pregnancy. The pregnant rats were treated with oral sulindac at a daily dose of 80 mg/kg until weaning of the newborn rats (23 days after being born), which were divided into control, VPA treatment, sulindac treatment, and VPA+ sulindac treatment groups...
August 2015: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Bruce S McEwen, Christina R McKittrick, Kellie L K Tamashiro, Randall R Sakai
The discovery of adrenal steroid receptors outside of the hypothalamus in the hippocampus and other forebrain regions catalyzed research on the effects of stress upon cognitive function, emotions and self-regulatory behaviors as well as the molecular, cellular and neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying acute and chronic stress effects on the brain. Indeed, this work has shown that the brain is a plastic and vulnerable organ in the face of acute and chronic stress. The insight that Bob and Caroline Blanchard had in developing and interpreting findings using the Visible Burrow System model made an enormous contribution to the current view that the human brain is very sensitive to the social environment and to agonistic interactions between individuals...
July 1, 2015: Physiology & Behavior
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