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Neuroethology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943837/solving-the-neurogenesis-puzzle-looking-for-pieces-outside-the-traditional-box
#1
Mariela Faykoo-Martinez, Ilapreet Toor, Melissa M Holmes
The vast majority of what is considered fact about adult neurogenesis comes from research on laboratory mice and rats: where it happens, how it works, what it does. However, this relative exclusive focus on two rodent species has resulted in a bias on how we think about adult neurogenesis. While it might not prevent us from making conclusions about the evolutionary significance of the process or even prevent us from generalizing to diverse mammals, it certainly does not help us achieve these outcomes. Here, we argue that there is every reason to expect striking species differences in adult neurogenesis: where it happens, how it works, what it does...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919868/the-affective-core-of-the-self-a-neuro-archetypical-perspective-on-the-foundations-of-human-and-animal-subjectivity
#2
REVIEW
Antonio Alcaro, Stefano Carta, Jaak Panksepp
Psychologists usually considered the "Self" as an object of experience appearing when the individual perceives its existence within the conscious field. In accordance with such a view, the self-representing capacity of the human mind has been related to corticolimbic learning processes taking place within individual development. On the other hand, Carl Gustav Jung considered the Self as the core of our personality, in its conscious and unconscious aspects, as well as in its actual and potential forms. According to Jung, the Self originates from an inborn dynamic structure integrating the essential drives of our "brain-mind," and leading both to instinctual behavioral actions and to archetypal psychological experiences...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820864/diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-and-pathology-in-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rabbits-a-case-control-study
#3
Daowei Li, Xiaoming Wang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (SCI/R) injury and to explore its association with pathology. MATERIAL AND METHODS Japanese male long-eared rabbits were chosen and divided into 7 groups (8 rabbits in each group): control group (C group), sham-operation control group (S group), and 5 experimental groups (E-2 h group, E-24 h group, E-48 h group, E-7 d group, and E-14 d group). Tarlov scoring and immunohistochemical staining were used to assess hindlimb motor function and observe the expression of glial fiber acidic protein (GFAP), respectively...
August 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707159/introduction-to-the-special-issue-of-jcp-a-featuring-the-presidential-symposium-at-the-international-congress-of-neuroethology-icn-2016-in-montevideo
#4
EDITORIAL
P M Narins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690439/grasshopper-dcmd-an-undergraduate-electrophysiology-lab-for-investigating-single-unit-responses-to-behaviorally-relevant-stimuli
#5
Dieu My T Nguyen, Mark Roper, Stanislav Mircic, Robert M Olberg, Gregory J Gage
Avoiding capture from a fast-approaching predator is an important survival skill shared by many animals. Investigating the neural circuits that give rise to this escape behavior can provide a tractable demonstration of systems-level neuroscience research for undergraduate laboratories. In this paper, we describe three related hands-on exercises using the grasshopper and affordable technology to bring neurophysiology, neuroethology, and neural computation to life and enhance student understanding and interest...
2017: Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: JUNE: a Publication of FUN, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606853/proteomic-analysis-of-the-kissing-bug-rhodnius-prolixus-antenna
#6
Daniele S Oliveira, Nathalia F Brito, Fabio C S Nogueira, Monica F Moreira, Walter S Leal, Marcia R Soares, Ana C A Melo
Reception of odorants is essential in insects' life since the chemical signals in the environment (=semiochemicals) convey information about availability of hosts for a blood meal, mates for reproduction, sites for oviposition and other relevant information for fitness in the environment. Once they reach the antennae, these semiochemicals bind to odorant-binding proteins and are transported through the sensillar lymph until reach the odorant receptors. Such perireceptor events, particularly the interactions with transport proteins, are the liaison between the external environment and the entire neuroethological system and, therefore, a potential target to disrupt insect chemical communication...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551870/linking-neuroethology-to-the-chemical-biology-of-natural-products-interactions-between-cone-snails-and-their-fish-prey-a-case-study
#7
REVIEW
Baldomero M Olivera, Shrinivasan Raghuraman, Eric W Schmidt, Helena Safavi-Hemami
From a biological perspective, a natural product can be defined as a compound evolved by an organism for chemical interactions with another organism including prey, predator, competitor, pathogen, symbiont or host. Natural products hold tremendous potential as drug leads and have been extensively studied by chemists and biochemists in the pharmaceutical industry. However, the biological purpose for which a natural product evolved is rarely addressed. By focusing on a well-studied group of natural products-venom components from predatory marine cone snails-this review provides a rationale for why a better understanding of the evolution, biology and biochemistry of natural products will facilitate both neuroscience and the potential for drug leads...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539397/variations-on-a-theme-species-differences-in-synaptic-connectivity-do-not-predict-central-pattern-generator-activity
#8
Charuni A Gunaratne, Akira Sakurai, Paul S Katz
A fundamental question in comparative neuroethology is the extent to which synaptic wiring determines behavior vs. the extent to which it is constrained by phylogeny. We investigated this by examining the connectivity and activity of homologous neurons in different species. Melibe leonina and Dendronotus iris (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) have homologous neurons and exhibit homologous swimming behaviors consisting of alternating left-right (LR) whole body flexions. Yet, a homologous interneuron (Si1) differs between the two species in its participation in the swim motor pattern (SMP) and synaptic connectivity...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506440/the-wistar-audiogenic-rat-war-strain-and-its-contributions-to-epileptology-and-related-comorbidities-history-and-perspectives
#9
Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Eduardo H L Umeoka, José A Cortes de Oliveira
In the context of modeling epilepsy and neuropsychiatric comorbidities, we review the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR), first introduced to the neuroscience international community more than 25years ago. The WAR strain is a genetically selected reflex model susceptible to audiogenic seizures (AS), acutely mimicking brainstem-dependent tonic-clonic seizures and chronically (by audiogenic kindling), temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Seminal neuroethological, electrophysiological, cellular, and molecular protocols support the WAR strain as a suitable and reliable animal model to study the complexity and emergent functions typical of epileptogenic networks...
June 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429887/effects-of-aluminium-on-long-term-memory-in-rats-and-on-sirt1-mediating-the-transcription-of-creb-dependent-gene-in-hippocampus
#10
Dongying Yan, Cuihong Jin, Yang Cao, Lulu Wang, Xiaobo Lu, Jinghua Yang, Shengwen Wu, Yuan Cai
Epidemiological investigations have shown that aluminium (Al) is an important neurotoxicant which can be absorbed by organisms via various routes. Previous studies have confirmed that exposure to Al could cause neurodegenerative diseases, decline CREB phosphorylation and then down-regulate the transcription and protein expression of its target genes including BDNF. However, recent studies revealed that CREB activation alone was far from enough to activate the expression of long-term memory (LTM)-related genes; there might be other regulatory factors involved in this process...
April 21, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274488/the-neuroethological-paradox-of-animal-consciousness
#11
Yoram Gutfreund
The more advanced our understanding of the brain of an animal is, the less likely that this animal is a conscious being. This provocative logical paradox is explained and analyzed, leading to the conclusion that to advance understanding of animal consciousness it is necessary to resolve first how our consciousness is produced by our brain.
March 5, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260189/behavioral-pieces-of-neuroethological-puzzles
#12
Kenneth C Catania
In this review, I give a first-person account of surprising insights that have come from the behavioral dimension of neuroethological studies in my laboratory. These studies include the early attempts to understand the function of the nose in star-nosed moles and to explore its representation in the neocortex. This led to the discovery of a somatosensory fovea that parallels the visual fovea of primates in several ways. Subsequent experiments to investigate the assumed superiority of star-nosed moles to their relatives when locating food led to the unexpected discovery of stereo olfaction in common moles...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217773/finding-food-how-marine-invertebrates-use-chemical-cues-to-track-and-select-food
#13
REVIEW
Michiya Kamio, Charles D Derby
Benthic marine invertebrates sense molecules from other organisms and use these molecules to find and evaluate the organisms as sources of food. These processes depend on the detection and discrimination of molecules carried in sea water around and in the mouths of these animals. To understand these processes, researchers have studied how molecules released from food distribute in the sea water as a plume, how animals respond to the plume, the molecular identity of the attractants in the plume, the effect of turbulence on food-searching success, and how animals evaluate the quality of food and make decisions to eat or not...
May 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074466/anatomical-organization-of-the-brain-of-a-diurnal-and-a-nocturnal-dung-beetle
#14
Esa-Ville Immonen, Marie Dacke, Stanley Heinze, Basil El Jundi
To avoid the fierce competition for food, South African ball-rolling dung beetles carve a piece of dung off a dung-pile, shape it into a ball and roll it away along a straight line path. For this unidirectional exit from the busy dung pile, at night and day, the beetles use a wide repertoire of celestial compass cues. This robust and relatively easily measurable orientation behavior has made ball-rolling dung beetles an attractive model organism for the study of the neuroethology behind insect orientation and sensory ecology...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769923/electric-fish-genomics-progress-prospects-and-new-tools-for-neuroethology
#15
William R Pitchers, Savvas J Constantinou, Mauricio Losilla, Jason R Gallant
Electric fish have served as a model system in biology since the 18th century, providing deep insight into the nature of bioelectrogenesis, the molecular structure of the synapse, and brain circuitry underlying complex behavior. Neuroethologists have collected extensive phenotypic data that span biological levels of analysis from molecules to ecosystems. This phenotypic data, together with genomic resources obtained over the past decades, have motivated new and exciting hypotheses that position the weakly electric fish model to address fundamental 21(st) century biological questions...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757700/agonistic-character-displacement-in-social-cognition-of-advertisement-signals
#16
Bret Pasch, Rachel Sanford, Steven M Phelps
Interspecific aggression between sibling species may enhance discrimination of competitors when recognition errors are costly, but proximate mechanisms mediating increased discriminative ability are unclear. We studied behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying responses to conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in Alston's singing mouse (Scotinomys teguina), a species in which males sing to repel rivals. We performed playback experiments using males in allopatry and sympatry with a dominant heterospecific (Scotinomys xerampelinus) and examined song-evoked induction of egr-1 in the auditory system to examine how neural tuning modulates species-specific responses...
October 18, 2016: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582415/spatial-cognition-in-mice-and-rats-similarities-and-differences-in-brain-and-behavior
#17
REVIEW
Vincent Hok, Bruno Poucet, Éléonore Duvelle, Étienne Save, Francesca Sargolini
The increasing use of mice models in cognitive tasks that were originally designed for rats raises crucial questions about cross-species comparison in the study of spatial cognition. The present review focuses on the major neuroethological differences existing between mice and rats, with particular attention given to the neurophysiological basis of space coding. While little difference is found in the basic properties of space representation in these two species, it appears that the stability of this representation changes more drastically over time in mice than in rats...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445858/neuroethology-of-olfactory-guided-behavior-and-its-potential-application-in-the-control-of-harmful-insects
#18
REVIEW
Carolina E Reisenman, Hong Lei, Pablo G Guerenstein
Harmful insects include pests of crops and storage goods, and vectors of human and animal diseases. Throughout their history, humans have been fighting them using diverse methods. The fairly recent development of synthetic chemical insecticides promised efficient crop and health protection at a relatively low cost. However, the negative effects of those insecticides on human health and the environment, as well as the development of insect resistance, have been fueling the search for alternative control tools...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416112/cobalt-chloride-treatment-used-to-ablate-the-lateral-line-system-also-impairs-the-olfactory-system-in-three-freshwater-fishes
#19
Julie M Butler, Karen E Field, Karen P Maruska
Fishes use multimodal signals during both inter- and intra-sexual displays to convey information about their sex, reproductive state, and social status. These complex behavioral displays can include visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and hydrodynamic signals, and the relative role of each sensory channel in these complex multi-sensory interactions is a common focus of neuroethology. The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects near-body water movements and is implicated in a variety of behaviors including schooling, rheotaxis, social communication, and prey detection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301615/catalpol-stimulates-vegf-production-via-the-jak2-stat3-pathway-to-improve-angiogenesis-in-rats-stroke-model
#20
Wan Dong, Yang Xian, Wang Yuan, Zhu Huifeng, Wang Tao, Liu Zhiqiang, Feng Shan, Fu Ya, Wang Hongli, Wang Jinghuan, Qin Lei, Zou Li, Qi Hongyi
ETHNOBOTANICAL RELEVANCE: Catalpol is the main active component of the radix from Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, which has pleiotropic protective effects in neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic stroke, metabolic disorders and others AIM: Catalpol has been shown to have neuroprotective, neurorepair, and angiogenesis effects following ischemic brain injury. However, its molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. In previous studies, the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway was found to play a role in neuroprotection and angiogenesis...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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