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biosimilar low-molecular-weight heparins

Rohitesh Gupta, Moorthy P Ponnusamy
Structural characterization of Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) is critical to meet biosimilarity standards. In this context, the review focuses on structural analysis of labile sulfates attached to the side-groups of LMWH using mass spectrometry. A comprehensive review of this topic will help readers to identify key strategies for tackling the problem related to sulfate loss. At the same time, various mass spectrometry techniques are presented to facilitate compositional analysis of LMWH, mainly Enoxaparin...
May 21, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Javier Martínez González, Mayte Monreal, Ignacio Ayani Almagia, Jordi Llaudó Garín, Lourdes Ochoa Díaz de Monasterioguren, Ibón Gutierro Adúriz
Purpose: To demonstrate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) equivalence of a biosimilar enoxaparin to the reference drug, and to assess its safety and tolerability in healthy volunteers. Patients and methods: A randomized, double-blind, crossover, 2-sequence, single-dose study was conducted in healthy volunteers of both sexes. Participants were sequentially and randomly administered single subcutaneous injections of enoxaparin 100 mg manufactured by Rovi (test; Madrid, Spain) and Clexane® (enoxaparin 100 mg manufactured by Sanofi, reference) separated by a 1-week washout period...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Radosław Sadowski, Renata Gadzała-Kopciuch, Tomasz Kowalkowski, Paweł Widomski, Ludwik Jujeczka, Bogusław Buszewski
Currently, detailed structural characterization of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) products is an analytical subject of great interest. In this work, we carried out a comprehensive structural analysis of LMWHs and applied a modified pharmacopeial method, as well as methods developed by other researchers, to the analysis of novel biosimilar LMWH products; and, for the first time, compared the qualitative and quantitative composition of commercially available drugs (enoxaparin, nadroparin, and dalteparin)...
July 13, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Antonella Bisio, Elena Urso, Marco Guerrini, Pauline de Wit, Giangiacomo Torri, Annamaria Naggi
A number of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) products are available for clinical use and although all share a similar mechanism of action, they are classified as distinct drugs because of the different depolymerisation processes of the native heparin resulting in substantial pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics differences. While enoxaparin has been extensively investigated, little information is available regarding the LMWH dalteparin. The present study is focused on the detailed structural characterization of Fragmin® by LC-MS and NMR applied both to the whole drug and to its enzymatic products...
June 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Davide Imberti, Marco Marietta, Hernan Polo Friz, Claudio Cimminiello
Recently, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) authorized the introduction and marketing of Thorinane® and Inhixa®, biosimilars of the Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) enoxaparin. The authorization path is considerably different from the guidelines published by the EMA in 2009, as well as from the recommendations from the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis published in 2013. Indeed, both of them recommended that LMWHs biosimilars therapeutic equivalence should be demonstrated in at least one adequately designed clinical trial...
2017: Thrombosis Journal
Zina Kobbi, Hazar Kraiem, Zakaria Benlasfar, Ammar Marouani, Taieb Massoud, Samir Boubaker, Balkiss Bouhaouala-Zahar, Nadia Fenina
Enoxaparin is a low-molecular-weight heparin widely used for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism. With the development of several enoxaparin biosimilars, real medical concerns about their safety and efficacy have been raised. This repeated dose toxicity study consists of preclinical toxicological evaluation of a biosimilar biological version of enoxaparin, the drug product "Enoxa", compared to the enoxaparin reference drug product, "Lovenox". Eighty white Wistar rats were treated with "Enoxa" versus the reference product, using subcutaneous therapeutic and toxic doses, varying from 3...
March 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Joseph Zaia, Kshitij Khatri, Joshua Klein, Chun Shao, Yuewei Sheng, Rosa Viner
Low-molecular weight heparins (LMWH) prepared by partial depolymerization of unfractionated heparin are used globally to treat coagulation disorders on an outpatient basis. Patent protection for several LMWH has expired and abbreviated new drug applications have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. As a result, reverse engineering of LMWH for biosimilar LMWH has become an active global endeavor. Traditionally, the molecular weight distributions of LMWH preparations have been determined using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with optical detection...
November 1, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
E V Gavrishina, A V Dobrovolskii, R R Niyazov, D P Romodanovskii, A N Vasil'ev
General principles of appropriate strategies for preclinical and clinical development of unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins and demonstration of their biosimilarity to corresponding reference medicinal products are provided. Demonstration of the biosimilarity of heparin-containing medicinal products constitutes the basis for their efficacy and safety during anticoagulation therapy. The main quality, safety, and efficacy characteristics of heparin products are described and the extent of non-clinical and clinical investigations necessary prior to drug marketing authorization are considered...
2015: Eksperimental'naia i Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia
H Nandurkar, B Chong, H Salem, A Gallus, V Ferro, R McKinnon
A working group of clinicians and scientists was formed to review the clinical considerations for use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) biosimilars. LMWH are biological molecules of significant complexity; the full complexity of chemical structure is still to be elucidated. LMWH biosimilars are products that are biologically similar to their reference product and rely on clinical data from a reference product to establish safety and efficacy. The complex nature of LMWH molecules means that it is uncertain whether a LMWH biosimilar is chemically identical to its reference product; this introduces the possibility of differences in activity and immunogenicity...
May 2014: Internal Medicine Journal
Pierre A J Mourier, Olivier Y Guichard, Frédéric Herman, Christian Viskov
Heparin and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are anticoagulant drugs that mainly inhibit the coagulation cascade by indirectly interacting with factor Xa and factor IIa (thrombin). Inhibition of factor Xa by antithrombin (AT) requires the activation of AT by specific pentasaccharide sequences containing 3-O-sulfated glucosamine. Activated AT also inhibits thrombin by forming a stable ternary complex of AT, thrombin, and a polysaccharide (requires at least an 18-mer/octadeca-mer polysaccharide). The full structure of any naturally occurring octadecasaccharide sequence has yet to be determined...
May 15, 2014: Analytical Biochemistry
Noel Courage, Ainslie Parsons
A biosimilar contains an active ingredient that is similar, but not identical, to the active ingredient in an approved reference drug. This raises the issue of when and how a biosimilar should be allowed to compare to a reference drug for marketing approval. This paper looks at the current regulation of biosimilars in Europe, the United States and Canada. The response to the challenge of regulating biosimilars has been varied. For example, Europe implemented a specialized, abbreviated legal pathway about five years before the United States...
2011: Food and Drug Law Journal
J Harenberg, J Walenga, G Torri, O E Dahl, L Drouet, J Fareed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2013: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Steven Simoens, Isabelle Huys
This article examines the market entry of biosimilar low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) in Europe by focusing on regulatory requirements, pricing, reimbursement, prescribing, and dispensing. The window for biosimilar LMWHs to enter the market is narrow on the supply side because of several factors. These include (1) regulatory requirements, including a quality dossier, clinical and nonclinical studies, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies, immunogenicity studies, and a comparability exercise (but a reduction in clinical data requirements might be plausible in some cases); (2) prices of originator LMWHs are lower than those of other biologic products; (3) European prices of originator LMWHs are lower than those observed in the rest of the world; (4) research and development and manufacturing costs are substantial; (5) costs of active pharmaceutical ingredients have increased following the heparin contamination crisis; and (6) biosimilar LMWHs may be subjected to generic medicine pricing regulations...
April 2013: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Paola Minghetti, Francesco Cilurzo, Silvia Franzé, Umberto M Musazzi, Manuela Itri
The protection rights of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are expired or are expiring, so the extent and nature of the studies required to obtain a market authorization for LMWH copies represents a hot topic. FDA classifies LMWHs as semisynthetic drugs and their copies as generics whereas the EMA views them as biological medicines and consequently their copies as biosimilars. Consequently, FDA requires only in vivo pharmacodynamic studies, while EMA requires also clinical trials. The current work reviews the chemical composition and therapeutic indications of LMWHs available in the EU and USA markets to discuss the two different approaches...
March 2013: Drug Discovery Today
J Harenberg, E Kalodiki, J M Walenga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2012: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
Paulo A S Mourão, Bianca F Glauser, Bruno C Vairo, Mariana S Pereira
Some patents of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have expired and others are about to expire. Biosimilar versions of those drugs are available for clinical use in several countries. However, skepticism persists about the possibility of obtaining preparations similar to the original drug, because of the complexity of the process to generate LMWHs. In recent years, our laboratory has analyzed biosimilar samples of enoxaparin available for clinical use in Brazil (30 different batches and 70 finished products)...
January 2012: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Walter Jeske, Evangelos Litinas, Hussein Khan, Debra Hoppensteadt, Jawed Fareed
Pharmacodynamic behavior of branded and biosimilar enoxaparin was compared in a crossover study in primates. Blood samples collected at baseline and at 1, 4, 6, and 28 hours post-subcutaneous administration of Lovenox or Fibrinox were evaluated using clot-based and amidolytic assays. Anti-Xa levels following Fibrinox and Lovenox administration were not different. Anti-IIa levels were significantly higher in Lovenox-treated animals 1 to 6 hours post-administration. Higher drug levels were measured by Heptest in Fibrinox-treated animals from 4 to 6 hours...
June 2012: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
Ludovic Drouet
The development of biosimilar versions of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) raises real medical concerns. To illustrate this, we have chosen as an example the specific clinical setting of antithrombotic management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). In this indication, the LMWH enoxaparin has consistently shown its superiority in terms of efficacy when compared to unfractionated heparin (UFH) and in a number of direct or indirect comparisons to other LMWHs. For this reason, enoxaparin has become the gold standard for anticoagulation in cardiology, recommended by practice guidelines and extensively used in everyday practice...
March 2012: Targeted Oncology
Frederick A Ofosu
With the expiry or pending expiry of originator low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) patents, pharmaceutical companies have invested in developing non-proprietary versions of LMWHs. LMWHs are manufactured by depolymerising highly purified unfractionated heparin. In contrast to traditional synthetic drugs with well-defined chemical structures, LMWHs contain complex oligosaccharide mixtures and the different manufacturing processes for LMWHs add to the heterogeneity in their physicochemical properties such that the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) consider existing originator LMWHs to be distinct medicinal entities that are not clinically interchangeable...
February 2012: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Alfredo García-Arieta, Antonio Blázquez
The aim of the present paper is to address the legal aspects, technical requirements and possible conditions of use associated to low molecular weight heparin generics and biosimilars that are arriving to the market in United States and the European Union, respectively. To this end the concept of "similar biological medicinal product" that was coined in 2003 by the pharmaceutical legislation of the European Union is compared to the concept of generic in the United States and the concept of generic in the European Union...
June 1, 2012: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
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