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Protein membrane interactions

Ravit Malishev, Razan Abbasi, Raz Jelinek, Liraz Chai
Biofilms are aggregates of cells that form surface-associated communities. The cells in a biofilm are interconnected with an extracellular matrix, a network that is made mostly of polysaccharides, proteins and sometimes nucleic acids. Some extracellular matrix proteins form fibers, often termed functional amyloids or amyloid-like fibrils, to differentiate their constructive function from disease-related amyloid fibers. Recent studies of functional amyloid assembly have neglected their interaction with membranes, despite their native assembly in a cellular environment...
March 22, 2018: Biochemistry
Qingfen Yu, Sameh Othman, Sabyasachi Dasgupta, Thorsten Auth, Gerhard Gompper
Nanoparticles in biological systems encounter lipid-bilayer membranes as barriers. They interact with plasma membranes, membranous organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus, the nucleus, and intracellular and extracellular vesicles, such as autophagosomes, lysosomes, and exosomes. Extracellular vesicles have recently attracted particular attention, as they are involved in the transmission of biological signals and as regulators for biological processes. For example, exosomes, small vesicles containing proteins, mRNA, and miRNA, that are released by cells into the extracellular environment, have been suggested to participate in tumor metastasis...
March 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Marina A Gwairgi, Reena Ghildyal
Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite that causes human amoebiasis. It is one of the leading parasitic disease burdens in tropical regions and developing countries, with spread to developed countries through migrants from and travellers to endemic regions. Understanding E. histolytica's invasion mechanisms requires an understanding of how it interacts with external cell components and how it engulfs and kills cells (phagocytosis). Recent research suggests that optimal phagocytosis requires signalling events from the cell surface to the nucleus via the cytoplasm, and the induction of several factors that are transported to the plasma membrane...
March 22, 2018: Parasitology
Javier Cervera, José A Manzanares, Salvador Mafe
Genetic networks operate in the presence of local heterogeneities in single-cell transcription and translation rates. Bioelectrical networks and spatio-temporal maps of cell electric potentials can influence multicellular ensembles. Could cell-cell bioelectrical interactions mediated by intercellular gap junctions contribute to the stabilization of multicellular states against local genetic heterogeneities? We theoretically analyze this question on the basis of two well-established experimental facts: (i) the membrane potential is a reliable read-out of the single-cell electrical state and (ii) when the cells are coupled together, their individual cell potentials can be influenced by ensemble-averaged electrical potentials...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Mickaël Jacquet, Gianluca Cioci, Guillaume Fouet, Isabelle Bally, Nicole M Thielens, Christine Gaboriaud, Véronique Rossi
Complement receptor type 1 (CR1) is a multi modular membrane receptor composed of 30 homologous complement control protein modules (CCP) organized in four different functional regions called long homologous repeats (LHR A, B, C, and D). CR1 is a receptor for complement-opsonins C3b and C4b and specifically interacts through pairs of CCP modules located in LHR A, B, and C. Defense collagens such as mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolin-2, and C1q also act as opsonins and are involved in immune clearance through binding to the LHR-D region of CR1...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mary-Carmen Torres-Quintero, Isabel Gómez, Sabino Pacheco, Jorge Sánchez, Humberto Flores, Joel Osuna, Gretel Mendoza, Mario Soberón, Alejandra Bravo
The Cyt and Cry toxins are different pore-forming proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria, and used in insect-pests control. Cry-toxins have a complex mechanism involving interaction with several proteins in the insect gut such as aminopeptidase N (APN), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and cadherin (CAD). It was shown that the loop regions of domain II of Cry toxins participate in receptor binding. Cyt-toxins are dipteran specific and interact with membrane lipids. We show that Cry1Ab domain II loop3 is involved in binding to APN, ALP and CAD receptors since point mutation Cry1Ab-G439D affected binding to these proteins...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daria Augustyniak, Rafał Seredyński, Siobhán McClean, Justyna Roszkowiak, Bartosz Roszniowski, Darren L Smith, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa, Paweł Mackiewicz
Moraxella catarrhalis is a common human respiratory tract pathogen. Its virulence factors associated with whole bacteria or outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) aid infection, colonization and may induce specific antibodies. To investigate pathogen-host interactions, we applied integrated bioinformatic and immunoproteomic (2D-electrophoresis, immunoblotting, LC-MS/MS) approaches. We showed that OMV proteins engaged exclusively in complement evasion and colonization strategies, but not those involved in iron transport and metabolism, are major targets for cross-reacting antibodies produced against phylogenetically divergent M...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liansheng Liu, Jinqiu Lu, Xiaoling Li, Ailing Wu, Qingzhe Wu, Mujun Zhao, Nan Tang, Hai Song
Intracellular transport of membranous organelles and protein complexes to various destinations is fundamental to signaling transduction and cellular function. The cytoplasmic dynein motor and its regulatory proteins LIS1 and NDE1 are required for transporting a variety of cellular cargos along the microtubule network. In this study, we show that deletion of Lis1 in developing lung endoderm and limb mesenchymal cells causes agenesis of the lungs and limbs. In both mutants, there is increased cell death and decreased fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling activity...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Martin Köhler, Christoph Neff, Camilo Perez, Cyrill Brunner, Els Pardon, Jan Steyaert, Gisbert Schneider, Kaspar P Locher, Renato Zenobi
The application of nanobodies as binding partners for structure stabilization in protein x-ray crystallography is taking an increasingly important role in structural biology. However, the addition of nanobodies to the crystallization matrices might complicate the optimization of the crystallization process, which is why analytical techniques to screen and characterize suitable nanobodies are useful. Here, we show how chemical cross-linking combined with high-mass matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization mass spectrometry can be employed as a fast screening technique to determine binding specificities of intact nanobody•membrane protein complexes...
March 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Kathy H Y Shair, Akhil Reddy, Vaughn S Cooper
Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) oncogenic protein that has no intrinsic enzymatic activity or sequence homology to cellular or viral proteins. The oncogenic potential of LMP1 has been ascribed to pleiotropic signaling properties initiated through protein-protein interactions in cytosolic membrane compartments, but the effects of LMP1 extend to nuclear and extracellular processes. Although LMP1 is one of the latent genes required for EBV-immortalization of B cells, the biology of LMP1 in the pathogenesis of the epithelial cancer nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is more complex...
March 21, 2018: Cancers
Wanchao Yin, X Edward Zhou, Dehua Yang, Parker W de Waal, Meitian Wang, Antao Dai, Xiaoqing Cai, Chia-Ying Huang, Ping Liu, Xiaoxi Wang, Yanting Yin, Bo Liu, Yu Zhou, Jiang Wang, Hong Liu, Martin Caffrey, Karsten Melcher, Yechun Xu, Ming-Wei Wang, H Eric Xu, Yi Jiang
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, also known as serotonin) regulates many physiological processes through the 5-HT receptor family. Here we report the crystal structure of 5-HT1B subtype receptor (5-HT1B R) bound to the psychotropic serotonin receptor inverse agonist methiothepin (MT). Crystallization was facilitated by replacing ICL3 with a novel optimized variant of BRIL (OB1) that enhances the formation of intermolecular polar interactions, making OB1 a potential useful tool for structural studies of membrane proteins...
2018: Cell Discovery
Anish Sharda, Robert Flaumenhaft
Platelet granules are unique among secretory vesicles in both their content and their life cycle. Platelets contain three major granule types-dense granules, α-granules, and lysosomes-although other granule types have been reported. Dense granules and α-granules are the most well-studied and the most physiologically important. Platelet granules are formed in large, multilobulated cells, termed megakaryocytes, prior to transport into platelets. The biogenesis of dense granules and α-granules involves common but also distinct pathways...
2018: F1000Research
Raquel Marin, Mario Diaz
Estrogens (E2) exert a plethora of neuroprotective actions against aged-associated brain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Part of these actions takes place through binding to estrogen receptors (ER) embedded in signalosomes, where numerous signaling proteins are clustered. Signalosomes are preferentially located in lipid rafts which are dynamic membrane microstructures characterized by a peculiar lipid composition enriched in gangliosides, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and sphingolipids. Rapid E2 interactions with ER-related signalosomes appear to trigger intracellular signaling ultimately leading to the activation of molecular mechanisms against AD...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Shengjun Wang, Yang Mao, Yoshiki Narimatsu, Zilu Ye, Weihua Tian, Christoffer K Goth, Erandi Lira-Navarrete, Nis Borbye Pedersen, Asier Benito-Vicente, Cesar Martin, Kepa B Uribe, Ramon Hurtado-Guerrero, Christina Christoffersen, Nabil G Seidah, Rikke Nielsen, Erik I Christensen, Lars Hansen, Eric P Bennett, Sergey Y Vakhrushev, Katrine T Schjoldager, Henrik Clausen
The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and related proteins are important for the transport of diverse biomolecules across cell membranes and barriers. Their functions are especially relevant for cholesterol homeostasis and diseases, including neurodegenerative and kidney disorders. Members of the LDLR-related protein family share LDLR class A (LA) repeats providing binding properties for lipoproteins and other biomolecules. We previously demonstrated that short linker regions between these LA repeats contain conserved O-glycan-sites...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yinfang Wang, Yitong Huang, Youbin Liu, Jinping Li, Yilong Hao, Peihao Yin, Zongjun Liu, Jingzhou Chen, Ying Wang, Nanping Wang, Peng Zhang
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that are able to change their morphology and cellular distribution by either fission or fusion. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling mitochondrial dynamics in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) remain largely unknown. In this study, we observed that knock down of microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1) in ECs inhibited tube formation and migration, accompanied with decreased promigratory signalings. We showed that MTUS1 was localized in the outer membrane of mitochondria in ECs...
March 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Yuanyuan Tao, Xiaoteng Ma, Yaqian Cai, Li Liu, Hanying Zhao
Synthesis and self-assembly of bioconjugates composed of proteins and synthetic molecules have been widely studied because of the potential applications in medicine, biotechnology and nanotechnology. One of the challenging researches in this area is to develop organic solvent-free approaches to the synthesis and self-assembly of amphiphilic bioconjugates. In this research, dialysis-assisted approach, a method based on unimer-aggregate equilibrium, was applied in the co-assembly of lysozyme and conjugate of cholesterol and glutathione (Ch-GSH)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
A M Vaira, H S Lim, G Bauchan, C J Gulbronson, L Miozzi, N Vinals, A Natilla, J Hammond
The Lolium latent virus (LoLV) major coat protein sequence contains a typical chloroplast transit peptide (cTP) domain. In infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaf tissue, LoLV coat proteins can be detected at the chloroplast. In transient expression, several N-terminal deletions of the CP sequence, increasing in length, result in disruption of the domain functionality, markedly affecting intracellular localization. A yeast two-hybrid-based study using LoLV CP as bait identified several potentially interacting Arabidopsis host proteins, most of them with chloroplast-linked pathways...
March 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Frank Hochholdinger, Caroline Marcon, Jutta A Baldauf, Peng Yu, Felix P Frey
Maize forms a complex root system with structurally and functionally diverse root types that are formed at different developmental stages to extract water and mineral nutrients from soil. In recent years proteomics has been intensively applied to identify proteins involved in shaping the three-dimensional architecture and regulating the function of the maize root system. With the help of developmental mutants, proteomic changes during the initiation and emergence of shoot-borne, lateral and seminal roots have been examined...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shengli Chen, Huafang Hao, Ping Zhao, Wenheng Ji, Mingxia Li, Yongsheng Liu, Yuefeng Chu
Mycoplasma bovis is a major bovine pathogen that causes considerable economic losses in the cattle industry worldwide. Moreover, M. bovis biofilm can persist in the environment and its host. To date, M. bovis biofilm antigens recognized by bovine convalescent sera and their comparison with planktonic cells have not yet been explored. This study utilized an immunoproteomic approach using two-dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotting using convalescent bovine serum, and subsequent matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to identify the immunoreactive proteins expressed in biofilm- and planktonic-grown M...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Stephen E Beaton, Rhiannon M Evans, Alexander J Finney, Ciaran M Lamont, Fraser A Armstrong, Frank Sargent, Stephen B Carr
Under anaerobic conditions Escherichia coli is able to metabolize molecular hydrogen via the action of several [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzymes. Hydrogenase-2, which is typically present in cells at low levels during anaerobic respiration, is a periplasmic-facing membrane-bound complex that functions as a proton pump to convert energy from H2 oxidation into a proton gradient; consequently, its structure is of great interest. Empirically, the complex consists of a tightly-bound core catalytic module, comprising large (HybC) and small (HybO) subunits, which is attached to an Fe-S protein (HybA) and an integral membrane protein, HybB...
March 19, 2018: Biochemical Journal
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