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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656620/the-effect-of-recombinant-tyrosine-hydroxylase-expression-on-the-neurogenic-differentiation-potency-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#1
Gizem Turac, Gokhan Duruksu, Erdal Karaoz
OBJECTIVE: Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, making the enhancement of its activity a target for ensuring sufficient dopamine levels. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBM-MSCs) are known to synthesize TH after differentiating into neuronal cells through chemical induction, but the effect of its ectopic expression on these cells has not yet been determined. This study investigated the effects of ectopic recombinant TH expression on the stemness characteristics of rBM-MSCs...
March 2018: Neurospine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656594/immune-imbalance-of-global-gene-expression-and-cytokine-chemokine-and-selectin-levels-in-the-brains-of-offspring-with-social-deficits-via-maternal-immune-activation
#2
Pei-Tan Hsueh, Hsi-Hsun Lin, Hsuan-Han Wang, Chiu-Lin Liu, Wei-Fen Ni, Jong-Kang Liu, Hsin-Hou Chang, Der-Shan Sun, Yao-Shen Chen, Ya-Lei Chen
The murine maternal immune activation (MIA) offspring model enables longitudinal studies to explore aberrant social behaviors similar to those observed in humans. High levels of cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules (CAM) have been found in the plasma and/or brains of psychiatric patients. We hypothesized that up-regulation of the systemic or brain immune response has an augmenting effect by potentially increasing the interplay between the neuronal and immune systems during the growth of the MIA offspring...
April 15, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656591/amp-activated-protein-kinase-dependent-induction-of-autophagy-by-erythropoietin-protects-against-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#3
Peng Wang, Zhong-Dong Xie, Chang-Nan Xie, Chao-Wei Lin, Ji-Li Wang, Li-Na Xuan, Chun-Wu Zhang, Yu Wang, Zhi-Hui Huang, Hong-Lin Teng
AIMS: Autophagy has been regarded as a promising therapeutic target for spinal cord injury (SCI). Erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to exhibit neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system (CNS); however, the molecular mechanisms of its protection against SCI remain unknown. This study aims to investigate whether the neuroprotective effects of EPO on SCI are mediated by autophagy via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways. METHODS: Functional assessment and Nissl staining were used to investigate the effects of EPO on SCI...
April 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656576/repurposing-carbamazepine-for-the-treatment-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-in-sod1-g93a-mouse-model
#4
Jing-Jing Zhang, Qin-Ming Zhou, Sheng Chen, Wei-Dong Le
AIMS: To investigate the effect and mechanisms of carbamazepine (CBZ) on the onset and progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in SOD1-G93A mouse model. METHODS: Starting from 64 days of age, SOD1-G93A mice were orally administered with CBZ at 200 mg/kg once daily until death. The disease onset and life span of SOD1-G93A mice were recorded. Motor neurons (MNs) in anterior horn of spinal cord were quantified by Nissl staining and SMI-32 immunostaining...
April 14, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656427/exercise-training-abrogates-age-dependent-loss-of-hypothalamic-oxytocinergic-circuitry-and-maintains-high-parasympathetic-activity
#5
Carla R Santos, Adriana Ruggeri, Alexandre Ceroni, Lisete C Michelini
Neuroanatomical studies associating neuronal tract tracing and immunohistochemistry identified reciprocal (ascending noradrenergic/descending oxytocinergic, OTergic) connections between brainstem cardiovascular nuclei and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). Previous functional studies indicated that exercise training (T) augmented the expression/activity of OTergic pathway and improve the autonomic control of the heart. Knowing that ageing is associated with autonomic dysfunction and sinoaortic denervation blocked T-induced beneficial effects, we hypothesized that T was able to reduce age-dependent impairment by improving the afferent signaling to PVN and augmenting OTergic modulation of cardiovascular control...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656363/2-pentadecyl-2-oxazoline-reduces-neuroinflammatory-environment-in-the-mptp-model-of-parkinson-disease
#6
Marika Cordaro, Rosalba Siracusa, Rosalia Crupi, Daniela Impellizzeri, Alessio Filippo Peritore, Ramona D'Amico, Enrico Gugliandolo, Rosanna Di Paola, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Current pharmacological management of Parkinson disease (PD) does not provide for disease modification, but addresses only symptomatic features. Here, we explore a new approach to neuroprotection based on the use of 2-pentadecyl-2-oxazoline (PEA-OXA), the oxazoline derivative of the fatty acid amide signaling molecule palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), in an experimental model of PD. Daily oral treatment with PEA-OXA (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced behavioral impairments and neuronal cell degeneration of the dopaminergic tract induced by four intraperitoneal injections of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) on 8-week-old male C57 mice...
April 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656361/characterization-of-the-mitochondrial-aerobic-metabolism-in-the-pre-and-perisynaptic-districts-of-the-sod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#7
Silvia Ravera, Tiziana Bonifacino, Martina Bartolucci, Marco Milanese, Elena Gallia, Francesca Provenzano, Katia Cortese, Isabella Panfoli, Giambattista Bonanno
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle wasting, weakness, and spasticity due to a progressive degeneration of cortical, brainstem, and spinal motor neurons. The etiopathological causes are still largely obscure, although astrocytes definitely play a role in neuronal damage. Several mechanisms have been proposed to concur to neurodegeneration in ALS, including mitochondrial dysfunction. We have previously shown profound modifications of glutamate release and presynaptic plasticity in the spinal cord of the SOD1 G93A mouse model of ALS...
April 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656349/the-designer-drug-3-fluoromethcathinone-induces-oxidative-stress-and-activates-autophagy-in-ht22-neuronal-cells
#8
Kamila Siedlecka-Kroplewska, Agata Wrońska, Grzegorz Stasiłojć, Zbigniew Kmieć
Synthetic cathinones are psychoactive substances, derivatives of a natural psychostimulant cathinone. Although many synthetic cathinones have lost their legal status in many countries, their abuse still continues worldwide. Recently, they have been reported to exert neurotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanisms of their action have not been fully elucidated. Recently, they have been linked to the induction of oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 3-fluoromethcathinone (3-FMC), a synthetic cathinone, is able to induce oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis in HT22 immortalized mouse hippocampal cells...
April 14, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656335/role-of-microglia-under-cardiac-and-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-i-r-injury
#9
REVIEW
Poomarin Surinkaew, Passakorn Sawaddiruk, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Both cerebral and cardiac ischemia causes loss of cerebral blood flow, which may lead to neuronal cell damage, neurocognitive impairment, learning and memory difficulties, neurological deficits, and brain death. Although reperfusion is required immediately to restore the blood supply to the brain, it could lead to several detrimental effects on the brain. Several studies demonstrate that microglia activity increases following cerebral and cardiac ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the effects of microglial activation in the brain following I/R remains unclear...
April 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656244/human-organoid-cultures-transformative-new-tools-for-human-virus-studies
#10
REVIEW
Sasirekha Ramani, Sue E Crawford, Sarah E Blutt, Mary K Estes
Studies of human infectious diseases have been limited by the paucity of functional models that mimic normal human physiology and pathophysiology. Recent advances in the development of multicellular, physiologically active organotypic cultures produced from embryonic and pluripotent stem cells, as well as from stem cells isolated from biopsies and surgical specimens are allowing unprecedented new studies and discoveries about host-microbe interactions. Here, we summarize recent developments in the use of organoids for studying human viral pathogens, including intestinal infections with human rotavirus, norovirus, enteroviruses and adenoviruses (intestinal organoids and enteroids), neuronal infections with Zika virus (cerebral organoids) and respiratory infections with respiratory syncytial virus in (lung bud organoids)...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656190/effect-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-on-the-bioavailability-and-neurotoxicity-of-cypermethrin-in-zebrafish-larvae
#11
Meng Li, Qiong Wu, Qiangwei Wang, Dandan Xiang, Guonian Zhu
In aquatic environment, the presence of nanoparticles (NPs) has been reported to modify the bioavailability and toxicity of the organic toxicants. Nevertheless, the combined toxicity of NPs and the pesticides that were used world-widely still remains unclear. Cypermethrin (CYP), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, is commonly used for controlling agricultural and indoor pests. Therefore, the effects of titanium dioxide NPs (nTiO2 ) on CYP bioconcentration and its effects on the neuronal development in zebrafish were investigated in our study...
March 31, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656094/social-interaction-with-a-tutor-modulates-responsiveness-of-specific-auditory-neurons-in-juvenile-zebra-finches
#12
Shin Yanagihara, Yoko Yazaki-Sugiyama
Behavioral states of animals, such as observing the behavior of a conspecific, modify signal perception and/or sensations that influence state-dependent higher cognitive behavior, such as learning. Recent studies have shown that neuronal responsiveness to sensory signals is modified when animals are engaged in social interactions with others or in locomotor activities. However, how these changes produce state-dependent differences in higher cognitive function is still largely unknown. Zebra finches, which have served as the premier songbird model, learn to sing from early auditory experiences with tutors...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656024/protein-synthesis-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-complex-is-required-for-consolidation-of-a-first-order-fear-memory-but-not-for-consolidation-of-a-higher-order-fear-memory
#13
Dana M Leidl, Belinda P P Lay, Cassandra Chakouch, R Frederick Westbrook, Nathan M Holmes
The present series of experiments pursued our recent findings that consolidation of a second-order fear memory requires neuronal activity, but not de novo protein synthesis, in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA). It used a modified second-order conditioning protocol in which rats were exposed to S1-shock pairings in stage 1 and pairings of the serial S2-S1 compound and shock in stage 2. Experiment 1 showed that responding (freezing) to S2 in this protocol is conditional on its compounding with S1 in stage 2 (Experiment 1), and therefore, the result of associative formation...
April 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655940/audio-visual-speech-processing-in-age-related-hearing-loss-stronger-integration-and-increased-frontal-lobe-recruitment
#14
Stephanie Rosemann, Christiane M Thiel
Hearing loss is associated with difficulties in understanding speech, especially under adverse listening conditions. In these situations, seeing the speaker improves speech intelligibility in hearing-impaired participants. On the neuronal level, previous research has shown cross-modal plastic reorganization in the auditory cortex following hearing loss leading to altered processing of auditory, visual and audio-visual information. However, how reduced auditory input effects audio-visual speech perception in hearing-impaired subjects is largely unknown...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655685/polygonum-aviculare-l-extract-reduces-fatigue-by-inhibiting-neuroinflammation-in-restraint-stressed-mice
#15
Sun Haeng Park, Seol Jang, Eunjung Son, Si Woo Lee, Sun Dong Park, Yoon-Young Sung, Ho Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue patients experience various neuropsychological symptoms, including fatigue behaviors, chronic pain, and depression. They also display immune system dysregulation. Polygonum aviculare L. extract (PAE) is a traditional herbal medicine used to treat inflammatory diseases by reportedly decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine production. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: We hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory properties of PAE would attenuate fatigue symptoms in a mouse model of restraint stress...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655659/a-v1143f-mutation-in-the-neuronal-enriched-isoform-2-of-the-pmca-pump-is-linked-with-ataxia
#16
Mattia Vicario, Ginevra Zanni, Francesca Vallese, Filippo Santorelli, Alessandro Grinzato, Domenico Cieri, Paola Berto, Martina Frizzarin, Raffaele Lopreiato, Francesco Zonta, Stefania Ferro, Michele Sandre, Oriano Marin, Maria Ruzzene, Enrico Bertini, Giuseppe Zanotti, Marisa Brini, Tito Calì, Ernesto Carafoli
The fine regulation of intracellular calcium is fundamental for all eukaryotic cells. In neurons, Ca2+ oscillations govern the synaptic development, the release of neurotransmitters and the expression of several genes. Alterations of Ca2+ homeostasis were found to play a pivotal role in neurodegenerative progression. The maintenance of proper Ca2+ signaling in neurons demands the continuous activity of Ca2+ pumps and exchangers to guarantee physiological cytosolic concentration of the cation. The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPases (PMCA pumps) play a key role in the regulation of Ca2+ handling in selected sub-plasma membrane microdomains...
April 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655488/discriminability-of-numerosity-evoked-fmri-activity-patterns-in-human-intra-parietal-cortex-reflects-behavioral-numerical-acuity
#17
Gabriel Lasne, Manuela Piazza, Stanislas Dehaene, Andreas Kleinschmidt, Evelyn Eger
Areas of the primate intraparietal cortex have been identified as an important substrate of numerical cognition. In human fMRI studies, activity patterns in these and other areas have allowed researchers to read out the numerosity a subject is viewing, but the relation of such decodable information with behavioral numerical proficiency remains unknown. Here, we estimated the precision of behavioral numerosity discrimination (internal Weber fraction) in twelve adult subjects based on psychophysical testing in a delayed numerosity comparison task outside the scanner...
March 23, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655371/platelet-derived-growth-factor-predicts-prolonged-relapse-free-period-in-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Ennio Iezzi, Girolama A Marfia, Ilaria Simonelli, Alessandra Musella, Georgia Mandolesi, Diego Fresegna, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Roberto Furlan, Annamaria Finardi, Giorgia Mataluni, Doriana Landi, Luana Gilio, Diego Centonze, Fabio Buttari
BACKGROUND: In the early phases of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS), a clear correlation between brain lesion load and clinical disability is often lacking, originating the so-called clinico-radiological paradox. Different factors may contribute to such discrepancy. In particular, synaptic plasticity may reduce the clinical expression of brain damage producing enduring enhancement of synaptic strength largely dependent on neurotrophin-induced protein synthesis. Cytokines released by the immune cells during acute inflammation can alter synaptic transmission and plasticity possibly influencing the clinical course of MS...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653257/%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-reduce-the-threshold-for-induction-and-stabilization-of-ltp-and-enhance-its-magnitude-via-multiple-mechanisms-in-the-ventral-but-not-the-dorsal-hippocampus
#19
Vassilios Papaleonidopoulos, Costas Papatheodoropoulos
The hippocampus is a functionally heterogeneous structure with the cognitive and emotional signal processing ascribed to the dorsal (DH) and the ventral hippocampus (VH) respectively. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Noradrenaline is released in hippocampus during emotional arousal modulating synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation through activation of β adrenergic receptors (β-ARs). Using recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials from the CA1 field of adult rat hippocampal slices we demonstrate that long-term potentiation (LTP) induced either by theta-burst stimulation (TBS) that mimics a physiological firing pattern of hippocampal neurons or by high-frequency stimulation is remarkably more sensitive to β-AR activation in VH than in DH...
April 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653196/transcription-factors-in-regulatory-and-protein-subnetworks-during-generation-of-neural-stem-cells-and-neurons-from-direct-reprogramming-of-non-fibroblastic-cell-sources
#20
Mohammad Reza Omrani, Moein Yaqubi, Abdulshakour Mohammadnia
Direct reprogramming of non-fibroblastic cells to the neuronal cell types including induced neurons (iNs) and induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) has provided an alternative approach for the direct reprogramming of fibroblasts to those cells. However, to increase the efficiency of the reprogramming process the underlaying mechanisms should be clarified. In the current study, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of five different cellular conversions to understand the most significant molecular mechanisms and transcription factors (TFs) underlying each conversion...
April 10, 2018: Neuroscience
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