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Neuron activation

Chun-Yu Tse, Yip Long-Yin, Troby Ka-Yan Lui, Xue-Zhen Xiao, Yang Wang, Winnie Chiu Wing Chu, Nathan Allen Parks, Sandra Sau-Man Chan, Sebastiaan Franciscus Wijnandus Neggers
Current theories of pre-attentive deviant detection postulate that before the Superior Temporal Cortex (STC) detects a change, the Inferior Frontal Cortex (IFC) engages in stimulus analysis, which is particularly critical for ambiguous deviations (e.g., deviant preceded by a short train of standards). These theories rest on the assumption that IFC and STC are functionally connected, which has only been supported by correlational brain imaging studies. We examined this functional connectivity assumption by applying Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to disrupt IFC function, while measuring the later STC mismatch response with the event-related optical signal (EROS)...
June 18, 2018: NeuroImage
Magdalena Meyer, Ilona Berger, Julia Winter, Benjamin Jurek
Oxytocin (OT) has gained attention not only as anxiolytic drug and as potential treatment option for autistic children; it also acts as a growth and differentiation factor in neuronal cells. While behavioral effects of OT have been studied in detail, knowledge about the cellular effects of OT is relatively sparse. In this study, we present evidence for three hypotheses: 1) OT leads to neurite retraction in hypothalamic neurons via the OT receptor (OTR) 2) The transcription factor MEF-2A is a central regulator of OT-induced neurite retraction, and 3) The MAPK pathway is critical for OT-induced MEF-2A activation...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Kathryn D Baker, Gavan P McNally, Rick Richardson
Adolescent humans and rodents are impaired in extinguishing learned fear relative to younger and older groups. This impairment could be due to differences in recruitment of medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), or amygdala during extinction. For example, unlike juveniles and adults, adolescent rats do not express extinction-induced increases in phosphorylated mitogen activated protein kinase (pMAPK), a marker of synaptic plasticity, in the medial PFC. The NMDA receptor partial agonist d-cycloserine (DCS) improves extinction retention in adolescent rats...
June 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
S Gasparini, M R Melo, G M F Andrade-Franzé, J C Geerling, J V Menani, E Colombari
Aldosterone infusion into the 4th ventricle (4th V), upstream the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), produces strong 0.3 M NaCl intake. In the present study, we investigated whether aldosterone infusion into the 4th V activates HSD2 neurons, changes renal excretion, or alters blood pressure and cardiovascular reflexes. Chronic infusion of aldosterone (100 ng/h) into the 4th V increased daily 0.3 M NaCl intake (up to 44 ± 10, vs. vehicle: 5.6 ± 3.4 ml/24 h) and also c-Fos expression in HSD2 neurons in the NTS and in non-HSD2 neurons in the NTS...
June 18, 2018: Brain Research
Liang Xiong, Yu Liu, Mingmin Zhou, Guangji Wang, Dajun Quan, Wei Shuai, Caijie Shen, Bin Kong, Congxin Huang, He Huang
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? In this study, we investigated whether targeted ablation of cardiac sympathetic neurons (TACSN) could suppress myocardial infarction-induced adverse cardiac remodeling and left ventricle dysfunction. What is the main finding and its importance? TACSN significantly alleviated sympathetic remodeling and neuroendocrine activation, attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and improved the left ventricular function. Thus, TACSN may have a beneficial effect on adverse post-infarction remodeling and left ventricle dysfunction...
June 21, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Matthew McMillin, Stephanie Grant, Gabriel Frampton, Anca D Petrescu, Jessica Kain, Elaina Williams, Rebecca Haines, Lauren Canady, Sharon DeMorrow
Background & Aims: Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious neurologic complication of acute and chronic liver diseases. We previously showed that aberrant bile acid signaling contributes to the development of hepatic encephalopathy via farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-mediated mechanisms in neurons. In the brain, a novel alternative bile acid synthesis pathway, catalyzed by cytochrome p450 46A1 (Cyp46A1), is the primary mechanism by which the brain regulates cholesterol homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine if FXR activation in the brain altered cholesterol homeostasis during hepatic encephalopathy...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Karina Vargas-Sánchez, Maria Mogilevskaya, John Rodríguez-Pérez, María G Rubiano, José J Javela, Rodrigo E González-Reyes
Status epilepticus is a medical emergency with elevated morbidity and mortality rates, and represents a leading cause of epilepsy-related deaths. Though status epilepticus can occur at any age, it manifests more likely in children and elderly people. Despite the common prevalence of epileptic disorders, a complete explanation for the mechanisms leading to development of self-limited or long lasting seizures (as in status epilepticus) are still lacking. Apart from neurons, research evidence suggests the involvement of immune and glial cells in epileptogenesis...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Olav H Haugen, Sten Andréasson, Lars Ersland, Alexander R Craven, Kenneth Hugdahl
We present a case of a young female with a slowly progressing visual impairment who was examined with multifocal visual evoked potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for underlying neuronal abnormality. The fMRI examination consisted of presenting black-and-white checkerboard stimuli, and her activation patterns were compared to the patterns from 4 normal-sighted subjects. The results showed clear differences in neuronal activation between the patient and the controls in the occipital and parietal lobes...
May 2018: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
Rafael Falcón-Moya, Pilar Losada-Ruiz, Talvinder S Sihra, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno
We elucidated the mechanisms underlying the kainate receptor (KAR)-mediated facilitatory modulation of synaptic transmission in the cerebellum. In cerebellar slices, KA (3 μM) increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) at synapses between axon terminals of parallel fibers (PF) and Purkinje neurons. KA-mediated facilitation was antagonized by NBQX under condition where AMPA receptors were previously antagonized. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) suppressed the effect of KA on glutamate release, which was also obviated by the prior stimulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Guanglei Fu, Hua Wang, Youli Cai, Hui Zhao, Wenjun Fu
Objective: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most common acute cerebrovascular diseases with high mortality. Numerous studies have shown that inflammatory response played an important role in ICH-induced brain injury. Theaflavin (TF) extracted from black tea has various biological functions including anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated whether TF could inhibit ICH-induced inflammatory response in rats and explored its mechanism. Materials and methods: ICH rat models were induced with type VII collagenase and pretreated with TF by gavage in different doses (25 mg/kg-100 mg/kg)...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Diego Fernández-Fernández, Alba Cadaveira-Mosquera, Lola Rueda-Ruzafa, Salvador Herrera-Pérez, Emma L Veale, Antonio Reboreda, Alistair Mathie, J Antonio Lamas
Two-pore domain potassium channels (K2P) constitute major candidates for the regulation of background potassium currents in mammalian cells. Channels of the TREK subfamily are also well positioned to play an important role in sensory transduction due to their sensitivity to a large number of physiological and physical stimuli (pH, mechanical, temperature). Following our previous report describing the molecular expression of different K2P channels in the vagal sensory system, here we confirm that TREK channels are functionally expressed in neurons from the mouse nodose ganglion (mNG)...
2018: PloS One
Seu-Hwa Chen, June-Horng Lue, Yung-Jung Hsiao, Shu-Mei Lai, Hsin-Ying Wang, Chi-Te Lin, Ya-Chin Chen, Yi-Ju Tsai
In this study, we investigated temporal changes in galanin receptor type 2 (GalR2) expression in NF200-, galanin-, neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-like immunoreactive (LI) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons after median nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI), and the effects of GalR2 on c-Fos expression in the cuneate nucleus (CN). Double immunofluorescence labeling methods were used to appraise changes in GalR2 expression in NF200-LI, galanin-LI, NPY-LI, and nNOS-LI DRG neurons after CCI...
2018: PloS One
Josiane C S Mapplebeck, Rebecca Dalgarno, YuShan Tu, Orla Moriarty, Simon Beggs, Charlie H T Kwok, Katherine Halievski, Sofia Assi, Jeffrey S Mogil, Tuan Trang, Michael W Salter
Microglia-neuron signalling in the spinal cord is a key mediator of mechanical allodynia caused by peripheral nerve injury. We recently reported sex differences in microglia in pain signalling in mice: spinal mechanisms underlying nerve injury-induced allodynia are microglial dependent in male but not female mice. Whether this sex difference in pain hypersensitivity mechanisms is conserved in other species is unknown. Here, we show that in rats, the spinal mechanisms of nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity in males differ from those in females, with microglial P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) being a key point of divergence...
April 30, 2018: Pain
Xiao-Ru Shao, Wen-Juan Ma, Xue-Ping Xie, Qian-Shun Li, Shi-Yu Lin, Tao Zhang, Yun-Feng Lin
Accumulating evidence supports the abnormal deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (Aβ) as the main cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, fighting against the formation, deposition, and toxicity of Aβ is a basic strategy for the treatment of AD. In the process of in vitro nerve cell culture, screening out drugs that can antagonize a series of toxic reactions caused by β-amyloid deposition has become an effective method for the follow-up treatment of AD. Our previous studies showed that tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs) had good biocompatibility and had some positive effects on the biological behavior of cells...
June 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yalda Mohsenzadeh, Sheng Qin, Radoslaw M Cichy, Dimitrios Pantazis
Human visual recognition activates a dense network of overlapping feedforward and recurrent neuronal processes, making it hard to disentangle processing in the feedforward from the feedback direction. Here, we used ultra-rapid serial visual presentation to suppress sustained activity that blurs the boundaries of processing steps, enabling us to resolve two distinct stages of processing with MEG multivariate pattern classification. The first processing stage was the rapid activation cascade of the bottom-up sweep, which terminated early as visual stimuli were presented at progressively faster rates...
June 21, 2018: ELife
Jesse J DiCello, Ayame Saito, Pradeep Rajasekhar, Emily M Eriksson, Rachel M McQuade, Cameron J Nowell, Benjamin W Sebastian, Jakub Fichna, Nicholas A Veldhuis, Meritxell Canals, Nigel W Bunnett, Simona Elisa Carbone, Daniel P Poole
Endogenous opioids activate opioid receptors (ORs) in the enteric nervous system to control intestinal motility and secretion. The mu OR mediates the deleterious side effects of opioid analgesics, including constipation, respiratory depression and addiction. Although the delta OR (DOR) is a promising target for analgesia, the function and regulation of DOR in the colon are poorly understood. This study provides evidence that endogenous opioids activate DOR in myenteric neurons which may regulate colonic motility...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Ninotchska M Delvalle, David E Fried, Gretchen Rivera-Lopez, Luke Gaudette, Brian D Gulbransen
The reflexive activities of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are regulated, in part, by precise interactions between neurons and glia in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Intra-ganglionic enteric glia are a unique type of peripheral glia that surround enteric neurons and regulate neuronal function, activity, and survival. Enteric glia express numerous neurotransmitter receptors that allow them to sense neuronal activity, but it is not clear if enteric glia monitor acetylcholine (ACh), the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the ENS...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Kira-Elise Wilson, Sigrid Limburg, Melissa K Duggan, Adam J Lawther, Spencer J Williams, Andrew J Lawrence, Matthew W Hale, Elvan Djouma
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the effects of the galanin-3 receptor antagonist, SNAP 37889, on c-Fos protein expression after cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking in the brains of alcohol-preferring rats. METHODS: Eighteen alcohol-preferring rats were trained to self-administer 10% v/v ethanol in the presence of response-contingent cues, which was followed by extinction. Rats were then treated with SNAP 37889 (30 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle, before being tested for cue-induced reinstatement...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Bernadette Breiden, Konrad Sandhoff
Gangliosides are sialic acid containing glycosphingolipids, which are abundant in mammalian brain tissue. Several fatal human diseases are caused by defects in glycolipid metabolism. Defects in their degradation lead to an accumulation of metabolites upstream of the defective reactions, whereas defects in their biosynthesis lead to diverse problems in a large number of organs.Gangliosides are primarily positioned with their ceramide anchor in the neuronal plasma membrane and the glycan head group exposed on the cell surface...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yajuan Sun, Haina Zhang, Libo Wang, Jia Li, Hui Jin, Zhenyu Wang, Shiyuan Tian, Ling Qi, Xiaoyang Liu
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) superfamily of transcription factors have been implicated in a wide range of cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, tumorigenesis, and circadian rhythms. In a previous siRNA-based screen, bHLH family member e41 (BHLHE41) had been identified as a putative regulator of neuronal differentiation; however, its function remains largely elusive. To this end, using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we established an isogenic Neuro2a (N2a) cell line with biallelic targeting of Bhlhe41 gene (Bhlhe41-/- )...
June 20, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
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