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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471534/cypermethrin-promotes-lung-cancer-metastasis-via-modulation-of-macrophage-polarization-by-targeting-microrna-155-bcl6
#1
Fang Huang, Zhifeng Chen, Hanwen Chen, Wei Lu, Shujun Xie, Qing H Meng, Yihua Wu, Dajing Xia
Cypermethrin (CYM), a type II pyrethroid, is widely used as an insecticide for agriculture and household. Cumulative evidence indicates that acute and chronic exposure to CYM might cause a number of health problems, such as cancer and neuronal system diseases. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this pathology is not known. The main objective of our study was to define the effects of CYM on macrophages and the implication of such effects in cancer metastasis and the potential mechanism involved. The effects of CYM on the macrophages were evaluated by detecting the expression of M1 and M2 macrophage polarization markers through ELISA, quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot assay...
February 19, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471437/cerebellar-bdnf-promotes-exploration-and-seeking-for-novelty
#2
Daniela Laricchiuta, Diego Andolina, Francesco Angelucci, Francesca Gelfo, Erica Berretta, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Laura Petrosini
Background: Approach system considered a motivational system that activates reward-seeking behavior is associated with exploration/impulsivity, whereas avoidance system considered an attentional system that promotes inhibition of appetitive responses is associated with active overt withdrawal. Approach and avoidance dispositions are modulated by distinct neurochemical profiles and synaptic patterns. However, the precise working of neurons and trafficking of molecules in the brain activity predisposing to approach and avoidance are yet unclear...
February 17, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471293/neonatal-stress-has-a-long-lasting-sex-dependent-effect-on-anxiety-like-behavior-and-neuronal-morphology-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus
#3
Silvana Regina de Melo, Caren Tatiane de David Antoniazzi, Shakhawat Hossain, Bryan Kolb
The long-lasting effects of early stress on brain development have been well studied. Recent evidence indicates that males and females respond differently to the same stressor. We examined the chronic effects of daily maternal separation (MS) on behavior and cerebral morphology in both male and female rats. Cognitive and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated, and neuroplastic changes in 2 subregions of the prefrontal cortex (dorsal agranular insular cortex [AID] and cingulate cortex [Cg3]) and hippocampus (CA1 and dentate gyrus) were measured in adult male and female rats...
February 22, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471227/the-impact-of-acute-and-short-term-methamphetamine-abstinence-on-brain-metabolites-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-chemical-shift-imaging-study
#4
Antoinette Burger, Samantha J Brooks, Dan J Stein, Fleur M Howells
BACKGROUND: Abuse of methamphetamine (MA) is a global health concern. Previous1 H-MRS studies have found that, with methamphetamine abstinence (MAA), there are changes in n-acetyl-aspartate (NAA/Cr), myo-inositol (mI/Cr), choline (Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA), and glutamate with glutamine (Glx) metabolites. Limited studies have investigated the effect of acute MAA, and acute-to-short-term MAA on brain metabolites. METHODS: Adults with chronic MA dependence (n = 31) and healthy controls (n = 22) were recruited...
February 19, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471195/gxnor-net-training-deep-neural-networks-with-ternary-weights-and-activations-without-full-precision-memory-under-a-unified-discretization-framework
#5
Lei Deng, Peng Jiao, Jing Pei, Zhenzhi Wu, Guoqi Li
Although deep neural networks (DNNs) are being a revolutionary power to open up the AI era, the notoriously huge hardware overhead has challenged their applications. Recently, several binary and ternary networks, in which the costly multiply-accumulate operations can be replaced by accumulations or even binary logic operations, make the on-chip training of DNNs quite promising. Therefore there is a pressing need to build an architecture that could subsume these networks under a unified framework that achieves both higher performance and less overhead...
February 2, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471128/spatiotemporal-magnetic-fields-enhance-cytosolic-ca-2-levels-and-induce-actin-polymerization-via-activation-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#6
Mónica Rubio Ayala, Tatiana Syrovets, Susanne Hafner, Vitalii Zablotskii, Alexandr Dejneka, Thomas Simmet
Cellular function is modulated by the electric membrane potential controlling intracellular physiology and signal propagation from a motor neuron to a muscle fiber resulting in muscle contraction. Unlike electric fields, magnetic fields are not attenuated by biological materials and penetrate deep into the tissue. We used complex spatiotemporal magnetic fields (17-70 mT) to control intracellular signaling in skeletal muscle cells. By changing different parameters of the alternating magnetic field (amplitude, inversion time, rotation frequency), we induced transient depolarization of cellular membranes leading to i) Na+ influx through voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC), ii) cytosolic calcium increase, and iii) VGSC- and ryanodine receptor-dependent increase of actin polymerization...
February 16, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471107/pick1-deficiency-exacerbates-sepsis-associated-acute-lung-injury-and-impairs-glutathione-synthesis-via-reduction-of-xct
#7
Meizi Qian, Yingying Lou, Yixiu Wang, Minyuan Zhang, Qun Jiang, Yunchang Mo, Kunyuan Han, Shenhui Jin, Qinxue Dai, Yulong Yu, Zhen Wang, Junlu Wang
The role of oxidative stress has been well documented in the development of sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Protein interaction with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) participates in oxidative stress-related neuronal diseases. However, its function in lung infections and inflammatory diseases is not known. We therefore sought to investigate whether PICK1 is involved in sepsis-induced ALI. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was performed in anesthetized wild type (WT) and PICK1 knock out (KO, PICK1-/- ) mice with C57BL/6 background...
February 19, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471071/intragastric-preloads-of-l-tryptophan-reduce-ingestive-behavior-via-oxytocinergic-neural-mechanisms-in-male-mice
#8
Sarah N Gartner, Fraser Aidney, Anica Klockars, Colin Prosser, Elizabeth A Carpenter, Kiriana Isgrove, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Human and laboratory animal studies suggest that dietary supplementation of a free essential amino acid, l-tryptophan (TRP), reduces food intake. It is unclear whether an acute gastric preload of TRP decreases consumption and whether central mechanisms underlie TRP-driven hypophagia. We examined the effect of TRP administered via intragastric gavage on energy- and palatability-induced feeding in mice. We sought to identify central mechanisms through which TRP suppresses appetite. Effects of TRP on consumption of energy-dense and energy-dilute tastants were established in mice stimulated to eat by energy deprivation or palatability...
February 19, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471053/morphological-and-functional-evidence-of-increased-excitatory-signaling-in-the-prelimbic-cortex-during-ethanol-withdrawal
#9
Florence P Varodayan, Harpreet Sidhu, Max Kreifeldt, Marisa Roberto, Candice Contet
Excessive alcohol consumption in humans induces deficits in decision making and emotional processing, which indicates a dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The present study aimed to determine the impact of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) inhalation on mouse medial PFC pyramidal neurons. Data were collected 6-8 days into withdrawal from 7 weeks of CIE exposure, a time point when mice exhibit behavioral symptoms of withdrawal. We found that spine maturity in prelimbic (PL) layer 2/3 neurons was increased, while dendritic spines in PL layer 5 neurons or infralimbic (IL) neurons were not affected...
February 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471019/hsp90-co-chaperone-p23-contributes-to-dopaminergic-mitochondrial-stress-via-stabilization-of-phd2-implications-for-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Anand Rane, Subramanian Rajagopalan, Manuj Ahuja, Bobby Thomas, Shankar J Chinta, Julie K Andersen
The heat shock factor 90 (hsp90) complex has long been associated with neuropathological phenotypes linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) and its inhibition is neuroprotective in disease models. Hsp90 is conventionally believed to act by suppressing induction of hsp70. Here, we report a novel hsp70-independent mechanism by which Hsp90 may also contribute to PD-associated neuropathology. We previously reported that inhibition of the enzyme prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 (PHD2) in conjunction with increases in hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) results in protection of vulnerable dopaminergic substantia nigra pars compacta (DAergic SNpc) neurons in in vitro and in vivo models of PD...
February 19, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471003/trkb-receptor-antagonism-inhibits-stab-injury-induced-proliferative-response-in-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio-brain
#11
Surendra Kumar Anand, Amal Chandra Mondal
The Tropomyosin related kinase (TrkB) receptor, is known to promote neuronal maturation, differentiation, maintenance and survival through its cognate ligands Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 4 (NT4). BDNF, NT4 and TrkB are highly conserved proteins among vertebrates. Although the role of TrkB during brain development is well established, its role in adult neurogenesis and brain regeneration awaits thorough investigation. In this study, we used the zebrafish stab wound injury model to determine whether the injury induced regeneration response in the telencephalon region is governed by TrkB or not...
February 19, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470967/a-spotlight-on-appetite
#12
Lisa R Beutler, Zachary A Knight
Remarkably few hormones have been identified that stimulate appetite. The recent discovery of asprosin, a hormone that activates AgRP neurons to increase food intake and body weight, begins to fill this gap (Duerrschmid et al., 2017; Romere et al., 2016).
February 21, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470966/untangling-neural-representations-in-the-motor-cortex
#13
Andrew Jackson
How the brain generates accurate movement is a long-standing problem in neuroscience. In this issue of Neuron, Russo et al. (2018) argue that population activity in motor cortex does not represent muscle patterns but rather untangled neural trajectories that are robust to noise.
February 21, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470488/intracellular-amyloid-beta-expression-leads-to-dysregulation-of-the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-and-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-signaling-axis
#14
Eric Cruz, Sushil Kumar, Li Yuan, Jyothi Arikkath, Surinder K Batra
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative syndrome classically depicted by the parenchymal accumulation of extracellular amyloid beta plaques. However, recent findings suggest intraneuronal amyloid beta (iAβ1-42) accumulation precedes extracellular deposition. Furthermore, the pathologic increase in iAβ1-42 has been implicated in dysregulation of cellular mechanisms critically important in axonal transport. Owing to neuronal cell polarity, retrograde and anterograde axonal transport are essential trafficking mechanism necessary to convey membrane bound neurotransmitters, neurotrophins, and endosomes between soma and synaptic interfaces...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470149/chronic-complete-cervical-6-7-cord-transection-distinct-autonomic-and-cardiac-deficits
#15
Heidi L Lujan, Anne Tonson, Robert W Wiseman, Stephen E DiCarlo
Spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting in tetraplegia is a devastating, life-changing insult causing paralysis and sensory impairment as well as distinct autonomic dysfunction that triggers compromised cardiovascular, bowel, bladder and sexual activity. Life becomes a battle for independence as even routine bodily functions and the smallest activity of daily living become a major challenge. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a chronic pre-clinical model of tetraplegia. This report addresses this critical need by comparing, for the first time, resting, reflex and stress-induced cardiovascular, autonomic and hormonal responses each week for 4 weeks in 12 sham-operated intact rats and 12 rats with chronic, complete C6-7 spinal cord transection...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469809/efficient-and-accurate-extraction-of-in-vivo-calcium-signals-from-microendoscopic-video-data
#16
Pengcheng Zhou, Shanna L Resendez, Jose Rodriguez-Romaguera, Jessica C Jimenez, Shay Q Neufeld, Andrea Giovannucci, Johannes Friedrich, Eftychios A Pnevmatikakis, Garret D Stuber, Rene Hen, Mazen A Kheirbek, Bernardo L Sabatini, Robert E Kass, Liam Paninski
In vivo calcium imaging through microendoscopic lenses enables imaging of previously inaccessible neuronal populations deep within the brains of freely moving animals. However, it is computationally challenging to extract single-neuronal activity from microendoscopic data, because of the very large background fluctuations and high spatial overlaps intrinsic to this recording modality. Here, we describe a new constrained matrix factorization approach to accurately separate the background and then demix and denoise the neuronal signals of interest...
February 22, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469808/rab5-and-alsin-regulate-stress-activated-cytoprotective-signaling-on-mitochondria
#17
FoSheng Hsu, Stephanie Spannl, Charles Ferguson, Anthony A Hyman, Robert G Parton, Marino Zerial
Mitochondrial stress response is essential for cell survival, and damaged mitochondria are a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, it is fundamental to understand how mitochondria relay information within the cell. Here, by investigating mitochondrial-endosomal contact sites we made the surprising observation that the small GTPase Rab5 translocates from early endosomes to mitochondria upon oxidative stress. This process is reversible and accompanied by an increase in Rab5-positive endosomes in contact with mitochondria...
February 22, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469033/altered-expression-of-the-cdk5-activator-like-protein-cdk5%C3%AE-causes-neurodegeneration-in-part-by-accelerating-the-rate-of-aging
#18
Joshua Spurrier, Arvind Kumar Shukla, Kristina McLinden, Kory Johnson, Edward Giniger
Aging is the greatest risk factor for neurodegeneration, but the connection between the two processes remains opaque. This is in part for want of a rigorous way to define physiological age, as opposed to chronological age. Here we develop a comprehensive metric for physiological age in Drosophila, based on genome-wide expression profiling. We applied this metric to a model of adult-onset neurodegeneration, increased or decreased expression of the activating subunit of the Cdk5 protein kinase, encoded by the gene Cdk5α , the ortholog of mammalian p35...
February 21, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468822/phycoerythrin-derived-tryptic-peptide-of-a-red-alga-pyropia-yezoensis-attenuates-glutamate-induced-er-stress-and-neuronal-senescence-in-primary-rat-hippocampal-neurons
#19
Jeong Hwan Oh, Eun-Young Kim, Taek-Jeong Nam
SCOPE: Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity involves in various neurodegenerative disorders. This study aimed to investigate whether a phycoerythrin-derived tryptic peptide of Pyropia yezoensis (PYP) reduces glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and neuronal senescence in primary rat hippocampal neurons. METHODS AND RESULTS: Glutamate exposure (100 μM) decreased cell viability and increased expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response protein glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) starting at 60 min following glutamate exposure, which was attenuated by PYP pretreatment (1 μg/mL)...
February 21, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468596/an-in-vitro-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-model-for-studying-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-of-neuronal-cells
#20
Myoung-Gwi Ryou, Robert T Mallet
Ischemia-reperfusion syndromes of the heart and brain are the leading cause of death and long-term disability worldwide. Development of effective treatments for myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac arrest and their sequelae requires preclinical models that replicate specific features of ischemia-reperfusion. The complexities of intact animals, including the integrated function of organ systems, autonomic innervation and endocrine factors, often preclude detailed study of specific components of ischemia-reperfusion injury cascades...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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