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Neuron activation

G Di Cesare, A Errante, M Marchi, V Cuccio
In this fMRI study we evaluated whether the auditory processing of action verbs pronounced by a human or a robotic voice in the imperative mood differently modulates the activation of the mirror neuron system (MNs). The study produced three results. First, the activation pattern found during listening to action verbs was very similar in both the robot and human conditions. Second, the processing of action verbs compared to abstract verbs determined the activation of the fronto-parietal circuit classically involved during the action goal understanding...
August 19, 2017: Brain and Cognition
Balint Nagy, Anahit Hovhannisyan, Ruxandra Barzan, Ting-Jiun Chen, Maria Kukley
In the developing and adult brain, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are influenced by neuronal activity: they are involved in synaptic signaling with neurons, and their proliferation and differentiation into myelinating glia can be altered by transient changes in neuronal firing. An important question that has been unanswered is whether OPCs can discriminate different patterns of neuronal activity and respond to them in a distinct way. Here, we demonstrate in brain slices that the pattern of neuronal activity determines the functional changes triggered at synapses between axons and OPCs...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
Matías A Goldin, Gabriel B Mindlin
Different neuronal types within brain motor areas contribute to the generation of complex motor behaviors. A widely studied songbird forebrain nucleus (HVC) has been recognized as fundamental in shaping the precise timing characteristics of birdsong. This is based, among other evidence, on the stretching and the "breaking" of song structure when HVC is cooled. However, little is known about the temperature effects that take place in its neurons. To address this, we investigated the dynamics of HVC both experimentally and computationally...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Doreen Badheka, Yevgen Yudin, Istvan Borbiro, Cassandra M Hartle, Aysenur Yazici, Tooraj Mirshahi, Tibor Rohacs
Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 3 (TRPM3) channels are activated by heat, and chemical ligands such as pregnenolone sulphate (PregS) and CIM0216. Here we show that activation of receptors coupled to heterotrimeric Gi/o proteins inhibits TRPM3 channels. This inhibition was alleviated by co-expression of proteins that bind the βγ subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins (Gβγ). Co-expression of Gβγ, but not constitutively active Gαi or Gαo, inhibited TRPM3 currents. TRPM3 co-immunoprecipitated with Gβ, and purified Gβγ proteins applied to excised inside-out patches inhibited TRPM3 currents, indicating a direct effect...
August 15, 2017: ELife
Meng-Chun Cheng, Tzu-Ming Pan
Glyceryl 1,3-dipalmitate (GD) purified from Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101-fermented products has been demonstrated to possess neuroprotective properties. We determined the effect of GD on oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell death. GD ameliorated OGD/R-induced apoptosis by elevating the protein expression of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), thereby attenuating reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sovanarak Lek, Javier Vargas-Medrano, Ernesto Villanueva, Brian Marcus, Wesley Godfrey, Ruth G Perez
α-Synuclein (aSyn), β-Synuclein (bSyn), and γ-Synuclein (gSyn) are members of a conserved family of chaperone-like proteins that are highly expressed in vertebrate neuronal tissues. Of the three synucleins, only aSyn has been strongly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Dementia with Lewy Bodies, and Multiple System Atrophy. In studying normal aSyn function, data indicate that aSyn stimulates the activity of the catalytic subunit of an abundantly expressed dephosphorylating enzyme, PP2Ac in vitro and in vivo...
August 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sung-Soo Jang, Han Gil Jeong, Hee Jung Chung
Electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) is an experimental animal model of electroconvulsive therapy, the most effective treatment for severe depression. ECS induces generalized tonic-clonic seizures with low mortality and neuronal death and is a widely-used model to screen anti-epileptic drugs. Here, we describe an ECS induction method in which a brief 55-mA current is delivered for 0.5 s to male rats 200 - 250 g in weight via ear-clip electrodes. Such bilateral stimulation produced stage 4 - 5 clonic seizures that lasted about 10 s...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Anita-Marie Rayar, Nathalie Lagarde, Clotilde Ferroud, Jean-François Zagury, Matthieu Montes, Maité Sylla-Iyarreta Veitía
Inflammation is a complex phenomenon necessary in human defense mechanisms but also involved in the development of some human diseases. The discovery of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) improved the pharmacology of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) giving a clear mechanism for prostaglandin regulation in vivo and providing a new target for the development of COX-2-selective drugs without gastrointestinal side-effects. Keeping in view the importance of this pharmacological class, several literature reports have underlined the impact of these anti-inflammatory compounds in therapeutics...
August 21, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Bahareh Shabrang, Akram Jamshidzadeh, Mojtaba Farjam, Azin Ebrahimpour, Omid Koohi-Hosseinabadi
To develop pharmacological therapy for acute hepatic encephalopathy (AHE), understanding the molecular basis for cell injury is essential. Excitotoxic neural cell injury mediated by calpain as a post- receptor mechanism has been proposed as a player in neuronal injury in AHE. Concurrent assessment of Calpain and Caspase3 activities in the brain of AHE mice in acetaminophen- induced mourine model was performed. After induction of AHE by acetaminophen in mice, the model was confirmed by histopathological, biochemical and behavioural studies...
August 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
Hannah Maria Jahn, Matteo Bergami
The dentate gyrus (DG) in the adult brain maintains the capability to generate new granule neurons throughout life. Neural stem cell-derived new-born neurons emerge to play key functions in the way information is processed in the DG and then conveyed to the CA3 hippocampal area, yet accumulating evidence indicates that both the maturation process and the connectivity pattern of new granule neurons are not prefigured but can be modulated by the activity of local microcircuits and, on a network level, by experience...
August 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
Arne Schousboe, Petrine Wellendorph, Bente Frølund, Rasmus P Clausen, Povl Krogsgaard-Larsen
Inactivation of GABA-mediated neurotransmission is achieved by high-affinity transporters located at both GABAergic neurons and the surrounding astrocytes. Early studies of the pharmacological properties of neuronal and glial GABA transporters suggested that different types of transporters might be expressed in the two cell types, and such a scenario was confirmed by the cloning of four distinctly different GABA transporters from a number of different species. These GABA-transport entities have been extensively characterized using a large number of GABA analogues of restricted conformation, and several of these compounds have been shown to exhibit pronounced anticonvulsant activity in a variety of animal seizure models...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Germán Fernando Gutiérrez Aguilar, Ivan Alquisiras-Burgos, Mónica Espinoza-Rojo, Penélope Aguilera
Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) expressed in astrocytes remove the glutamate released by neurons in and around the synaptic cleft. In this manner, astrocytes preserve the signaling functions mediated by glutamate on synapses and prevent excitotoxicity. Additionally, EAAT activation stimulates glucose utilization in astrocytes, linking neuronal activity with astrocyte metabolism. In this chapter, we briefly review the characteristics of the EAATs and the glucose transporters (GLUTs) expressed in the brain...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Georgi Gegelashvili, Ole Jannik Bjerrum
The vast majority of peripheral neurons sensing noxious stimuli and conducting pain signals to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord utilize glutamate as a chemical transmitter of excitation. High-affinity glutamate transporter subtypes GLAST/EAAT1, GLT1/EAAT2, EAAC1/EAAT3, and EAAT4, differentially expressed on sensory neurons, postsynaptic spinal interneurons, and neighboring glia, ensure fine modulation of glutamate neurotransmission in the spinal cord. The glutamate transport system seems to play important roles in molecular mechanisms underlying chronic pain and analgesia...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Donají Chi-Castañeda, Edna Suárez-Pozos, Arturo Ortega
Glutamate (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system. During synaptic activity, Glu is released into the synaptic cleft and binds to Glu receptors activating a wide variety of signal transduction cascades. Extracellular Glu concentrations are maintained exclusively within physiological levels mainly by glial Glu transporters. Inefficient clearance of synaptic Glu may be neurotoxic owing to prolonged hyperactivation of postsynaptic Glu receptors, causing a multitude of intracellular events in the postsynaptic neuron, which ultimately results in neuronal cell death...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Edna Suárez-Pozos, Donají Chi-Castañeda, Arturo Ortega
One of the most important processes of the synaptic transmission is neurotransmitter uptake, which is critical for the good performance of the nervous system by maintaining the neurotransmitter's baseline levels after its release. The major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system is glutamate; its extracellular levels are tightly regulated through high-affinity plasma membrane transporters. Most of the brain glutamate uptake activity is carried out by glial transporters that until recently have been regarded as important for the recycling of this excitatory amino acid...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Angelina Rodríguez, Arturo Ortega
Glial glutamine and glutamate transporters play an important role in glial/neuronal interactions. An excellent model to establish the role of these membrane proteins is the cerebellum. The most abundant glutamatergic synapse in the central nervous system is present in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex, and it is entirely wrapped by Bergmann glial cells. The recycling of glutamate involves glutamate and glutamine transporters enriched in these radial glial processes. The functional properties of amino acid glial transporters allow, in an activity-dependent manner, the conformation of protein complexes important for the adequate support of glutamatergic neurotransmission...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Francisco Zafra, Ignacio Ibáñez, David Bartolomé-Martín, Dolores Piniella, Marina Arribas-Blázquez, Cecilio Giménez
Glycine plays two roles in neurotransmission. In caudal areas like the spinal cord and the brainstem, it acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, but in all regions of the CNS, it also works as a co-agonist with L-glutamate at N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). The glycine fluxes in the CNS are regulated by two specific transporters for glycine, GlyT1 and GlyT2, perhaps with the cooperation of diverse neutral amino acid transporters like Asc-1 or SNAT5/SN2. While GlyT2 and Asc-1 are neuronal proteins, GlyT1 and SNAT5 are mainly astrocytic, although neuronal forms of GlyT1 also exist...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Beatriz López-Corcuera, Cristina Benito-Muñoz, Carmen Aragón
Glycine, besides exerting essential metabolic functions, is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in caudal areas of the central nervous system and also a positive neuromodulator at excitatory glutamate-mediated synapses. Glial cells provide metabolic support to neurons and modulate synaptic activity. Six transporters belonging to three solute carrier families (SLC6, SLC38, and SLC7) are capable of transporting glycine across the glial plasma membrane. The unique glial glycine-selective transporter GlyT1 (SLC6) is the main regulator of synaptic glycine concentrations, assisted by the neuronal GlyT2...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Yu Guo, Zhuo Liu, Yi-Kun Chen, Zhen Chai, Chen Zhou, Yan Zhang
Neurons grow multiple axons after treatment with glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitors. However, whether they are electrically active is not known. Here, we examined the role of multiple axons as electrophysiological components during neuronal firing. Combining pharmacological, immunofluorescence, and electrophysiological methods, we found that more neurons had multiple axon initial segments (AISs) after inhibition of GSK-3 activity with SB415286. The multiple AISs induced by GSK-3 inhibition were enriched with voltage-gated sodium channels...
August 21, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
Yu Liu, Samuel S McAfee, Natalie M Guley, Nobel Del Mar, Wei Bu, Scott A Heldt, Marcia G Honig, Bob M Moore, Anton Reiner, Detlef H Heck
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can cause severe long-term cognitive and emotional deficits, including impaired memory, depression, and persevering fear, but the neuropathological basis of these deficits is uncertain. As medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus play important roles in memory and emotion, we used multi-site, multi-electrode recordings of oscillatory neuronal activity in local field potentials (LFPs) in awake, head-fixed mice to determine if the functioning of these regions was abnormal after mTBI, using a closed-skull focal cranial blast model...
July 2017: ENeuro
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