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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245067/lin28a-functionally-modulates-bupivacaine-induced-dorsal-root-ganglion-neuron-apoptosis-through-trka-activation
#1
Liangsheng Yu, Yuanxu Jiang, Bin Tang
PURPOSE: Lin-28 Homolog A gene (Lin28a) is an important regulator in nerve system. In this study, we investigated the functional mechanism of Lin28a during the process of bupivacaine (BUP)-induced neuronal apoptosis of spinal cord dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs). METHODS: Young mouse DRGNs were cultured in vitro and treated with series concentrations of BUP. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay. Corresponding Lin28a mRNA and protein expressions were evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blot (WB) assays...
December 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245066/immuno-biological-comparison-of-hepatic-stellate-cells-in-a-reverted-and-activated-state
#2
Mehdi Najar, Hussein Fayyad-Kazan, Wissam H Faour, Adil El Taghdouini, Gordana Raicevic, Leo A van Grunsven, Mustapha Najimi, Etienne Sokal, Laurence Lagneaux
Human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) demonstrated great immunological plasticity with important consequences for liver cell therapy. Activated HSCs (aHSCs) are in vitro reverted (rHSCs) to a quiescent-like phenotype with potential benefit to reduce liver fibrosis. The goal of this study is to establish and compare the immunological profile of activated and in vitro reverted HSCs and to investigate the impact of inflammatory priming on the immunobiology of both HSCs populations. The distribution of inflammatory primed activated and reverted HSCs across the different phases of the cell cycle is assessed by flow cytometry...
December 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244816/treatment-with-albumin-hydroxyoleic-acid-complex-restores-sensorimotor-function-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury-efficacy-and-gene-expression-regulation
#3
Gerardo Avila-Martin, Manuel Mata-Roig, Iriana Galán-Arriero, Julian S Taylor, Xavier Busquets, Pablo V Escribá
Sensorimotor dysfunction following incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) is often characterized by paralysis, spasticity and pain. Previously, we showed that intrathecal (i.t.) administration of the albumin-oleic acid (A-OA) complex in rats with SCI produced partial improvement of these symptoms and that oral 2-hydroxyoleic acid (HOA, a non-hydrolyzable OA analogue), was efficacious in the modulation and treatment of nociception and pain-related anxiety, respectively. Here we observed that intrathecal treatment with the complex albumin-HOA (A-HOA) every 3 days following T9 spinal contusion injury improved locomotor function assessed with the Rotarod and inhibited TA noxious reflex activity in Wistar rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244637/u-shaped-relation-between-prestimulus-alpha-and-poststimulus-gamma-band-power-in-temporal-tactile-perception-in-the-human-somatosensory-cortex
#4
Marc André Wittenberg, Thomas J Baumgarten, Alfons Schnitzler, Joachim Lange
Neuronal oscillations are a ubiquitous phenomenon in the human nervous system. Alpha-band oscillations (8-12 Hz) have been shown to correlate negatively with attention and performance, whereas gamma-band oscillations (40-150 Hz) correlate positively. Here, we studied the relation between prestimulus alpha-band power and poststimulus gamma-band power in a suprathreshold tactile discrimination task. Participants received two electrical stimuli to their left index finger with different SOAs (0 msec, 100 msec, intermediate SOA, intermediate SOA ± 10 msec)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244233/inadequate-brain-glycogen-or-sleep-increases-spreading-depression-susceptibility
#5
Kivilcim Kilic, Hulya Karatas, Buket Donmez-Demir, Emine Eren-Kocak, Yasemin Gursoy-Ozdemir, Alp Can, Jean-Marie Petit, Pierre J Magistretti, Turgay Dalkara
OBJECTIVE: Glycogen in astrocyte endfeet contributes to maintenance of low extracellular glutamate and K+ concentrations around synapses. Sleep deprivation (SD), a common migraine trigger induces transcriptional changes in astrocytes reducing glycogen breakdown. We hypothesize that when glycogen utilization cannot match synaptic energy demand, extracellular K+ can rise to levels that activate neuronal pannexin-1 channels and downstream inflammatory pathway, which might be one of the mechanisms initiating migraine headaches...
December 15, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243588/dynamic-modulation-of-activity-in-cerebellar-nuclei-neurons-during-pavlovian-eyeblink-conditioning-in-mice
#6
Michiel Manuel Ten Brinke, Shane Heiney, Xiaolu Wang, Martina Proietti-Onori, Henk-Jan Boele, Jacob Bakermans, Javier F Medina, Zhenyu Gao, Chris I De Zeeuw
While research on the cerebellar cortex is crystallizing our understanding of its function in learning behavior, many questions surrounding its downstream targets remain. Here, we evaluate the dynamics of cerebellar interpositus nucleus (IpN) neurons over the course of Pavlovian eyeblink conditioning. A diverse range of learning-induced neuronal responses was observed, including increases and decreases in activity during the generation of conditioned blinks. Trial-by-trial correlational analysis and optogenetic manipulation demonstrate that facilitation in the IpN drives the eyelid movements...
December 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243587/human-subthalamic-nucleus-activity-during-non-motor-decision-making
#7
Baltazar A Zavala, Anthony I Jang, Kareem A Zaghloul
Recent studies have implicated the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in decisions that involve inhibiting movements. Many of the decisions that we make in our daily lives, however, do not involve any motor actions. We studied non-motor decision making by recording intraoperative STN and prefrontal cortex (PFC) electrophysiology as participants perform a novel task that required them to decide whether to encode items into working memory. During all encoding trials, beta band (15-30 Hz) activity decreased in the STN and PFC, and this decrease was progressively enhanced as more items were stored into working memory...
December 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243196/chronic-mild-hyperhomocysteinemia-alters-inflammatory-and-oxidative-nitrative-status-and-causes-protein-dna-damage-as-well-as-ultrastructural-changes-in-cerebral-cortex-is-acetylsalicylic-acid-neuroprotective
#8
Daniella de S Moreira, Paula W Figueiró, Cassiana Siebert, Caroline A Prezzi, Francieli Rohden, Fatima C R Guma, Vanusa Manfredini, Angela T S Wyse
Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid derived from methionine metabolism. When plasma homocysteine levels exceed 10-15 μM, there is a condition known as hyperhomocysteinemia, which occur as a result of an inborn error of methionine metabolism or by non-genetic causes. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is considered a risk factor for development of neurodegenerative diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether acetylsalicylic acid has neuroprotective role on the effect of homocysteine on inflammatory, oxidative/nitrative stress, and morphological parameters in cerebral cortex of rats subjected to chronic mild hyperhomocysteinemia...
December 14, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243191/pharmacologically-induced-impairment-of-neurovascular-coupling-responses-alters-gait-coordination-in-mice
#9
Stefano Tarantini, Andriy Yabluchanksiy, Gábor A Fülöp, Peter Hertelendy, M Noa Valcarcel-Ares, Tamas Kiss, Jonathan M Bagwell, Daniel O'Connor, Eszter Farkas, Farzaneh Sorond, Anna Csiszar, Zoltan Ungvari
There is correlative evidence that impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, in addition to promoting cognitive impairment, is also associated with alterations in gait and development of falls in elderly people. CBF is adjusted to neuronal activity via neurovascular coupling (NVC) and this mechanism becomes progressively impaired with age. To establish a direct cause-and-effect relationship between impaired NVC and gait abnormalities, we induced neurovascular uncoupling pharmacologically in young C57BL/6 mice by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilator mediators involved in NVC...
December 14, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243172/therapeutic-delivery-of-simvastatin-loaded-in-pla-peg-polymersomes-resulted-in-amplification-of-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-activated-microglia
#10
Dharani Manickavasagam, Kimberly Novak, Moses O Oyewumi
Simvastatin (Sim), a lipid-lowering drug has been studied in chronic neuroinflammation associated with degenerative brain disorders due to its potential protective properties against inflammatory reaction, oxidative damage, neuronal dysfunction, and death. Meanwhile, potential application of Sim in neuroinflammation will require a suitable delivery system that can overcome notable challenges pertaining to poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and side/off-target effects. Herein, we engineered and characterized nano-sized polymersomes loaded with Sim (Sim-Ps) using PEG-PdLLA (methoxy polyethylene glycol-poly(D,L) lactic acid) diblock co-polymers...
December 14, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243119/action-observation-or-imitation-of-virtual-hand-movement-affect-differently-regions-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-and-the-default-mode-network
#11
Nabila Brihmat, Mohamed Tarri, Yann Quidé, Ketty Anglio, Bernard Pavard, Evelyne Castel-Lacanal, David Gasq, Xavier De Boissezon, Philippe Marque, Isabelle Loubinoux
Virtual reality (VR)-based paradigms use visual stimuli that can modulate visuo-motor networks leading to the stimulation of brain circuits. The aims of this study were to compare the changes in blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal when watching and imitating moving real (RH) and virtual hands (VH) in 11 healthy participants (HP). No differences were found between the observation of RH or VH making this VR-based experiment a promising tool for rehabilitation protocols. VH-imitation involved more the ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) as part of the mirror neuron system (MNS) compared to execution and VH-observation conditions...
December 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242823/processing-of-natural-echolocation-sequences-in-the-inferior-colliculus-of-seba-s-fruit-eating-bat-carollia-perspicillata
#12
M Jerome Beetz, Sebastian Kordes, Francisco García-Rosales, Manfred Kössl, Julio C Hechavarría
For the purpose of orientation, echolocating bats emit highly repetitive and spatially directed sonar calls. Echoes arising from call reflections are used to create an acoustic image of the environment. The inferior colliculus (IC) represents an important auditory stage for initial processing of echolocation signals. The present study addresses the following questions: (1) how does the temporal context of an echolocation sequence mimicking an approach flight of an animal affect neuronal processing of distance information to echo delays? (2) how does the IC process complex echolocation sequences containing echo information from multiple objects (multiobject sequence)? Here, we conducted neurophysiological recordings from the IC of ketamine-anaesthetized bats of the species Carollia perspicillata and compared the results from the IC with the ones from the auditory cortex (AC)...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242822/abstinence-from-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-produces-discrete-changes-in-glutamatergic-synapses-onto-deep-layer-5-6-neurons-from-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-cortices
#13
José I Pena-Bravo, Carmela M Reichel, Antonieta Lavin
Glutamatergic signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a critical role in drug addiction and relapse. The mPFC is functionally subdivided into dorsal (prelimbic, PL) and ventral (infralimbic, IL) regions, and evidence suggests a differential role of these two divisions in the control of drug seeking and taking; however, there is a dearth of information on the cocaine-induced adaptations in PL- and IL-mPFC synaptic glutamate transmission and their regulation of behavioral responses to cocaine-associated stimuli...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242588/in-retinitis-pigmentosa-trkc-t1-dependent-vectorial-erk-activity-upregulates-glial-tnf-%C3%AE-causing-selective-neuronal-death
#14
Alba Galán, Sean Jmaeff, Pablo F Barcelona, Fouad Brahimi, Marinko V Sarunic, H Uri Saragovi
In some diseases the TrkC.T1 isoform is upregulated in glia, associated with glial TNF-α production and neuronal death. What remains unknown are the activating signals in glia, and how paracrine signals may be selective for a targeted neuron while sparing other proximate neurons. We studied these questions in the retina, where Müller glia contacts photoreceptors on one side and retinal ganglion cells on the other. In a mutant Rhodopsin mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) causing progressive photoreceptor death-but sparing retinal ganglion cells-TrkC...
December 14, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242534/the-celecoxib-derivatives-ar-12-and-ar-14-induce-autophagy-and-clear-prion-infected-cells-from-prions
#15
Basant A Abdulrahman, Dalia Abdelaziz, Simrika Thapa, Li Lu, Shubha Jain, Sabine Gilch, Stefan Proniuk, Alexander Zukiwski, Hermann M Schatzl
Prion diseases are fatal infectious neurodegenerative disorders that affect both humans and animals. The autocatalytic conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) into the pathologic isoform PrPSc is a key feature in prion pathogenesis. AR-12 is an IND-approved derivative of celecoxib that demonstrated preclinical activity against several microbial diseases. Recently, AR-12 has been shown to facilitate clearance of misfolded proteins. The latter proposes AR-12 to be a potential therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative disorders...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242192/the-ubiquitin-e3-ligase-chip-promotes-proteasomal-degradation-of-the-serine-threonine-protein-kinase-pink1-during-staurosporine-induced-cell-death
#16
Lang Yoo, Kwang Chul Chung
Mutations in the gene for the serine/threonine protein kinase PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) are the second most frequent cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). Via its kinase activity, PINK1 regulates neuronal cell survival and mitochondrial quality control. Numerous reports have revealed that PINK1 has diverse and physiologically significant functions, and, therefore, its activity should be tightly regulated. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating PINK1 stability and the modulator(s) involved have not been elucidated...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242167/membrane-initiated-nuclear-trafficking-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-hypothalamic-neurons
#17
Jennifer R Rainville, Grant L Weiss, Nathan Evanson, James P Herman, Nandini Vasudevan, Jeffrey G Tasker
Glucocorticoid binding to the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR) stimulates the translocation of the GR from the cytosol to the nucleus, which leads to the transactivation or transrepression of gene transcription. However, multiple lines of evidence suggest that glucocorticoid signaling can also be initiated from the plasma membrane. Here, we provide evidence for membrane-initiated glucocorticoid signaling by a membrane-impermeant dexamethasone-bovine serum albumin (Dex-BSA) conjugate, which induced GR nuclear trafficking in hypothalamic neurons in vitro and in vivo...
December 11, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242137/sleep-deprivation-decreases-neuronal-excitability-and-responsiveness-in-rats-both-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo
#18
Sándor Borbély, Ildikó Világi, Zsófia Haraszti, Örs Szalontai, Tünde Hajnik, Attila Tóth, László Détári
Sleep deprivation has severe consequences for higher nervous functions. Its effects on neuronal excitability may be one of the most important factors underlying functional deterioration caused by sleep loss. In the present work, excitability changes were studied using two complementary in vivo and ex vivo models. Auditory evoked potentials were recorded from freely-moving animals in vivo. Amplitude of evoked responses showed a near-continuous decrease during deprivation. Prevention of sleep also reduced synaptic efficacy ex vivo, measured from brain slices derived from rats that underwent sleep deprivation...
December 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242118/activation-of-transglutaminase-2-by-nerve-growth-factor-in-differentiating-neuroblastoma-cells-a-role-in-cell-survival-and-neurite-outgrowth
#19
Alanood S Algarni, Alan J Hargreaves, John M Dickenson
NGF (nerve growth factor) and tissue transglutaminase (TG2) play important roles in neurite outgrowth and modulation of neuronal cell survival. In this study, we investigated the regulation of TG2 transamidase activity by NGF in retinoic acid-induced differentiating mouse N2a and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. TG2 transamidase activity was determined using an amine incorporation and a peptide cross linking assay. In situ TG2 activity was assessed by visualising the incorporation of biotin-X-cadaverine using confocal microscopy...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242104/structural-network-differences-in-chronic-muskuloskeletal-pain-beyond-fractional-anisotropy
#20
James H Bishop, Marina Shpaner, Antoni Kubicki, Sarah Clements, Richard Watts, Magdalena R Naylor
Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a condition that influences central nervous system structure. In this study, we combined novel structural neuroimaging techniques, using well-validated software packages including FSL, Mrtrix3, and DSI Studio, to characterize brain grey (GM) and white matter (WM) differences in chronic musculoskeletal pain participants (n = 74), compared to age-matched pain-free controls (n = 31). In participants with chronic pain, we identified significantly higher volume in subcortical GM structures using voxel-based morphometry (FSLVBM)...
December 11, 2017: NeuroImage
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