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Neuron activation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346493/aberrant-neuronal-activity-induced-signaling-and-gene-expression-in-a-mouse-model-of-rasopathy
#1
Franziska Altmüller, Santosh Pothula, Anil Annamneedi, Saeideh Nakhei-Rad, Carolina Montenegro-Venegas, Eneko Pina-Fernández, Claudia Marini, Monica Santos, Denny Schanze, Dirk Montag, Mohammad R Ahmadian, Oliver Stork, Martin Zenker, Anna Fejtova
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by reduced growth, craniofacial abnormalities, congenital heart defects, and variable cognitive deficits. NS belongs to the RASopathies, genetic conditions linked to mutations in components and regulators of the Ras signaling pathway. Approximately 50% of NS cases are caused by mutations in PTPN11. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments in NS patients are still poorly understood. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a new conditional mouse strain that expresses the overactive Ptpn11D61Y allele only in the forebrain...
March 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346482/24s-hydroxycholesterol-and-25-hydroxycholesterol-differentially-impact-hippocampal-neuronal-survival-following-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#2
Min-Yu Sun, Amanda Taylor, Charles F Zorumski, Steven Mennerick
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a major subtype of glutamate receptor mediating excitatory transmission throughout the CNS, participate in ischemia-induced neuronal death. Unfortunately, undesired side effects have limited the strategy of inhibiting/blocking NMDARs as therapy. Targeting endogenous positive allosteric modulators of NMDAR function may offer a strategy with fewer downsides. Here, we explored whether 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-HC), an endogenous positive NMDAR modulator characterized recently by our group, participates in NMDAR-mediated excitotoxicity following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in primary neuron cultures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346453/activity-induced-histone-modifications-govern-neurexin-1-mrna-splicing-and-memory-preservation
#3
Xinlu Ding, Sanxiong Liu, Miaomiao Tian, Wenhao Zhang, Tao Zhu, Dongdong Li, Jiawei Wu, HaiTeng Deng, Yichang Jia, Wei Xie, Hong Xie, Ji-Song Guan
Epigenetic mechanisms regulate the formation, consolidation and reconsolidation of memories. However, the signaling path from neuronal activation to epigenetic modifications within the memory-related brain circuit remains unknown. We report that learning induces long-lasting histone modifications in hippocampal memory-activated neurons to regulate memory stability. Neuronal activity triggers a late-onset shift in Nrxn1 splice isoform choice at splicing site 4 by accumulating a repressive histone marker, H3K9me3, to modulate the splicing process...
March 27, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346452/purine-synthesis-promotes-maintenance-of-brain-tumor-initiating-cells-in-glioma
#4
Xiuxing Wang, Kailin Yang, Qi Xie, Qiulian Wu, Stephen C Mack, Yu Shi, Leo J Y Kim, Briana C Prager, William A Flavahan, Xiaojing Liu, Meromit Singer, Christopher G Hubert, Tyler E Miller, Wenchao Zhou, Zhi Huang, Xiaoguang Fang, Aviv Regev, Mario L Suvà, Tae Hyun Hwang, Jason W Locasale, Shideng Bao, Jeremy N Rich
Brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs), also known as cancer stem cells, hijack high-affinity glucose uptake active normally in neurons to maintain energy demands. Here we link metabolic dysregulation in human BTICs to a nexus between MYC and de novo purine synthesis, mediating glucose-sustained anabolic metabolism. Inhibiting purine synthesis abrogated BTIC growth, self-renewal and in vivo tumor formation by depleting intracellular pools of purine nucleotides, supporting purine synthesis as a potential therapeutic point of fragility...
March 27, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346140/em-connectomics-reveals-axonal-target-variation-in-a-sequence-generating-network
#5
Jörgen Kornfeld, Sam E Benezra, Rajeevan T Narayanan, Fabian Svara, Robert Egger, Marcel Oberlaender, Winfried Denk, Michael A Long
The sequential activation of neurons has been observed in various areas of the brain, but in no case is the underlying network structure well understood. Here we examined the circuit anatomy of zebra finch HVC, a cortical region that generates sequences underlying the temporal progression of the song. We combined serial block-face electron microscopy with light microscopy to determine the cell types targeted by HVC(RA) neurons, which control song timing. Close to their soma, axons almost exclusively targeted inhibitory interneurons, consistent with what had been found with electrical recordings from pairs of cells...
March 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345605/extracellular-matrix-protein-reelin-promotes-myeloma-progression-by-facilitating-tumor-cell-proliferation-and-glycolysis
#6
Xiaodan Qin, Liang Lin, Li Cao, Xinwei Zhang, Xiao Song, Jie Hao, Yan Zhang, Risheng Wei, Xiaojun Huang, Jin Lu, Qing Ge
Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein that is crucial for neuron migration, adhesion, and positioning. We examined the expression of Reelin in a large cohort of multiple myeloma patients recorded in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and used over-expression and siRNA knockdown of Reelin to investigate the role of Reelin in myeloma cell growth. We find that Reelin expression is negatively associated with myeloma prognosis. Reelin promotes myeloma cell proliferation in vitro as well as in vivo. The Warburg effect, evidenced by increased glucose uptake and lactate production, is also enhanced in Reelin-expressing cells...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345153/the-functional-architectures-of-addition-and-subtraction-network-discovery-using-fmri-and-dcm
#7
Yang Yang, Ning Zhong, Karl Friston, Kazuyuki Imamura, Shengfu Lu, Mi Li, Haiyan Zhou, Haiyuan Wang, Kuncheng Li, Bin Hu
The neuronal mechanisms underlying arithmetic calculations are not well understood but the differences between mental addition and subtraction could be particularly revealing. Using fMRI and dynamic causal modeling (DCM), this study aimed to identify the distinct neuronal architectures engaged by the cognitive processes of simple addition and subtraction. Our results revealed significantly greater activation during subtraction in regions along the dorsal pathway, including the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), middle portion of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (mDLPFC), and supplementary motor area (SMA), compared with addition...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345119/metabolism-of-mannose-in-cultured-primary-rat-neurons
#8
Wiebke Rastedt, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Ralf Dringen
Glucose is the main peripheral substrate for energy production in the brain. However, as other hexoses are present in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, we have investigated whether neurons have the potential to metabolize, in addition to glucose, also the hexoses mannose, fructose or galactose. Incubation of primary cerebellar granule neurons in the absence of glucose caused severe cell toxicity within 24 h, which could not be prevented by application of galactose or fructose, while the cells remained viable during incubation in the presence of either mannose or glucose...
March 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344867/cd4-and-cd8-t-cells-are-both-needed-to-induce-paraneoplastic-neurological-disease-in-a-mouse-model
#9
Christina Gebauer, Béatrice Pignolet, Lidia Yshii, Emilie Mauré, Jan Bauer, Roland Liblau
Paraneoplastic neurological disorders (PNDs) are rare human autoimmune diseases that mostly affect the central nervous system (CNS). They are triggered by an efficient immune response against a neural self-antigen that is ectopically expressed in neoplastic tumors. Due to this shared antigenic expression, the immune system reacts not only to tumor cells but also to neural cells resulting in neurological damage. Growing data point to a major role of cell-mediated immunity in PNDs associated to autoantibodies against intracellular proteins...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344778/methodological-advances-in-imaging-intravital-axonal-transport
#10
REVIEW
James N Sleigh, Alessio Vagnoni, Alison E Twelvetrees, Giampietro Schiavo
Axonal transport is the active process whereby neurons transport cargoes such as organelles and proteins anterogradely from the cell body to the axon terminal and retrogradely in the opposite direction. Bi-directional transport in axons is absolutely essential for the functioning and survival of neurons and appears to be negatively impacted by both aging and diseases of the nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The movement of individual cargoes along axons has been studied in vitro in live neurons and tissue explants for a number of years; however, it is currently unclear as to whether these systems faithfully and consistently replicate the in vivo situation...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344765/new-insights-on-thyroid-hormone-mediated-regulation-of-herpesvirus-infections
#11
REVIEW
Robert W Figliozzi, Feng Chen, S Victor Hsia
Thyroid hormone (T3) has been suggested to participate in the regulation of herpesvirus replication during reactivation. Clinical observations and in vivo experiments suggest that T3 are involved in the suppression of herpes virus replication. In vitro, differentiated LNCaP cells, a human neuron-like cells, further resisted HSV-1 replication upon addition of T3. Previous studies indicate that T3 controlled the expression of several key viral genes via its nuclear receptors in differentiated LNCaP cells. Additional observation showed that differentiated LNCaP cells have active PI3K signaling and inhibitor LY294002 can reverse T3-mediated repression of viral replication...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344550/hyperpolarization-activated-current-induces-period-doubling-cascades-and-chaos-in-a-cold-thermoreceptor-model
#12
Kesheng Xu, Jean P Maidana, Mauricio Caviedes, Daniel Quero, Pablo Aguirre, Patricio Orio
In this article, we describe and analyze the chaotic behavior of a conductance-based neuronal bursting model. This is a model with a reduced number of variables, yet it retains biophysical plausibility. Inspired by the activity of cold thermoreceptors, the model contains a persistent Sodium current, a Calcium-activated Potassium current and a hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) that drive a slow subthreshold oscillation. Driven by this oscillation, a fast subsystem (fast Sodium and Potassium currents) fires action potentials in a periodic fashion...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344469/acute-toxicity-profiling-of-the-ethyl-acetate-fraction-of-swietenia-macrophylla-seeds-and-in-vitro-neuroprotection-studies
#13
Mustak Sayyad, Ning Tiang, Yatinesh Kumari, Bey Hing Goh, Yogini Jaiswal, Rozita Rosli, Leonard Williams, Mohd Farooq Shaikh
Swietenia macrophylla (SM) is a medicinally important plant found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The ethyl acetate fraction of the seeds of S. macrophylla (SMEAF) is reported to exhibit potent anticancer, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antifeedant activities. Till date, there have been no studies reported on the acute oral toxicity profile of the ethyl acetate fraction of the seeds of SM. The objective of the present study was to determine the acute toxicity of SMEAF and evaluate the in-vitro neuroprotective activity of SMEAF using primary neuronal cell cultures...
February 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344072/osteopontin-metallothionen-i-ii-interactions-in-experimental-autoimmunune-encephalomyelitis
#14
Hrvoje Jakovac, Tanja Grubić Kezele, Sandra Šućurović, Biserka Mulac-Jeričević, Biserka Radošević-Stašić
Osteopontin (OPN), an extracellular matrix (ECM) glyco-phosphoprotein, plays an important role in autoimmune-mediated demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). As an integrin and CD44 binding protein it participates in bidirectional communication between the ECM and target cells and affects transduction pathways that maintain neuronal and immune cells homeostasis. Its biological activity is also heavily influenced by microenvironment, which stimulates the cleavage of OPN and changes its functions...
March 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344041/stat5-signaling-in-kisspeptin-cells-regulates-the-timing-of-puberty
#15
Marina Augusto Silveira, Isadora C Furigo, Thais T Zampieri, Tabata M Bohlen, Daniella G de Paula, Celso Rodrigues Franci, Jose Donato, Renata Frazao
Previous studies have shown that kisspeptin neurons are important mediators of prolactin's effects on reproduction. However, the cellular mechanisms recruited by prolactin to affect kisspeptin neurons remain unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of brain slices from kisspeptin reporter mice, we observed that 20% of kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus was indirectly depolarized by prolactin via an unknown population of prolactin responsive neurons. This effect required the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway...
March 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344003/abnormal-neural-progenitor-cells-differentiated-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-partially-mimicked-development-of-tsc2-neurological-abnormalities
#16
Yaqin Li, Jiqing Cao, Menglong Chen, Jing Li, Yiming Sun, Yu Zhang, Yuling Zhu, Liang Wang, Cheng Zhang
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a disease featuring devastating and therapeutically challenging neurological abnormalities. However, there is a lack of specific neural progenitor cell models for TSC. Here, the pathology of TSC was studied using primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs) from a patient presenting a c.1444-2A>C mutation in TSC2. We found that TSC2 pNSCs had higher proliferative activity and increased PAX6 expression compared with those of control pNSCs. Neurons differentiated from TSC2 pNSCs showed enlargement of the soma, perturbed neurite outgrowth, and abnormal connections among cells...
March 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343986/the-hemodynamic-signal-as-a-first-order-low-pass-temporal-filter-evidence-and-implications-for-neuroimaging-studies
#17
Antoine Sauvage, Guillaume Hubert, Jonathan Touboul, Jérôme Ribot
Neuronal activation triggers local changes in blood flow and hemoglobin oxygenation. These hemodynamic signals can be recorded through functional magnetic resonance imaging or intrinsic optical imaging, and allows inferring neural activity in response to stimuli. These techniques are widely used to uncover functional brain architectures. However, their accuracy suffers from distortions inherent to hemodynamic responses and noise. The analysis of these signals currently relies on models of impulse hemodynamic responses to brief stimuli...
March 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343966/astrocytes-regulate-daily-rhythms-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-and-behavior
#18
Chak Foon Tso, Tatiana Simon, Alison C Greenlaw, Tanvi Puri, Michihiro Mieda, Erik D Herzog
Astrocytes are active partners in neural information processing [1, 2]. However, the roles of astrocytes in regulating behavior remain unclear [3, 4]. Because astrocytes have persistent circadian clock gene expression and ATP release in vitro [5-8], we hypothesized that they regulate daily rhythms in neurons and behavior. Here, we demonstrated that daily rhythms in astrocytes within the mammalian master circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), determine the period of wheel-running activity. Ablating the essential clock gene Bmal1 specifically in SCN astrocytes lengthened the circadian period of clock gene expression in the SCN and in locomotor behavior...
March 18, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343964/the-temporal-tuning-of-the-drosophila-motion-detectors-is-determined-by-the-dynamics-of-their-input-elements
#19
Alexander Arenz, Michael S Drews, Florian G Richter, Georg Ammer, Alexander Borst
Detecting the direction of motion contained in the visual scene is crucial for many behaviors. However, because single photoreceptors only signal local luminance changes, motion detection requires a comparison of signals from neighboring photoreceptors across time in downstream neuronal circuits. For signals to coincide on readout neurons that thus become motion and direction selective, different input lines need to be delayed with respect to each other. Classical models of motion detection rely on non-linear interactions between two inputs after different temporal filtering...
March 18, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343884/short-term-desensitization-of-fast-escape-behavior-associated-with-suppression-of-mauthner-cell-activity-in-larval-zebrafish
#20
Megumi Takahashi, Maya Inoue, Masashi Tanimoto, Tsunehiko Kohashi, Yoichi Oda
Escape is among the simplest animal behaviors employed to study the neural mechanisms underlying learning. Teleost fishes exhibit behavioral learning of fast escape initiated with a C-shaped body bend (C-start). C-starts are subdivided into short-latency (SLC) and long-latency (LLC) types in larval zebrafish. Whether these two can be separately modified, and the neural correlates of this modification, however, remains undetermined. We thus performed Ca(2+) imaging of Mauthner (M-) cells, a pair of giant hindbrain neurons constituting a core element of SLC circuit, during behavioral learning in larval zebrafish...
March 23, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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