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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853201/the-effects-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-on-the-dopamine-system
#1
Michael A P Bloomfield, Abhishekh H Ashok, Nora D Volkow, Oliver D Howes
The effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, are a pressing concern for global mental health. Patterns of cannabis use are changing drastically owing to legalization, the availability of synthetic analogues (commonly termed spice), cannavaping and an emphasis on the purported therapeutic effects of cannabis. Many of the reinforcing effects of THC are mediated by the dopamine system. Owing to the complexity of the cannabinoid-dopamine interactions that take place, there is conflicting evidence from human and animal studies concerning the effects of THC on the dopamine system...
November 16, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852447/a-polyclonal-outbreak-of-bloodstream-infections-by-enterococcus-faecium-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#2
Pamela Alatorre-Fernández, Claudia Mayoral-Terán, Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta, Cecilia Franco-Rodríguez, Karen Flores-Moreno, Miguel Ángel Cevallos, Yolanda López-Vidal, Patricia Volkow-Fernández
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecium causes bloodstream infection (BSI) in patients with hematologic malignancies (HMs). We studied the clinical features and outcomes of patients with HM with vancomycin-sensitive E faecium (VSE) and vancomycin-resistant E faecium (VRE) BSI and determined the genetic relatedness of isolates and circumstances associated with the upsurge of E faecium BSI. METHODS: Case-control study of patients with HM and E faecium-positive blood culture from January 2008-December 2012; cases were patients with VRE and controls were VSE isolates...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792721/-historical-review-of-kaposi-sarcoma-in-pre-haart-era-evolution-with-different-chemotherapy-schedules-and-remission-with-ganciclovir-use
#3
Patricia Volkow, Benedicte Jacquemin, Juan W Zinser, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla
: Ganciclovir has shown in vitro anti-human herpesvirus-8 activity, Kaposi sarcoma agent. We analyzed all Kaposi sarcoma patients from 1985 to 1996 pre-HAART era and identified Kaposi sarcoma/AIDS patients who achieved complete remission prior to HAART use. RESULTS: We saw 155 Kaposi sarcoma patients up to 1996, 150 with enough information, only 12 received ganciclovir, eight of them for ≥ 21 days; four died within 16 weeks of ganciclovir administration. We identified four male patients with extensive Kaposi sarcoma with complete remission achieved after ganciclovir for CMV end-organ disease...
October 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774503/is-biological-aging-accelerated-in-drug-addiction
#4
Keren Bachi, Salvador Sierra, Nora D Volkow, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
Drug-addiction may trigger early onset of age-related disease, due to drug-induced multi-system toxicity and perilous lifestyle, which remains mostly undetected and untreated. We present the literature on pathophysiological processes that may hasten aging and its relevance to addiction, including: oxidative stress and cellular aging, inflammation in periphery and brain, decline in brain volume and function, and early onset of cardiac, cerebrovascular, kidney, and liver disease. Timely detection of accelerated aging in addiction is crucial for the prevention of premature morbidity and mortality...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764663/re-energizing-the-development-of-pain-therapeutics-in-light-of-the-opioid-epidemic
#5
Phil Skolnick, Nora D Volkow
Limited options for treating moderate-severe pain led to an overreliance on opioids and the current opioid epidemic. Addressing the factors contributing to a dearth of effective alternatives and re-energizing the development of pain therapeutics is necessary to quell this epidemic.
October 19, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739612/structural-and-functional-connectivity-of-the-precuneus-and-thalamus-to-the-default-mode-network
#6
Samantha I Cunningham, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
Neuroimaging studies have identified functional interactions between the thalamus, precuneus, and default mode network (DMN) in studies of consciousness. However, less is known about the structural connectivity of the precuneus and thalamus to regions within the DMN. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to parcellate the precuneus and thalamus based on their probabilistic white matter connectivity to each other and DMN regions of interest (ROIs) in 37 healthy subjects from the Human Connectome Database. We further assessed resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) among the precuneus, thalamus, and DMN ROIs...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651138/late-diagnosis-due-to-missed-opportunities-and-inadequate-screening-strategies-in-hiv-infected-mexican-women
#7
Alexandra Martin-Onraët, Patricia Volkow-Fernández, Victoria Alvarez-Wyssmann, Andrea González-Rodríguez, Jesús Casillas-Rodríguez, Lesvia Rivera-Abarca, Indiana Torres-Escobar, Juan Sierra-Madero
Late diagnosis of HIV remains a public health issue in Mexico. Most national programs target high-risk groups, not including women. More data on factors associated with late diagnosis and access to care in women are needed. In 2012-2013, Mexican women recently diagnosed with HIV were interviewed. Socio-cultural background, household-dynamics and clinical data were collected. Of 301 women, 49 % had <200 CD4 cells/mm(3), 8 % were illiterate, 31 % had only primary school. Physical/sexual violence was reported by 47/30 %; 75 % acquired HIV from their stable partners...
September 20, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618739/don-t-worry-be-happy-endocannabinoids-and-cannabis-at-the-intersection-of-stress-and-reward
#8
Nora D Volkow, Aidan J Hampson, Ruben Baler
Cannabis enables and enhances the subjective sense of well-being by stimulating the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which plays a key role in modulating the response to stress, reward, and their interactions. However, over time, repeated activation of the ECS by cannabis can trigger neuroadaptations that may impair the sensitivity to stress and reward. This effect, in vulnerable individuals, can lead to addiction and other adverse consequences. The recent shift toward legalization of medical or recreational cannabis has renewed interest in investigating the physiological role of the ECS as well as the potential health effects, both adverse and beneficial, of cannabis...
September 2, 2016: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599077/-bacterial-resistance-from-urine-cultures-at-an-oncological-center-follow-up-to-10-years
#9
Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia Volkow-Fernández
OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence and patterns of bacterial resistance in urine samples from a tertiary care oncology hospital in Mexico, from 2004 to 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included the strains obtained from urine cultures, describing separately multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. We analyzed the susceptibility to different antibiotics. RESULTS: 51 202 urine cultures were processed during the study; 14 480 (28.3%) cultures were positive...
August 2016: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595249/-nosocomial-pneumonia-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies
#10
Lucía Martínez-Hernández, Diana Vilar-Compte, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia Volkow-Fernández
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial pneumonia (NP) in patients with hematological malignancies (HM) has an attributable mortality over 90%. There are few studies that report the incidence of nosocomial infections in patients with HM. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology and clinical course of NP in a cohort of patients with hematologic malignancies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Single-center study of patients with leukemia, lymphoma or multiple myeloma diagnosed with NP, hospitalized between January 2011 and December 2012...
July 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551166/cocaine-induced-abnormal-cerebral-hemodynamic-responses-to-forepaw-stimulation-assessed-by-integrated-multi-wavelength-spectroimaging-and-laser-speckle-contrast-imaging
#11
Wei Chen, Kicheon Park, Nora Volkow, Yingtian Pan, Congwu Du
Simultaneous imaging of cerebral hemodynamic changes in response to functional activation during drug intoxication provides a valuable strategy to assess cocaine induced neurovascular dysfunction. However, this requires tools with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution and adequate signal to noise ratio (SNR). Though several technologies have been developed to address this demand during functional brain activation, their spatiotemporal resolution has been compromised to preserve SNR. In this study, we combine spatiotemporal-domain laser speckle contrast analysis and image correlation techniques to integrate multi-wavelength spectroimaging and laser speckle contrast imaging (MW-LSCI)...
July 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522070/temporal-evolution-of-brain-functional-connectivity-metrics-could-7-min-of-rest-be-enough
#12
Dardo G Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Nora D Volkow
Unaccounted temporal dynamics of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) metrics challenges their potential as biomarkers for clinical applications in neuroscience. Here we studied the scan time required to reach stable values for various FC metrics including seed-voxel correlations and spatial independent component analyses (sICA), and for the local functional connectivity density (lFCD), a graph theory metric. By increasing the number of time points included in the analysis, we assessed the effects of scan time on convergence of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and reliability of these FC metrics...
August 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475769/neurobiology-of-addiction-a-neurocircuitry-analysis
#13
REVIEW
George F Koob, Nora D Volkow
Drug addiction represents a dramatic dysregulation of motivational circuits that is caused by a combination of exaggerated incentive salience and habit formation, reward deficits and stress surfeits, and compromised executive function in three stages. The rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, development of incentive salience, and development of drug-seeking habits in the binge/intoxication stage involve changes in dopamine and opioid peptides in the basal ganglia. The increases in negative emotional states and dysphoric and stress-like responses in the withdrawal/negative affect stage involve decreases in the function of the dopamine component of the reward system and recruitment of brain stress neurotransmitters, such as corticotropin-releasing factor and dynorphin, in the neurocircuitry of the extended amygdala...
August 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463420/effects-of-cannabis-use-on-human-behavior-reply
#14
Nora D Volkow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434440/improving-outcomes-for-persons-with-opioid-use-disorders-buprenorphine-implants-to-improve-adherence-and-access-to-care
#15
EDITORIAL
Wilson M Compton, Nora D Volkow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412876/adopting-the-cascade-of-care-framework-an-opportunity-to-close-the-implementation-gap-in-addiction-care
#16
Eugenia M Socías, Nora Volkow, Evan Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406369/mitigation-strategies-for-opioid-abuse
#17
LETTER
Lynn R Webster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406368/mitigation-strategies-for-opioid-abuse
#18
LETTER
Benjamin Bearnot, William Schmitt, Shamim Nejad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406367/mitigation-strategies-for-opioid-abuse
#19
LETTER
Nora D Volkow, A Thomas McLellan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340065/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolate-obtained-from-a-mexican-hospital-sequence-type-422
#20
Semiramis Castro-Jaimes, Abraham David Salgado-Camargo, Lucía Graña-Miraglia, Luis Lozano, Paola Bocanegra-Ibarias, Patricia Volkow-Fernández, Jesus Silva-Sanchez, Santiago Castillo-Ramírez, Miguel A Cevallos
Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a dangerous nosocomial pathogen, particularly for severely ill patients in intensive care units and patients with hematologic malignancies. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolate, recovered from a Mexican hospital and classified as sequence type 422 according to the multilocus sequence typing Pasteur scheme.
2016: Genome Announcements
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