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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668865/association-between-brain-activation-and-functional-connectivity
#1
Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
The origin of the "resting-state" brain activity recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is still uncertain. Here we provide evidence for the neurovascular origins of the amplitude of the low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and the local functional connectivity density (lFCD) by comparing them with task-induced blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses, which are considered a proxy for neuronal activation. Using fMRI data for 2 different tasks (Relational and Social) collected by the Human Connectome Project in 426 healthy adults, we show that ALFF and lFCD have linear associations with the BOLD response...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649549/bloodstream-infections-in-cancer-patients-risk-factors-associated-with-mortality
#2
Beda Islas-Muñoz, Patricia Volkow-Fernández, Cynthia Ibanes-Gutiérrez, Alberto Villamar-Ramírez, Diana Vilar-Compte, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with mortality in cancer patients with bloodstream infections (BSI), analyzing multidrug resistant bacteria (MDRB). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study at a cancer referral center from August 2016 to July 2017, which included all BSI. RESULTS: 4,220 patients were tested with blood cultures; 496 were included. Mean age was 48 years...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629655/impact-and-barriers-of-an-hiv-rapid-test-program-implementation-at-an-oncological-referral-center-in-mexico
#3
Martin-Onraet Alexandra, Perez-Jimenez Carolina, Gonzalez-Rodriguez Andrea, Volkow-Fernandez Patricia
The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening with rapid tests in an oncologic center in Mexico City, report the HIV prevalence, and describe contacts screening and linkage to HIV care while identifying barriers to the performance of the program. In 2014, an HIV rapid test program was implemented in four departments of the hospital "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología". From 2014 to 2016, 3032 HIV rapid tests were performed in the hospital...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593105/medication-development-in-opioid-addiction-meaningful-clinical-end-points
#4
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Janet Woodcock, Wilson M Compton, Douglas C Throckmorton, Phil Skolnick, Sharon Hertz, Eric M Wargo
The FDA's "abstinence" outcome measure for approval of new medications to treat opioid-use disorders has been difficult to achieve; developing and validating alternative meaningful outcomes could facilitate drug development.
March 28, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556883/cannabis-addiction-and-the-brain-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Amna Zehra, Jamie Burns, Christopher Kure Liu, Peter Manza, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Cannabis is the most commonly used substance of abuse in the United States after alcohol and tobacco. With a recent increase in the rates of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and a decrease in the perceived risk of cannabis use, it is imperative to assess the addictive potential of cannabis. Here we evaluate cannabis use through the neurobiological model of addiction proposed by Koob and Volkow. The model proposes that repeated substance abuse drives neurobiological changes in the brain that can be separated into three distinct stages, each of which perpetuates the cycle of addiction...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535451/effect-of-combined-naltrexone-and-bupropion-therapy-on-the-brain-s-functional-connectivity
#6
Gene-Jack Wang, Jizheng Zhao, Dardo Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri Kojori, Ruiliang Wang, Corinde E Wiers, Elisabeth C Caparelli, Nora D Volkow
BACKGROUND: The control of food intake in environments with easy access to highly rewarding foods is challenging to most modern societies. The combination of sustained release (SR) naltrexone and SR bupropion (NB32) has been used in weight-loss and obesity management. However, the effects of NB32 on the brain circuits implicated in the regulation of food intake are unknown. Here we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to evaluate the effects of NB32 on resting brain FC. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy women underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after 4-week treatment with NB32 (n = 16) or with placebo (n = 20)...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504647/enhanced-neuronal-and-blunted-hemodynamic-reactivity-to-cocaine-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-following-extended-cocaine-access-optical-imaging-study-in-anesthetized-rats
#7
Craig P Allen, Kicheon Park, Ang Li, Nora D Volkow, George F Koob, Yingtian Pan, Xiu-Ti Hu, Congwu Du
Cocaine addiction is associated with dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which facilitates relapse and compulsive drug taking. To assess if cocaine's effects on both neuronal and vascular activity contribute to PFC dysfunction, we used optical coherence tomography and multi-wavelength laser speckle to measure vascularization and hemodynamics and used GCaMP6f to monitor intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+ ]in ) as a marker of neuronal activity. Rats were given short (1 hour; ShA) or long (6 hours; LgA) access cocaine self-administration...
March 5, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501966/levodopa-improves-response-inhibition-and-enhances-striatal-activation-in-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Peter Manza, Guy Schwartz, Mala Masson, Sarah Kann, Nora D Volkow, Chiang-Shan R Li, Hoi-Chung Leung
Dopaminergic medications improve the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), but their effect on response inhibition, a critical executive function, remains unclear. Previous studies primarily enrolled patients in more advanced stages of PD, when dopaminergic medication loses efficacy, and patients were typically on multiple medications. Here, we recruited 21 patients in early-stage PD on levodopa monotherapy and 37 age-matched controls to perform the stop-signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486870/subcortical-local-functional-hyperconnectivity-in-cannabis-dependence
#9
Peter Manza, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
BACKGROUND: Cannabis abuse (CA) has been associated with psychopathology, including negative emotionality and higher risk of psychosis, particularly with early age of initiation. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood. Because aberrant dopamine signaling is implicated in cannabis-associated psychopathology, we hypothesized that regular CA would be associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity in dopamine midbrain-striatal circuits. METHODS: We examined resting-state brain activity of subcortical regions in 441 young adults from the Human Connectome Project, including 30 subjects with CA meeting DSM-IV criteria for dependence and 30 control subjects matched on age, sex, education, body mass index, anxiety, depression, and alcohol and tobacco usage...
March 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486720/intrathecal-morphine-administration-reduces-postoperative-pain-and-peripheral-endocannabinoid-levels-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-patients-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Martin Kaczocha, Syed Azim, James Nicholson, Mario J Rebecchi, Yong Lu, Tian Feng, Jamie L Romeiser, Ruth Reinsel, Sabeen Rizwan, Shivam Shodhan, Nora D Volkow, Helene Benveniste
BACKGROUND: The primary goal of this study was to determine whether administration of intrathecal morphine reduces postoperative pain. The secondary goal was to determine the effect of intrathecal morphine upon circulating levels of the weakly analgesic endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and the related lipids palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA). METHODS: Forty two total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients were enrolled in a prospective, double-blinded, randomized study...
February 27, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482378/is-treatment-readiness-associated-with-substance-use-treatment-engagement-an-exploratory-study
#11
Lincoln B Sloas, Michael S Caudy, Faye S Taxman
With nearly 8.2% of Americans experiencing substance use disorders (SUDs), a need exists for effective SUD treatment and for strategies to assist treatment participants to complete treatment programs (Chandler, Fletcher, & Volkow, 2009). The purpose of the current research is to contribute to an emerging knowledge base about treatment readiness and its utility for predicting substance use treatment process performance measures. The study examines the relative salience of treatment readiness as a predictor of treatment engagement...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Drug Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327847/the-role-of-science-in-the-opioid-crisis
#12
Nora D Volkow, Francis S Collins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318488/disrupted-topological-organization-of-the-frontal-mesolimbic-network-in-obese-patients
#13
Qianqian Meng, Yu Han, Gang Ji, Guanya Li, Yang Hu, Li Liu, Qingchao Jin, Karen M von Deneen, Jizheng Zhao, Guangbin Cui, Huaning Wang, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow, Jixin Liu, Yongzhan Nie, Yi Zhang, Gene-Jack Wang
Neuroimaging studies have revealed brain functional abnormalities in frontal-mesolimbic regions in obesity. However, the effects of obesity on brain network topology remains largely unknown. In the current study, we employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory methods to investigate obesity-related changes in brain network topology in 26 obese patients and 28 normal weight subjects. Results revealed that the whole-brain networks of the two groups exhibited typical features of small-world topology...
January 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307014/stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-bacteremia-and-pneumonia-at-a-tertiary-care-oncology-center-a-review-of-16-years
#14
Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta, Sugehily Zarco-Márquez, Mari Carmen Jiménez-Andrade, Patricia Volkow-Fernández, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and antimicrobial patterns of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bloodstream infections (BSI) and pneumonia episodes in patients with cancer. METHODS: Patients with S. maltophilia BSI or pneumonia admitted from 1 Jan. 2000 to 31 Dec. 2016 were identified at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (INCan), a tertiary-care oncology hospital in Mexico City. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 171 isolates identified...
January 7, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300843/reduced-local-and-increased-long-range-functional-connectivity-of-the-thalamus-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
It is hypothesized that brain network abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reflect local overconnectivity and long-range underconnectivity. However, this is not a consistent finding in recent studies, which could reflect the developmental nature and the heterogeneity of ASD. Here, we tested 565 ASD and 602 neurotypical (NT) males, and 91 ASD and 233 NT females using local functional connectivity density (lFCD) mapping and seed-voxel correlation analyses to assess how local and long-range connectivities differ in ASD...
December 29, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283486/toward-precision-medicine-in-addiction-treatment
#16
Nora Volkow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225975/correlation-between-traits-of-emotion-based-impulsivity-and-intrinsic-default-mode-network-activity
#17
Jizheng Zhao, Dardo Tomasi, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Şükrü B Demiral, Yi Zhang, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Negative urgency (NU) and positive urgency (PU) are implicated in several high-risk behaviors, such as eating disorders, substance use disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury behavior. The current study aimed to explore the possible link between trait of urgency and brain activity at rest. We assessed the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal in 85 healthy volunteers. Trait urgency measures were related to ALFF in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventral and dorsal medial frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160944/ketogenic-diet-suppresses-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-in-rats
#18
Ditte Dencker, Anna Molander, Morgane Thomsen, Chantal Schlumberger, Gitta Wortwein, Pia Weikop, Helene Benveniste, Nora D Volkow, Anders Fink-Jensen
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder is underdiagnosed and undertreated, and up to 50% of alcohol-abstinent patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence relapse within the first year of treatment. Current treatments for the maintenance of alcohol abstinence in patients with alcohol use disorder have limited efficacy, and there is an urgent need for novel treatment strategies. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism and increased brain uptake of acetate were recently reported in heavy drinkers, relative to controls...
February 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150199/medications-for-opioid-use-disorder-bridging-the-gap-in-care
#19
Nora D Volkow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142296/the-dopamine-motive-system-implications-for-drug-and-food-addiction
#20
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Roy A Wise, Ruben Baler
Behaviours such as eating, copulating, defending oneself or taking addictive drugs begin with a motivation to initiate the behaviour. Both this motivational drive and the behaviours that follow are influenced by past and present experience with the reinforcing stimuli (such as drugs or energy-rich foods) that increase the likelihood and/or strength of the behavioural response (such as drug taking or overeating). At a cellular and circuit level, motivational drive is dependent on the concentration of extrasynaptic dopamine present in specific brain areas such as the striatum...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
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