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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418460/marijuana-use-during-stages-of-pregnancy-in-the-united-states
#1
Nora D Volkow, Beth Han, Wilson M Compton, Carlos Blanco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416594/new-repeat-polymorphism-in-the-akt1-gene-predicts-striatal-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-and-stimulant-induced-dopamine-release-in-the-healthy-human-brain
#2
Elena Shumay, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Sung Won Kim, Colin A Hodgkinson, Hui Sun, Dardo Tomasi, Christopher T Wong, Daniel R Weinberger, Gene-Jack Wang, Joanna S Fowler, Nora D Volkow
The role of the protein kinase Akt1 in dopamine neurotransmission is well recognized and has been implicated in schizophrenia and psychosis. However, the extent to which variants in the AKT1 gene influence dopamine neurotransmission is not well understood.Here we investigated the effect of a newly characterized variant number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in AKT1 (major alleles: L- (8 repeats) and H- (9 repeats)) on striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (DRD2) availability and on dopamine release in healthy volunteers...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385464/microbiology-of-surgical-site-infections-in-patients-with-cancer-a-7-year-review
#3
Juan Carlos Hernaiz-Leonardo, Maria Fernanda Golzarri, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia Volkow, Consuelo Velázquez, Mauricio Ostrosky-Frid, Diana Vilar-Compte
BACKGROUND: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) have arisen as major sources of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most frequent HAIs in many countries, with high antimicrobial-resistant prevalence. METHODS: A 7-year retrospective review (2008-2014) of microbiologic data within a prospective surveillance program on patients with SSI at a cancer hospital in Mexico. RESULTS: There were 23,421 surgeries performed during the study period...
April 3, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352054/b-cell-leukemia-lymphoma-and-neuroborreliosis-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenges
#4
Islas-Muñoz Beda, Espinosa-Bautista Karla, Cervantes-Castillo M Almudena, Grimaldo-Gómez Flavio, Reyes-Pérez J Armando, Volkow-Fernández Patricia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297025/association-of-stimulant-use-with-dopaminergic-alterations-in-users-of-cocaine-amphetamine-or-methamphetamine-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Abhishekh H Ashok, Yuya Mizuno, Nora D Volkow, Oliver D Howes
Importance: Stimulant use disorder is common, affecting between 0.3% and 1.1% of the population, and costs more than $85 billion per year globally. There are no licensed treatments to date. Several lines of evidence implicate the dopamine system in the pathogenesis of substance use disorder. Therefore, understanding the nature of dopamine dysfunction seen in stimulant users has the potential to aid the development of new therapeutics. Objective: To comprehensively review the in vivo imaging evidence for dopaminergic alterations in stimulant (cocaine, amphetamine, or methamphetamine) abuse or dependence...
March 15, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289715/cerebrovascular-adaptations-to-cocaine-induced-transient-ischemic-attacks-in-the-rodent-brain
#6
Jiang You, Nora D Volkow, Kicheon Park, Qiujia Zhang, Kevin Clare, Congwu Du, Yingtian Pan
Occurrence of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and cerebral strokes is a recognized risk associated with cocaine abuse. Here, we use a rodent model along with optical imaging to study cocaine-induced TIA and the associated dynamic changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) and cerebrovasculature. We show that chronic cocaine exposure in mice resulted in marked cortical hypoperfusion, in significant arterial and venous vasoconstriction, and in a sensitized vascular response to an acute cocaine injection...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261049/brain-network-dynamics-adhere-to-a-power-law
#7
Dardo G Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Nora D Volkow
The temporal dynamics of complex networks such as the Internet are characterized by a power scaling between the temporal mean and dispersion of signals at each network node. Here we tested the hypothesis that the temporal dynamics of the brain networks are characterized by a similar power law. This realization could be useful to assess the effects of randomness and external modulators on the brain network dynamics. Simulated data using a well-stablished random diffusion model allowed us to predict that the temporal dispersion of the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and that of the local functional connectivity density (lFCD) scale with their temporal means...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178354/correction-chronic-methamphetamine-effects-on-brain-structure-and-function-in-rats
#8
Panayotis K Thanos, Ronald Kim, Foteini Delis, Mala Ananth, George Chachati, Mark J Rocco, Ihssan Masad, Jose A Muniz, Samuel C Grant, Mark S Gold, Jean Lud Cadet, Nora D Volkow
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155457.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112677/seeing-how-we-smell
#9
Helene Benveniste, Yuri Lazebnik, Nora D Volkow
PET allows noninvasive imaging of a variety of events in the body, including the activity of neuronal circuits in the brain that are involved in cognition and behaviors, by using radiotracers that detect relevant biological reactions. A major impediment to expanding PET applications to study the brain has been the lack of radiotracers that can identify and measure specific types of neurons or glial cells. In this issue of the JCI, Van de Bittner and colleagues describe a promising step toward solving this problem by identifying and describing a radiotracer, [11C]GV1-57, that appears to specifically label olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which are essential for olfaction (Figure 1)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108358/neurochemical-and-metabolic-effects-of-acute-and-chronic-alcohol-in-the-human-brain-studies-with-positron-emission-tomography
#10
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Corinde E Wiers, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Dardo Tomasi, Gene-Jack Wang, Ruben Baler
The use of Positron emission tomography (PET) to study the effects of acute and chronic alcohol on the human brain has enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's rewarding effects, the neuroadaptations from chronic exposure that contribute to tolerance and withdrawal, and the changes in fronto-striatal circuits that lead to loss of control and enhanced motivation to drink that characterize alcohol use disorders (AUD). These include studies showing that alcohol's reinforcing effects may result not only from its enhancement of dopaminergic, GABAergic and opioid signaling but also from its caloric properties...
January 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993694/effects-of-chronic-methamphetamine-on-psychomotor-and-cognitive-functions-and-dopamine-signaling-in-the-brain
#11
Panayotis K Thanos, Ronald Kim, Foteini Delis, Mark J Rocco, Jacob Cho, Nora D Volkow
Methamphetamine (MA) studies in animals usually involve acute, binge, or short-term exposure to the drug. However, addicts take substantial amounts of MA for extended periods of time. Here we wished to study the effects of MA exposure on brain and behavior, using an animal model analogous to this pattern of MA intake. MA doses, 4 and 8mg/kg/day, were based on previously reported average daily freely available MA self-administration levels. We examined the effects of 16 week MA treatment on psychomotor and cognitive function in the rat using open field and novel object recognition tests and we studied the adaptations of the dopaminergic system, using in vitro and in vivo receptor imaging...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992628/the-risks-of-marijuana-use-during-pregnancy
#12
Nora D Volkow, Wilson M Compton, Eric M Wargo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959513/expression-of-hdac2-but-not-hdac1-transcript-is-reduced-in-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-of-patients-with-schizophrenia
#13
Frederick A Schroeder, Tonya M Gilbert, Ningping Feng, Brendan D Taillon, Nora D Volkow, Robert B Innis, Jacob M Hooker, Barbara K Lipska
Postmortem brain studies support dysregulated expression of the histone deacetylase enzymes, HDAC1 and HDAC2, as a central feature in diseases including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Our objective was to investigate HDAC expression in a large postmortem sample set representing healthy and disease brains. We used >700 well-characterized samples from patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 175), major depressive disorder (n = 135), and bipolar disorder (n = 61) to measure HDAC1 and HDAC2 transcript levels by quantitative real-time PCR in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and caudate compared to control samples...
December 13, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941957/invasive-and-complicated-pneumococcal-infection-in-patients-with-cancer
#14
Sugehily Zarco-Márquez, Patricia Volkow-Fernández, Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta, Gabriela Echániz-Avilés, María Noemí Carnalla-Barajas, Araceli Soto-Noguerón, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez
BACKGROUND: In susceptible patients, Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause complicated pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and antimicrobial features of complicated and invasive pneumococcal disease in patients with cancer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study including all S. pneumoniae isolates between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2015 in an oncology center. Capsular serotyping was done in isolates from sterile sites...
September 2016: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853201/the-effects-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-on-the-dopamine-system
#15
REVIEW
Michael A P Bloomfield, Abhishekh H Ashok, Nora D Volkow, Oliver D Howes
The effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, are a pressing concern for global mental health. Patterns of cannabis use are changing drastically owing to legalization, the availability of synthetic analogues (commonly termed spice), cannavaping and an emphasis on the purported therapeutic effects of cannabis. Many of the reinforcing effects of THC are mediated by the dopamine system. Owing to the complexity of the cannabinoid-dopamine interactions that take place, there is conflicting evidence from human and animal studies concerning the effects of THC on the dopamine system...
November 17, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852447/a-polyclonal-outbreak-of-bloodstream-infections-by-enterococcus-faecium-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#16
Pamela Alatorre-Fernández, Claudia Mayoral-Terán, Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta, Cecilia Franco-Rodríguez, Karen Flores-Moreno, Miguel Ángel Cevallos, Yolanda López-Vidal, Patricia Volkow-Fernández
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecium causes bloodstream infection (BSI) in patients with hematologic malignancies (HMs). We studied the clinical features and outcomes of patients with HM with vancomycin-sensitive E faecium (VSE) and vancomycin-resistant E faecium (VRE) BSI and determined the genetic relatedness of isolates and circumstances associated with the upsurge of E faecium BSI. METHODS: Case-control study of patients with HM and E faecium-positive blood culture from January 2008-December 2012; cases were patients with VRE and controls were VSE isolates...
November 14, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792721/-historical-review-of-kaposi-sarcoma-in-pre-haart-era-evolution-with-different-chemotherapy-schedules-and-remission-with-ganciclovir-use
#17
Patricia Volkow, Benedicte Jacquemin, Juan W Zinser, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla
Ganciclovir has shown in vitro anti-human herpesvirus-8 activity, Kaposi sarcoma agent. We analyzed all Kaposi sarcoma patients from 1985 to 1996 pre-HAART era and identified Kaposi sarcoma/AIDS patients who achieved complete remission prior to HAART use. RESULTS: We saw 155 Kaposi sarcoma patients up to 1996, 150 with enough information, only 12 received ganciclovir, eight of them for ≥ 21 days; four died within 16 weeks of ganciclovir administration. We identified four male patients with extensive Kaposi sarcoma with complete remission achieved after ganciclovir for CMV end-organ disease...
October 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774503/is-biological-aging-accelerated-in-drug-addiction
#18
Keren Bachi, Salvador Sierra, Nora D Volkow, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
Drug-addiction may trigger early onset of age-related disease, due to drug-induced multi-system toxicity and perilous lifestyle, which remains mostly undetected and untreated. We present the literature on pathophysiological processes that may hasten aging and its relevance to addiction, including: oxidative stress and cellular aging, inflammation in periphery and brain, decline in brain volume and function, and early onset of cardiac, cerebrovascular, kidney, and liver disease. Timely detection of accelerated aging in addiction is crucial for the prevention of premature morbidity and mortality...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764663/re-energizing-the-development-of-pain-therapeutics-in-light-of-the-opioid-epidemic
#19
Phil Skolnick, Nora D Volkow
Limited options for treating moderate-severe pain led to an overreliance on opioids and the current opioid epidemic. Addressing the factors contributing to a dearth of effective alternatives and re-energizing the development of pain therapeutics is necessary to quell this epidemic.
October 19, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739612/structural-and-functional-connectivity-of-the-precuneus-and-thalamus-to-the-default-mode-network
#20
Samantha I Cunningham, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
Neuroimaging studies have identified functional interactions between the thalamus, precuneus, and default mode network (DMN) in studies of consciousness. However, less is known about the structural connectivity of the precuneus and thalamus to regions within the DMN. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to parcellate the precuneus and thalamus based on their probabilistic white matter connectivity to each other and DMN regions of interest (ROIs) in 37 healthy subjects from the Human Connectome Database. We further assessed resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) among the precuneus, thalamus, and DMN ROIs...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
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