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Keren Bachi, Salvador Sierra, Nora D Volkow, Rita Z Goldstein, Nelly Alia-Klein
Drug-addiction may trigger early onset of age-related disease, due to drug-induced multi-system toxicity and perilous lifestyle, which remains mostly undetected and untreated. We present the literature on pathophysiological processes that may hasten aging and its relevance to addiction, including: oxidative stress and cellular aging, inflammation in periphery and brain, decline in brain volume and function, and early onset of cardiac, cerebrovascular, kidney, and liver disease. Timely detection of accelerated aging in addiction is crucial for the prevention of premature morbidity and mortality...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Phil Skolnick, Nora D Volkow
Limited options for treating moderate-severe pain led to an overreliance on opioids and the current opioid epidemic. Addressing the factors contributing to a dearth of effective alternatives and re-energizing the development of pain therapeutics is necessary to quell this epidemic.
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Samantha I Cunningham, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
Neuroimaging studies have identified functional interactions between the thalamus, precuneus, and default mode network (DMN) in studies of consciousness. However, less is known about the structural connectivity of the precuneus and thalamus to regions within the DMN. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to parcellate the precuneus and thalamus based on their probabilistic white matter connectivity to each other and DMN regions of interest (ROIs) in 37 healthy subjects from the Human Connectome Database. We further assessed resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) among the precuneus, thalamus, and DMN ROIs...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Alexandra Martin-Onraët, Patricia Volkow-Fernández, Victoria Alvarez-Wyssmann, Andrea González-Rodríguez, Jesús Casillas-Rodríguez, Lesvia Rivera-Abarca, Indiana Torres-Escobar, Juan Sierra-Madero
Late diagnosis of HIV remains a public health issue in Mexico. Most national programs target high-risk groups, not including women. More data on factors associated with late diagnosis and access to care in women are needed. In 2012-2013, Mexican women recently diagnosed with HIV were interviewed. Socio-cultural background, household-dynamics and clinical data were collected. Of 301 women, 49 % had <200 CD4 cells/mm(3), 8 % were illiterate, 31 % had only primary school. Physical/sexual violence was reported by 47/30 %; 75 % acquired HIV from their stable partners...
September 20, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Nora D Volkow, Aidan J Hampson, Ruben Baler
Cannabis enables and enhances the subjective sense of well-being by stimulating the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which plays a key role in modulating the response to stress, reward, and their interactions. However, over time, repeated activation of the ECS by cannabis can trigger neuroadaptations that may impair the sensitivity to stress and reward. This effect, in vulnerable individuals, can lead to addiction and other adverse consequences. The recent shift toward legalization of medical or recreational cannabis has renewed interest in investigating the physiological role of the ECS as well as the potential health effects, both adverse and beneficial, of cannabis...
September 2, 2016: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia Volkow-Fernández
OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence and patterns of bacterial resistance in urine samples from a tertiary care oncology hospital in Mexico, from 2004 to 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included the strains obtained from urine cultures, describing separately multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. We analyzed the susceptibility to different antibiotics. RESULTS: 51 202 urine cultures were processed during the study; 14 480 (28.3%) cultures were positive...
August 2016: Salud Pública de México
Lucía Martínez-Hernández, Diana Vilar-Compte, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia Volkow-Fernández
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial pneumonia (NP) in patients with hematological malignancies (HM) has an attributable mortality over 90%. There are few studies that report the incidence of nosocomial infections in patients with HM. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology and clinical course of NP in a cohort of patients with hematologic malignancies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Single-center study of patients with leukemia, lymphoma or multiple myeloma diagnosed with NP, hospitalized between January 2011 and December 2012...
July 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
Wei Chen, Kicheon Park, Nora Volkow, Yingtian Pan, Congwu Du
Simultaneous imaging of cerebral hemodynamic changes in response to functional activation during drug intoxication provides a valuable strategy to assess cocaine induced neurovascular dysfunction. However, this requires tools with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution and adequate signal to noise ratio (SNR). Though several technologies have been developed to address this demand during functional brain activation, their spatiotemporal resolution has been compromised to preserve SNR. In this study, we combine spatiotemporal-domain laser speckle contrast analysis and image correlation techniques to integrate multi-wavelength spectroimaging and laser speckle contrast imaging (MW-LSCI)...
July 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Dardo G Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Nora D Volkow
Unaccounted temporal dynamics of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) metrics challenges their potential as biomarkers for clinical applications in neuroscience. Here we studied the scan time required to reach stable values for various FC metrics including seed-voxel correlations and spatial independent component analyses (sICA), and for the local functional connectivity density (lFCD), a graph theory metric. By increasing the number of time points included in the analysis, we assessed the effects of scan time on convergence of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and reliability of these FC metrics...
August 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
George F Koob, Nora D Volkow
Drug addiction represents a dramatic dysregulation of motivational circuits that is caused by a combination of exaggerated incentive salience and habit formation, reward deficits and stress surfeits, and compromised executive function in three stages. The rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, development of incentive salience, and development of drug-seeking habits in the binge/intoxication stage involve changes in dopamine and opioid peptides in the basal ganglia. The increases in negative emotional states and dysphoric and stress-like responses in the withdrawal/negative affect stage involve decreases in the function of the dopamine component of the reward system and recruitment of brain stress neurotransmitters, such as corticotropin-releasing factor and dynorphin, in the neurocircuitry of the extended amygdala...
August 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Nora D Volkow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Wilson M Compton, Nora D Volkow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Eugenia M Socías, Nora Volkow, Evan Wood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2016: Addiction
Lynn R Webster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Benjamin Bearnot, William Schmitt, Shamim Nejad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Nora D Volkow, A Thomas McLellan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Semiramis Castro-Jaimes, Abraham David Salgado-Camargo, Lucía Graña-Miraglia, Luis Lozano, Paola Bocanegra-Ibarias, Patricia Volkow-Fernández, Jesus Silva-Sanchez, Santiago Castillo-Ramírez, Miguel A Cevallos
Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a dangerous nosocomial pathogen, particularly for severely ill patients in intensive care units and patients with hematologic malignancies. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant A. baumannii isolate, recovered from a Mexican hospital and classified as sequence type 422 according to the multilocus sequence typing Pasteur scheme.
2016: Genome Announcements
Panayotis K Thanos, Ronald Kim, Foteini Delis, Mala Ananth, George Chachati, Mark J Rocco, Ihssan Masad, Jose A Muniz, Samuel C Grant, Mark S Gold, Jean Lud Cadet, Nora D Volkow
Methamphetamine (MA) addiction is a growing epidemic worldwide. Chronic MA use has been shown to lead to neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in MA users have shown enlarged striatal volumes and positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown decreased brain glucose metabolism (BGluM) in the striatum of detoxified MA users. The present study examines structural changes of the brain, observes microglial activation, and assesses changes in brain function, in response to chronic MA treatment...
2016: PloS One
Aurelie Roux, Shelley N Jackson, Ludovic Muller, Damon Barbacci, Joseph O'Rourke, Panayotis K Thanos, Nora D Volkow, Carey Balaban, J Albert Schultz, Amina S Woods
Alcohol abuse is a chronic disease characterized by the consumption of alcohol at a level that interferes with physical and mental health and causes serious and persistent changes in the brain. Lipid metabolism is of particular interest due to its high concentration in the brain. Lipids are the main component of cell membranes, are involved in cell signaling, signal transduction, and energy storage. In this study, we analyzed lipid composition of chronically ethanol exposed mouse brains. Juvenile (JUV) and adult (ADU) mice were placed on a daily limited-access ethanol intake model for 52 days...
August 17, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
D Tomasi, G-J Wang, N D Volkow
Sleep deprivation (SD) disrupts dopamine (DA) signaling and impairs attention. However, the interpretation of these concomitant effects requires a better understanding of dopamine's role in attention processing. Here we test the hypotheses that D2/D3 receptors (D2/D3R) in dorsal and ventral striatum would distinctly regulate the activation of attention regions and that, by decreasing D2/D3, SD would disrupt these associations. We measured striatal D2/D3R using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]raclopride and brain activation to a visual attention (VA) task using 4-Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
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