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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915363/ghrelin-reductions-following-bariatric-surgery-were-associated-with-decreased-resting-state-activity-in-the-hippocampus
#1
Yi Zhang, Gang Ji, Guanya Li, Yang Hu, Li Liu, Qingchao Jin, Qianqian Meng, Jizheng Zhao, Kai Yuan, Jixn Liu, Karen M von Deneen, Antao Chen, Guangbin Cui, Huaning Wang, Qingchuan Zhao, Kaichun Wu, Jie Tian, Peter Manza, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow, Yongzhan Nie, Gene-Jack Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an effective bariatric surgery to treat obesity, and involves removal of the gastric fundus where ghrelin is mainly produced. Ghrelin stimulates appetite and regulates food intake through its effect on the hypothalamus and hippocampus (HIPP). While ghrelin's role on the hypothalamus has been explored, little is known about its role on HIPP. We tested the hypothesis that LSG-induced reductions in ghrelin levels would be associated with changes in HIPP activity...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913514/overdose-prevention-through-medical-treatment-of-opioid-use-disorders
#2
Nora D Volkow, Eric M Wargo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912298/cocaine-decreases-spontaneous-neuronal-activity-and-increases-low-frequency-neuronal-and-hemodynamic-cortical-oscillations
#3
Wei Chen, Nora D Volkow, James Li, Yingtian Pan, Congwu Du
Low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) in hemodynamics assessed by fMRI reflect synchronized neuronal activities and are the basis for mapping brain function and its disruption by drugs and disease. Here we assess if cocaine disrupts coupling between neuronal and vascular LFOs by simultaneously measuring cortical field potentials (FP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) regarding their LFOs (0-1 Hz) spectral bandwidths in the somatosensory cortex of naïve and chronic cocaine-exposed rats at baseline and during cocaine intoxication...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896636/helping-to-end-addiction-over-the-long-term-the-research-plan-for-the-nih-heal-initiative
#4
Francis S Collins, Walter J Koroshetz, Nora D Volkow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777199/influence-of-alcoholism-and-cholesterol-on-tspo-binding-in-brain-pet-11-c-pbr28-studies-in-humans-and-rodents
#5
Sung Won Kim, Corinde E Wiers, Ryan Tyler, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Yeon Joo Jang, Amna Zehra, Clara Freeman, Veronica Ramirez, Elsa Lindgren, Gregg Miller, Elizabeth A Cabrera, Tyler Stodden, Min Guo, Şükrü B Demiral, Nancy Diazgranados, Luke Park, Jeih-San Liow, Victor Pike, Cheryl Morse, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Robert B Innis, George F Koob, Dardo Tomasi, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
Neuroinflammation appears to contribute to neurotoxicity observed with heavy alcohol consumption. To assess whether chronic alcohol results in neuroinflammation we used PET and [11 C]PBR28, a ligand that binds to the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), to compare participants with an alcohol use disorder (AUD: n = 19) with healthy controls (HC: n = 17), and alcohol-dependent (n = 9) with -nondependent rats (n = 10). Because TSPO is implicated in cholesterol's transport for steroidogenesis, we investigated whether plasma cholesterol levels influenced [11 C]PBR28 binding...
May 3, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772560/impact-of-sugar-on-the-body-brain-and-behavior
#6
Clara R Freeman, Amna Zehra, Veronica Ramirez, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Sugar is highly palatable and rewarding, both in its taste and nutritive input. Excessive sugar consumption, however, may trigger neuroadaptations in the reward system that decouple eating behavior from caloric needs and leads to compulsive overeating. Excessive sugar intake is in turn associated with adverse health conditions, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory diseases. This review aims to use recent evidence to connect sugar's impact on the body, brain, and behavior to elucidate how and why sugar consumption has been implicated in addictive behaviors and poor health outcomes...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738654/-multidrug-resistance-e-eskape-strains-isolated-from-blood-cultures-in-patients-with-cancer
#7
Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia Volkow-Fernández
OBJECTIVE: To describe the trend of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains isolated from blood in patients with cancer from 2005 to 2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 33 127 blood cultures were processed by retrospective analysis. Identification and antimicrobial sensitivity were performed through automated methods: WaLK away (Siemens Labora- tory Diagnostics) and BD Phoenix (Becton, Dickinson and Company). Resistant strains were determined according to the minimum inhibitory concentration, following the parameters of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)...
March 2018: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702673/physical-activity-measured-with-wrist-and-ankle-accelerometers-age-gender-and-bmi-effects
#8
Veronica Ramirez, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Elizabeth A Cabrera, Corinde E Wiers, Kathleen Merikangas, Dardo Tomasi, Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D Volkow
Physical activity (PA) is associated with various aspects of physical and mental health and varies by age and BMI. We aimed to compare PA measures obtained with wrist and ankle accelerometers and characterize their associations with age and BMI. We assessed PA mean and PA variability (indexed by coefficient of variation (CV)) at daytime and nighttime periods for seven consecutive days (M = 152.90 h) in 47 healthy participants (18-73 years old, 21 females). Diurnally, mean PA for both ankle and wrist and CV of PA for ankle decreased from the first to the second half of daytime (p < 0...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694805/suicide-a-silent-contributor-to-opioid-overdose-deaths
#9
Maria A Oquendo, Nora D Volkow
As the toll of opioid-overdose deaths in the United States rises, we face an urgent need for prevention. But preventing such deaths will require a better understanding of the diverse trajectories by which overdoses occur, including the distinction between intentional (suicide) and unintentional..
April 26, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690790/neuroscience-of-addiction-relevance-to-prevention-and-treatment
#10
Nora D Volkow, Maureen Boyle
Addiction, the most severe form of substance use disorder, is a chronic brain disorder molded by strong biosocial factors that has devastating consequences to individuals and to society. Our understanding of substance use disorder has advanced significantly over the last 3 decades in part due to major progress in genetics and neuroscience research and to the development of new technologies, including tools to interrogate molecular changes in specific neuronal populations in animal models of substance use disorder, as well as brain imaging devices to assess brain function and neurochemistry in humans...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689653/streptococcus-pneumoniae-distribution-of-serotypes-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-patients-with-cancer
#11
Araceli Soto-Noguerón, María Noemí Carnalla-Barajas, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia Volkow-Fernández, María Elena Velázquez-Meza, Gabriela Echániz-Aviles
OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes causing infectious diseases in patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors and their antimicrobial susceptibility before and after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive pneumococcal isolates from hospitalized patients from the SIREVA-network were serotyped using the Quellung reaction and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using the broth microdilution method...
January 2018: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686613/essential-control-of-the-function-of-the-striatopallidal-neuron-by-pre-coupled-complexes-of-adenosine-a-2a-dopamine-d-2-receptor-heterotetramers-and-adenylyl-cyclase
#12
Sergi Ferré, Jordi Bonaventura, Wendy Zhu, Candice Hatcher-Solis, Jaume Taura, César Quiroz, Ning-Sheng Cai, Estefanía Moreno, Verónica Casadó-Anguera, Alexxai V Kravitz, Kimberly R Thompson, Dardo G Tomasi, Gemma Navarro, Arnau Cordomí, Leonardo Pardo, Carme Lluís, Carmen W Dessauer, Nora D Volkow, Vicent Casadó, Francisco Ciruela, Diomedes E Logothetis, Daniel Zwilling
The central adenosine system and adenosine receptors play a fundamental role in the modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. This is mostly achieved by the strategic co-localization of different adenosine and dopamine receptor subtypes in the two populations of striatal efferent neurons, striatonigral and striatopallidal, that give rise to the direct and indirect striatal efferent pathways, respectively. With optogenetic techniques it has been possible to dissect a differential role of the direct and indirect pathways in mediating "Go" responses upon exposure to reward-related stimuli and "NoGo" responses upon exposure to non-rewarded or aversive-related stimuli, respectively, which depends on their different connecting output structures and their differential expression of dopamine and adenosine receptor subtypes...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668865/association-between-brain-activation-and-functional-connectivity
#13
Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
The origin of the "resting-state" brain activity recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is still uncertain. Here we provide evidence for the neurovascular origins of the amplitude of the low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and the local functional connectivity density (lFCD) by comparing them with task-induced blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses, which are considered a proxy for neuronal activation. Using fMRI data for 2 different tasks (Relational and Social) collected by the Human Connectome Project in 426 healthy adults, we show that ALFF and lFCD have linear associations with the BOLD response...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649549/bloodstream-infections-in-cancer-patients-risk-factors-associated-with-mortality
#14
Beda Islas-Muñoz, Patricia Volkow-Fernández, Cynthia Ibanes-Gutiérrez, Alberto Villamar-Ramírez, Diana Vilar-Compte, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with mortality in cancer patients with bloodstream infections (BSI), analyzing multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study at a cancer referral center from August 2016 to July 2017, which included all BSI. RESULTS: 4220 patients were tested with blood cultures; 496 were included. Mean age was 48 years...
June 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629655/impact-and-barriers-of-an-hiv-rapid-test-program-implementation-at-an-oncological-referral-center-in-mexico
#15
Martin-Onraet Alexandra, Perez-Jimenez Carolina, Gonzalez-Rodriguez Andrea, Volkow-Fernandez Patricia
The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening with rapid tests in an oncologic center in Mexico City, report the HIV prevalence, and describe contacts screening and linkage to HIV care while identifying barriers to the performance of the program. In 2014, an HIV rapid test program was implemented in four departments of the hospital "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología". From 2014 to 2016, 3032 HIV rapid tests were performed in the hospital...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593105/medication-development-in-opioid-addiction-meaningful-clinical-end-points
#16
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, Janet Woodcock, Wilson M Compton, Douglas C Throckmorton, Phil Skolnick, Sharon Hertz, Eric M Wargo
The FDA's "abstinence" outcome measure for approval of new medications to treat opioid-use disorders has been difficult to achieve; developing and validating alternative meaningful outcomes could facilitate drug development.
March 28, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556883/cannabis-addiction-and-the-brain-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Amna Zehra, Jamie Burns, Christopher Kure Liu, Peter Manza, Corinde E Wiers, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Cannabis is the most commonly used substance of abuse in the United States after alcohol and tobacco. With a recent increase in the rates of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and a decrease in the perceived risk of cannabis use, it is imperative to assess the addictive potential of cannabis. Here we evaluate cannabis use through the neurobiological model of addiction proposed by Koob and Volkow. The model proposes that repeated substance abuse drives neurobiological changes in the brain that can be separated into three distinct stages, each of which perpetuates the cycle of addiction...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535451/effect-of-combined-naltrexone-and-bupropion-therapy-on-the-brain-s-functional-connectivity
#18
Gene-Jack Wang, Jizheng Zhao, Dardo Tomasi, Ehsan Shokri Kojori, Ruiliang Wang, Corinde E Wiers, Elisabeth C Caparelli, Nora D Volkow
BACKGROUND: The control of food intake in environments with easy access to highly rewarding foods is challenging to most modern societies. The combination of sustained release (SR) naltrexone and SR bupropion (NB32) has been used in weight-loss and obesity management. However, the effects of NB32 on the brain circuits implicated in the regulation of food intake are unknown. Here we used functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping to evaluate the effects of NB32 on resting brain FC. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy women underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after 4-week treatment with NB32 (n = 16) or with placebo (n = 20)...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504647/enhanced-neuronal-and-blunted-hemodynamic-reactivity-to-cocaine-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-following-extended-cocaine-access-optical-imaging-study-in-anesthetized-rats
#19
Craig P Allen, Kicheon Park, Ang Li, Nora D Volkow, George F Koob, Yingtian Pan, Xiu-Ti Hu, Congwu Du
Cocaine addiction is associated with dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which facilitates relapse and compulsive drug taking. To assess if cocaine's effects on both neuronal and vascular activity contribute to PFC dysfunction, we used optical coherence tomography and multi-wavelength laser speckle to measure vascularization and hemodynamics and used GCaMP6f to monitor intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+ ]in ) as a marker of neuronal activity. Rats were given short (1 hour; ShA) or long (6 hours; LgA) access cocaine self-administration...
March 5, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501966/levodopa-improves-response-inhibition-and-enhances-striatal-activation-in-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Peter Manza, Guy Schwartz, Mala Masson, Sarah Kann, Nora D Volkow, Chiang-Shan R Li, Hoi-Chung Leung
Dopaminergic medications improve the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), but their effect on response inhibition, a critical executive function, remains unclear. Previous studies primarily enrolled patients in more advanced stages of PD, when dopaminergic medication loses efficacy, and patients were typically on multiple medications. Here, we recruited 21 patients in early-stage PD on levodopa monotherapy and 37 age-matched controls to perform the stop-signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
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