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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213733/the-localization-of-a-heterologous-displayed-antigen-in-the-baculovirus-budded-virion-determines-the-type-and-strength-of-induced-adaptive-immune-response
#1
Eugenia Tavarone, Guido Nicolás Molina, Sabrina Amalfi, Andrea Peralta, Paula Molinari, Oscar Taboga
In the search of strategies of presentation of heterologous antigens to elicit humoral or cellular immune responses that modulate and properly potentiate each type of response, researchers have been studying baculovirus (BV) as vaccine vectors with promising results. For some years, several research groups explored different antigen presentation approaches using the BV AcNPV by expressing polypeptides on the surface of budded virions or by de novo synthesis of heterologous antigens by transduction of mammalian cells...
February 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211908/the-n-terminal-domain-of-schmallenberg-virus-envelope-protein-gc-is-highly-immunogenic-and-can-provide-protection-from-infection
#2
Kerstin Wernike, Andrea Aebischer, Gleyder Roman-Sosa, Martin Beer
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is transmitted by insect vectors, and therefore vaccination is one of the most important tools of disease control. In our study, novel subunit vaccines on the basis of an amino-terminal domain of SBV Gc of 234 amino acids ("Gc Amino") first were tested and selected using a lethal small animal challenge model and then the best performing formulations also were tested in cattle. We could show that neither E. coli expressed nor the reduced form of "Gc Amino" protected from SBV infection...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210631/immunogenicity-and-cross-protection-in-mice-afforded-by-pandemic-h1n1-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-containing-wild-type-nucleoprotein
#3
Andrey Rekstin, Irina Isakova-Sivak, Galina Petukhova, Daniil Korenkov, Igor Losev, Tatiana Smolonogina, Tatiana Tretiak, Svetlana Donina, Svetlana Shcherbik, Tatiana Bousse, Larisa Rudenko
Since conserved viral proteins of influenza virus, such as nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix 1 protein, are the main targets for virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), we hypothesized that introduction of the NP gene of wild-type virus into the genome of vaccine reassortants could lead to better immunogenicity and afford better protection. This paper describes in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies of two new reassortants of pandemic H1N1 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) candidates. One had the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from A/South Africa/3626/2013 H1N1 wild-type virus on the A/Leningrad/134/17/57 master donor virus backbone (6 : 2 formulation) while the second had the HA, NA, and NP genes of the wild-type virus on the same backbone (5 : 3 formulation)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209271/a-simple-method-of-extracting-cap-antigen-of-pcv2b-from-emulsified-vaccines-for-testing-its-stability-and-antigenicity
#4
Cheng Yu, Xin Li, Wenzhen Diao, Jiwei Liu, Yunpeng Yao, Li Hua, Yaqin Yu, Yongli Yu, Liying Wang
Oil-based emulsions are commonly used adjuvants for veterinary vaccines. After formulation, it is required to extract protein antigens from emulsified vaccines for testing their stability and antigenicity. To establish a simple method to extract the protein antigens, two emulsified vaccines, designated as Cap-206 and Cap-35, were prepared by formulating a 28-kDa capsid protein (Cap) of PCV2b with ISA 206, a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion, or ISA 35, an oil-in-water emulsion. We found that the freeze-thaw-centrifugation method with steps of freezing at -20 °C for 12 h, thawing at room temperature and centrifuging at 9000×g for 10 min could separate the aqueous phase from Cap-206, and a centrifugation method by centrifuging at 9000×g for 10 min could isolate the aqueous portion from Cap-35...
February 10, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197738/vaccines-for-staphylococcus-aureus-and-target-populations
#5
Clarissa Pozzi, Reuben Olaniyi, Lassi Liljeroos, Ilaria Galgani, Rino Rappuoli, Fabio Bagnoli
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading pathogen in surgical site, intensive care unit, and skin infections, as well as healthcare-associated pneumonias. These infections are associated with an enormous burden of morbidity, mortality, and increase of hospital length of stay and patient cost. S. aureus is impressively fast in acquiring antibiotic resistance, and multidrug-resistant strains are a serious threat to human health. Due to resistance or insufficient effectiveness, antibiotics and bundle measures leave a tremendous unmet medical need worldwide...
February 15, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197373/systemic-activation-of-antigen-presenting-cells-via-rna-loaded-nanoparticles
#6
Elias J Sayour, Gabriel De Leon, Christina Pham, Adam Grippin, Hanna Kemeny, Joshua Chua, Jianping Huang, John H Sampson, Luis Sanchez-Perez, Catherine Flores, Duane A Mitchell
While RNA-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccines have shown promise, the advancement of cellular therapeutics is fraught with developmental challenges. To circumvent the challenges of cellular immunotherapeutics, we developed clinically translatable nanoliposomes that can be combined with tumor-derived RNA to generate personalized tumor RNA-nanoparticles (NPs) with considerable scale-up capacity. RNA-NPs bypass MHC restriction, are amenable to central distribution, and can provide near immediate immune induction...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195032/ph-responsive-carriers-for-oral-drug-delivery-challenges-and-opportunities-of-current-platforms
#7
Lin Liu, WenDong Yao, YueFeng Rao, XiaoYang Lu, JianQing Gao
Oral administration is a desirable alternative of parenteral administration due to the convenience and increased compliance to patients, especially for chronic diseases that require frequent administration. The oral drug delivery is a dynamic research field despite the numerous challenges limiting their effective delivery, such as enzyme degradation, hydrolysis and low permeability of intestinal epithelium in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. pH-Responsive carriers offer excellent potential as oral therapeutic systems due to enhancing the stability of drug delivery in stomach and achieving controlled release in intestines...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194565/transgenic-papaya-a-useful-platform-for-oral-vaccines
#8
Gladis Fragoso, Marisela Hernández, Jacquelynne Cervantes-Torres, Rubén Ramírez-Aquino, Héctor Chapula, Nelly Villalobos, René Segura-Velázquez, Alfredo Figueroa, Iván Flores, Herminio Jiménez, Laura Adalid, Gabriela Rosas, Luis Galvez, Elias Pezzat, Elizabeth Monreal-Escalante, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Luis G Vazquez, Edda Sciutto
Transgenic papaya callus lines expressing the components of the S3Pvac vaccine constitute a stable platform to produce an oral vaccine against cysticercosis caused by Taenia solium or T. crassiceps. The development of effective delivery systems to cope with the reduced immunogenicity of new subunit vaccines is a priority in vaccinology. Herein, experimental evidence supporting a papaya-based platform to produce needle-free, recombinant, highly immunogenic vaccines is shown. Papaya (Carica papaya) callus lines were previously engineered by particle bombardment to express the three protective peptides of the S3Pvac anti-cysticercosis vaccine (KETc7, KETc12, KETc1)...
February 13, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194450/assessment-of-the-adjuvant-activity-of-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-in-recombinant-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-antigen-vaccines
#9
Veridiana Gomes Virginio, Natalia Costantin Bandeira, Fernanda Munhoz Dos Anjos Leal, Marcelo Lancellotti, Arnaldo Zaha, Henrique Bunselmeyer Ferreira
The adjuvant potential of two mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), SBa-15 and SBa-16, was assessed in combination with a recombinant HSP70 surface polypeptide domain from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP). The recombinant antigen (HSP70212-600), previously shown as immunogenic in formulation with classic adjuvants, was used to immunize BALB/c mice in combination with SBa-15 or SBa-16 MSNs, and the effects obtained with these formulations were compared to those obtained with alum, the adjuvant traditionally used in anti-PEP bacterins...
January 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192534/sm-p80-based-schistosomiasis-vaccine-mediated-epistatic-interactions-identified-potential-immune-signatures-for-vaccine-efficacy-in-mice-and-baboons
#10
Juan U Rojo, Michael W Melkus, Kameswara Rao Kottapalli, Oscar E Okiya, Justin Sudduth, Weidong Zhang, Adebayo J Molehin, Darrick Carter, Afzal A Siddiqui
Schistosomiasis is a neglected parasitic disease of major public health concern as it affects over 250 million people in developing countries. Currently there is no licensed vaccine available against schistosomiasis. The Schistosoma mansoni calpain protein, Sm-p80, is a leading vaccine candidate now ready to move to clinical trials. In order to better assess Sm-p80 vaccine immunogenicity; here we used a systems biology approach employing RNA-sequencing to identify gene signatures and epistatic interactions following Sm-p80 vaccination in mouse and baboon models that may predict vaccine efficacy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190745/a-simple-fluorescence-based-assay-for-quantification-of-the-toll-like-receptor-agonist-e6020-in-vaccine-formulations
#11
Jeroen Pollet, Leroy Versteeg, Wanderson Rezende, Ulrich Strych, Fabian Gusovsky, Peter J Hotez, Maria Elena Bottazzi
Despite the generally accepted immunostimulatory effect of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) agonists and their value as vaccine adjuvants, there remains a demand for fast and easy quantification assays for these TLR4 agonists in order to accelerate and improve vaccine formulation studies. A new medium-throughput method was developed for the quantification of the TLR4 agonist, E6020, independent of the formulation composition. The assay uses a fluorescent hydrazide (DCCH) to label the synthetic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) analog E6020 through its diketone groups...
February 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190740/protective-efficacy-of-a-lipid-antigen-vaccine-in-a-guinea-pig-model-of-tuberculosis
#12
Gérald Larrouy-Maumus, Emilie Layre, Simon Clark, Jacques Prandi, Emma Rayner, Marco Lepore, Gennaro de Libero, Ann Williams, Germain Puzo, Martine Gilleron
The bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine, the only licensed vaccine against TB, displays partial and variable efficacy, thus making the exploitation of novel vaccination strategies a major priority. Most of the current vaccines in pre-clinical or clinical development are based on the induction of T cells recognizing protein antigens. However, a large number of T cells specific for mycobacterial lipids are induced during infection, suggesting that lipid-based vaccines might represent an important component of novel sub-unit vaccines...
February 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187952/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-an-as03-adjuvanted-h7n1-vaccine-in-healthy-adults-a-phase-i-ii-observer-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Anuradha Madan, Murdo Ferguson, Eric Sheldon, Nathan Segall, Laurence Chu, Azhar Toma, Paul Rheault, Damien Friel, Jyoti Soni, Ping Li, Bruce L Innis, Anne Schuind
BACKGROUND: H7 influenza strains have pandemic potential. AS03-adjuvanted H7N1 A/mallard/Netherlands/12/2000 split-virion vaccine formulations were evaluated as model H7-subtype vaccine and tested after H7N9 emerged in China, and caused severe human disease with high mortality. METHODS: In this phase I/II, observer-blind, randomized trial in US and Canada, 420 healthy adults (21-64years) were randomized to receive 1 of 4 H7N1 vaccine formulations (3.75 or 7.5μg hemagglutinin adjuvanted with either AS03A or AS03B), 15μg unadjuvanted H7N1 hemagglutinin, or saline placebo, given as 2-dose series...
February 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183282/enhanced-and-long-term-immunogenicity-of-a-her-2-neu-multi-epitope-vaccine-conjugated-to-the-carrier-crm197-in-conjunction-with-the-adjuvant-montanide
#14
Joshua Tobias, Joanna Jasinska, Karin Baier, Michael Kundi, Nicholas Ede, Christoph Zielinski, Ursula Wiedermann
BACKGROUND: We previously identified three short single peptides (P4, P6 and P7) representing different B-cell epitopes on the extracellular domain of Her-2/neu for a vaccine that was tested in a phase-I clinical trial. Here we describe the improvement of the multi peptide vaccine by fusing the single peptides to a hybrid peptide P467. METHODS: After coupling to either virosomes or to diphtheria toxoid CRM197 (CRM), the hybrid peptide was tested in different concentrations in combination with either Montanide or Aluminium hydroxide (Alum) in preclinical studies...
February 9, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179907/a-dna-vaccine-formulated-with-chemical-adjuvant-provides-partial-protection-against-bovine-herpes-virus-infection-in-cattle
#15
Valeria Quattrocchi, Ivana Soria, Cecilia Ana Langellotti, Victoria Gnazzo, Mariela Gammella, Dadin P Moore, Patricia I Zamorano
Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) is the causative agent of bovine infectious rhinotracheitis, an important disease worldwide. Although conventional BoHV-1 vaccines, including those based on the use of modified live virus and also inactivated vaccines, are currently used in many countries, they have several disadvantages. DNA vaccines have emerged as an attractive approach since they have the potential to induce both humoral and cellular immune response; nevertheless, it is largely known that potency of naked DNA vaccines is limited...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177261/stability-of-5p12-rantes-a-candidate-rectal-microbicide-in-human-rectal-lavage
#16
Fabrice Cerini, Robin E Offord, Ian McGowan, Oliver Hartley
In the absence of an effective vaccine, strategies to prevent HIV transmission are urgently needed. Condomless receptive anal intercourse represents a major route of transmission, and efforts are being made to develop strategies in which potent anti-HIV drugs are formulated for topical application to the rectum prior to sex. 5P12-RANTES is a promising candidate for such a purpose. It is an analogue of the human chemokine RANTES/CCL5, which potently blocks CCR5, the principal coreceptor used by HIV to enter and infect target cells...
February 8, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167935/antifungal-therapy-new-advances-in-the-understanding-and-treatment-of-mycosis
#17
REVIEW
Liliana Scorzoni, Ana C A de Paula E Silva, Caroline M Marcos, Patrícia A Assato, Wanessa C M A de Melo, Haroldo C de Oliveira, Caroline B Costa-Orlandi, Maria J S Mendes-Giannini, Ana M Fusco-Almeida
The high rates of morbidity and mortality caused by fungal infections are associated with the current limited antifungal arsenal and the high toxicity of the compounds. Additionally, identifying novel drug targets is challenging because there are many similarities between fungal and human cells. The most common antifungal targets include fungal RNA synthesis and cell wall and membrane components, though new antifungal targets are being investigated. Nonetheless, fungi have developed resistance mechanisms, such as overexpression of efflux pump proteins and biofilm formation, emphasizing the importance of understanding these mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165831/paxvax-cvd-103-hgr-single-dose-live-oral-cholera-vaccine
#18
Myron M Levine, Wilbur H Chen, James B Kaper, Michael Lock, Lisa Danzig, Marc Gurwith
Cholera remains a problem in developing countries and a risk for travelers. Hypochlorhydria, blood group O, cardiac and renal disease increase the risk of developing cholera gravis. Oral vaccines containing inactivated Vibrio cholerae and requiring two doses are available in some countries. No cholera vaccine had been available for U.S. travelers for decades until 2016 when CVD 103-HgR (VAXCHORA™), an oral live attenuated vaccine, was licensed by the U.S. FDA. Areas covered: Enduring protection following wild-type cholera provided the rationale to develop a single-dose live oral vaccine...
March 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162024/immunotherapeutic-strategies-for-the-treatment-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-where-will-we-go
#19
Inês Anselmo da Costa, Steffen Rausch, Stephan Kruck, Tilman Todenhöfer, Arnulf Stenzl, Jens Bedke
Historically, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is considered a chemotherapy-resistant tumor. The cornerstone of systemic therapy included mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Currently, a new era is enteres with promising immunotherapeutic treatments, which are becoming commercially available. Areas covered: We provide a comprehensive review using PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov about the following immunotherapies in RCC: i) vaccine therapy, ii) adoptive T Cell Transfer and CAR T cells, iii) nonspecific immunotherapy-IL-2 (new formulations), iv) Checkpoint inhibitors, v) other checkpoint-molecules...
February 4, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161578/consensus-m2e-peptide-conjugated-to-gold-nanoparticles-confers-protection-against-h1n1-h3n2-and-h5n1-influenza-a-viruses
#20
Wenqian Tao, Brett Hurst, Akhilesh K Shakya, Md Jasim Uddin, Rohan S Ingrole, Mayra Hernandez-Sanabria, Ravi Arya, Lynn Bimler, Silke Paust, E Bart Tarbet, Harvinder Singh Gill
The extracellular domain of influenza A ion channel membrane matrix protein 2 (M2e) is considered to be a potential candidate to develop a universal influenza A vaccine. However poor immunogenicity of M2e presents a significant roadblock. We have developed a vaccine formulation comprising of the consensus M2e peptide conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with CpG as a soluble adjuvant (AuNP-M2e + sCpG). We demonstrate that intranasal delivery of AuNP-M2e + sCpG in mice induces lung B cell activation and robust serum anti-M2e immunoglobulin G (IgG) response, with stimulation of both IgG1 and IgG2a subtypes...
February 1, 2017: Antiviral Research
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