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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651408/-identification-and-evaluation-of-t-cell-epitopes-of-rv0585c-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
X X Wang, X Chen, Y Q Li, T Y Xiao, Y Jiang, M C Li, H C Liu, K L Wan
Objective: To investigate the human T cell epitopes of Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis Rv0585c protein antigen and their immunogenicity and provide evidence for the development of specific tuberculosis immune diagnostic techniques and tuberculosis vaccine. Methods: We synthesized peptides from M. tuberculosis Rv0585c protein antigen predicted by TE-predict and IEDB human T cell epitope prediction tool. The cellular immunoreactivity of the predicted peptides was evaluated through ELISpot assay with the peripheral blood monouclear cells (PBMC) of clinical tuberculosis patients...
May 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651399/-immune-response-to-one-booster-dose-of-inactivated-hepatitis-a-vaccine-in-college-students
#2
Z Liao, X W Feng, X E Liu, Y S Zhou, H R Wen, S H Peng, Y X Zhang, B Xu, H Zhuang, H Y Chen
Objective: To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of one booster dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in young adults. Methods: The subjects were selected from participants in the clinical trial of immunogenicity of inactivated and attenuated live hepatitis A vaccine in young adults. Eligible subjects were those who had received one dose of inactivated or attenuated hepatitis A vaccine, could be contacted and were sero-negative before primary vaccination. All qualified subjects were immunized with one booster dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine...
May 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650722/optimized-dna-vaccine-enhanced-by-adjuvant-il28b-induces-protective-immune-responses-against-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-in-mice
#3
Yan Zhou, Ziyan Wang, Yongqing Xu, Zeqiang Zhang, Rui Hua, Wei Liu, Chunlai Jiang, Yan Chen, Wenying Yang, Wei Kong
Antigen-specific immune responses determine the efficacy of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) vaccines. To optimize the immunogenicity of the antigen gD2, we developed the gD2ΔUL25 DNA vaccine encoding HSV-2 glycoprotein D and UL25 gene encoding viral capsid vertex proteins in this study. The gD2 and gD2ΔUL25 DNA vaccines were compared with formalin-inactivated HSV-2 (FI-HSV-2), and results showed a greater protective immune response induced by gD2ΔUL25 than by gD2. Therefore, gD2ΔUL25 was chosen to evaluate further using the IL28B adjuvant...
June 26, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650085/immunogenicity-of-plant-produced-african-horse-sickness-virus-like-particles-implications-for-a-novel-vaccine
#4
Susan J Dennis, Ann E Meyers, Alan J Guthrie, Inga I Hitzeroth, Edward P Rybicki
African horse sickness (AHS) is a debilitating and often fatal viral disease affecting horses in much of Africa, caused by the dsRNA orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV). Vaccination remains the single most effective weapon in combatting AHS, as there is no treatment for the disease apart from good animal husbandry. However, the only commercially available vaccine is a live attenuated version of the virus (LAV). The threat of outbreaks of the disease outside its endemic region and the fact that the LAV is not licensed for use elsewhere in the world, have spurred attempts to develop an alternative safer, yet cost-effective recombinant vaccine...
June 26, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647166/clinical-development-of-a-recombinant-ebola-vaccine-in-the-midst-of-an-unprecedented-epidemic
#5
Beth-Ann G Coller, Jeffrey Blue, Rituparna Das, Sheri Dubey, Lynn Finelli, Swati Gupta, Frans Helmond, Rebecca J Grant-Klein, Kenneth Liu, Jakub Simon, Sean Troth, Susan VanRheenen, Julie Waterbury, Ashley Wivel, Jayanthi Wolf, D Gray Heppner, Tracy Kemp, Rick Nichols, Thomas P Monath
The 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak caused over 28,000 cases and 11,000 deaths. Merck & Co. Inc., Kenilworth, NJ USA and NewLink Genetics are working with private and public partners to develop and license an Ebola vaccine that was evaluated extensively during the outbreak. The vaccine referred to as V920 is a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) in which the VSV-G envelope glycoprotein (GP) is completely replaced by the Zaire ebolavirus GP (rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP). Eight Phase I and four Phase II/III clinical trials enrolling approximately 17,000 subjects were conducted in parallel to the outbreak to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and/or efficacy of V920...
June 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646885/comparison-of-the-protective-efficacy-between-single-and-combination-of-recombinant-adenoviruses-expressing-complete-and-truncated-glycoprotein-and-nucleoprotein-of-the-pathogenic-street-rabies-virus-in-mice
#6
Ha-Hyun Kim, Dong-Kun Yang, Jin-Ju Nah, Jae-Young Song, In-Soo Cho
BACKGROUND: Rabies is an important viral zoonosis that causes acute encephalitis and death in mammals. To date, several recombinant vaccines have been developed based on G protein, which is considered to be the main antigen, and these vaccines are used for rabies control in many countries. Most recombinant viruses expressing RABV G protein retain the G gene from attenuated RABV. Not enough is currently known about the protective effect against RABV of a combination of recombinant adenoviruses expressing the G and N proteins of pathogenic street RABV...
June 24, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646853/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-of-a-salmonella-enteritidis-sptp-mutant-as-a-live-attenuated-vaccine-candidate
#7
Zhijie Lin, Peipei Tang, Yang Jiao, Xilong Kang, Qiuchun Li, Xiulong Xu, Jun Sun, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a highly adaptive pathogen in both humans and animals. As a Salmonella Type III secretion system (T3SS) effector, Salmonella protein tyrosine phosphatase (SptP) is critical for virulence in this genus. To investigate the feasibility of using C50336ΔsptP as a live attenuated oral vaccine in mice, we generated the sptP gene deletion mutant C50336ΔsptP in S. Enteritidis strain C50336 by λ-Red mediated recombination and evaluated the protective ability of the S...
June 24, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645718/optimizing-adjuvants-for-intradermal-delivery-of-menc-glycoconjugate-vaccine
#8
Agnese Donadei, Cristiana Balocchi, Maria R Romano, Luigi Panza, Roberto Adamo, Francesco Berti, Derek T O'Hagan, Simona Gallorini, Barbara C Baudner
Intradermal vaccine delivery is a promising alternative to the conventional intramuscular route. The skin layer is immunologically supported by a densely network of antigen presenting cells, while the skeletal muscle is loaded with a relatively sparse population of APCs. Nevertheless, the vaccine to be suitable for intradermal delivery needs a new formulation to facilitate either smaller injection volumes or the introduction into new delivery devises as micro-needles. This study presents a proof of concept for intradermal delivery of the MenC-CRM197 glycoconjugate vaccine using a mouse model...
June 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645300/bacterial-ghosts-as-adjuvants-mechanisms-and-potential
#9
REVIEW
Irshad A Hajam, Pervaiz A Dar, Gayeon Won, John Hwa Lee
Bacterial ghosts (BG) are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria. They contain many innate immunostimulatory agonists, and are potent activators of a broad range of cell types involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Several considerable studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of BG as adjuvants as well as their ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine production by a range of immune and non-immune cell types. These proinflammatory cytokines trigger a generalized recruitment of T and B lymphocytes to lymph nodes that maximize the chances of encounter with their cognate antigen, and subsequent elicitation of potent immune responses...
June 24, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645240/engineered-expression-of-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-against-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#10
Maham Ahmad, Osama M Ahmed, Bruce Schnepp, Philip R Johnson
This review discusses recent progress made in developing a vaccine and novel treatments for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It highlights the shortcomings of the RV144 vaccination trial [ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E] and the current standard of care and proposes that engineered expression of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 could overcome these shortcomings. Current developments in three major lines of research on HIV prevention and treatment using bNAbs are reviewed: firstly, the use of sequential immunogens to activate B cells to express bNAbs; secondly, the delivery of novel and extremely potent bNAbs through passive administration; and finally, the use of gene transfer using adeno-associated viral vectors to deliver bNAbs...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644696/varicella-vaccination-the-global-experience
#11
Peter Wutzler, Paolo Bonanni, Margaret Burgess, Anne Gershon, Marco Aurélio Sáfadi, Giacomo Casabona
Introduction Varicella, although a frequently benign childhood disease, nevertheless represents a considerable health burden. WHO recommends including varicella vaccines in universal routine vaccination programs, and maintaining coverage >80%. Many countries have successfully introduced varicella vaccination and have benefited from lower disease burden, but many others have not adopted the vaccine. Reasons include cost commitment for a 'mild childhood disease' or concerns that vaccination will shift varicella to older age groups or increase herpes zoster incidence...
June 23, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642154/a-boosting-skin-vaccination-with-dissolving-microneedle-patch-encapsulating-m2e-vaccine-broadens-the-protective-efficacy-of-conventional-influenza-vaccines
#12
Wandi Zhu, Winston Pewin, Chao Wang, Yuan Luo, Gilbert X Gonzalez, Teena Mohan, Mark R Prausnitz, Bao-Zhong Wang
The biodegradable microneedle patch (MNP) is a novel technology for vaccine delivery that could improve the immunogenicity of vaccines. To broaden the protective efficiency of conventional influenza vaccines, a new 4M2e-tFliC fusion protein construct containing M2e sequences from different subtypes was generated. Purified fusion protein was encapsulate into MNPs with a biocompatible polymer for use as a boosting vaccine. The results demonstrated that mice receiving a conventional inactivated vaccine followed by a skin-applied dissolving 4M2e-tFliC MNP boost could better maintain the humoral antibody response than that by the conventional vaccine-prime alone...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641888/oral-vaccination-of-wildlife-against-rabies-differences-among-host-species-in-vaccine-uptake-efficiency
#13
Ad Vos, Conrad M Freuling, Boris Hundt, Christiane Kaiser, Sabine Nemitz, Andreas Neubert, Tobias Nolden, Jens P Teifke, Verena Te Kamp, Reiner Ulrich, Stefan Finke, Thomas Müller
Oral vaccination using attenuated and recombinant rabies vaccines has been proven a powerful tool to combat rabies in wildlife. However, clear differences have been observed in vaccine titers needed to induce a protective immune response against rabies after oral vaccination in different reservoir species. The mechanisms contributing to the observed resistance against oral rabies vaccination in some species are not completely understood. Hence, the immunogenicity of the vaccine virus strain, SPBN GASGAS, was investigated in a species considered to be susceptible to oral rabies vaccination (red fox) and a species refractory to this route of administration (striped skunk)...
June 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641561/induction-of-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-in-mice-by-multiepitope-vaccines-composing-of-both-t-and-b-lymphocyte-epitopes-of-mage-a3which-are-recombined-into-hbcag
#14
Qingxin Chen, Wenshu Li, Pengfei Wang, Huanyi Shao, Yujie Ding, Wenhuan Wang, Danwei Cen, Yiqi Cai, Xiangyang Xue, Lifang Zhang, Guanbao Zhu
MAGE-A3 is highly expressed in many kinds of malignant diseases, and considered to be an ideal candidate for anti-tumor vaccine. To improve the immunogenicity of epitopes of MAGE-A3, hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) was used as an immune-carrier by insertion epitopes at HBcAg major immunodominant region (HBcAg(MIR)). In present study, we designed three kinds of MAGE-A3 multiepitopes containing T and B-cell dominant epitope-rich peptides, and constructed three recombinant chimeras of HBcAg(MIR)/MAGE-A3(EPI-1), HBcAg(MIR)/MAGE-A3(EPI-2), and HBcAg(MIR)/MAGE-A3(EPI-3) with prokaryotic codon optimization...
June 20, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641531/application-of-alphaviral-vectors-for-immunomodulation-in-cancer-therapy
#15
Anna Zajakina, Karina Spunde, Kenneth Lundstrom
BACKGROUND: The lack of specific and efficient cancer therapies has influenced the development of novel approaches, such as immunotherapy, which from its original application of immunogenic protein delivery has developed into the use of more sophisticated recombinant gene delivery methods to achieve better safety and efficacy profiles. This approach involves viral and non-viral delivery systems. METHODS: Expression vectors have been engineered for alphaviruses, including Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus...
June 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638786/polyelectrolyte-enrobed-cancer-cells-in-view-of-personalized-immune-therapy
#16
Lien Lybaert, Keun Ah Ryu, Riet De Rycke, Alfred C Chon, Olivier De Wever, Karim Y Vermaelen, Aaron Esser-Kahn, Bruno G De Geest
Targeting the immune system with a personalized vaccine containing cues derived from the patient's malignancy might be a promising approach in the fight against cancer. It includes neo-antigens as well as nonmutated tumor antigens, preferentially leading to an immune response that is directed to a broader range of epitopes compared to strategies involving a single antigen. Here, this paper reports on an elegant method to encapsulate whole cancer cells into polyelectrolyte particles. Porous and nonaggregated microparticles containing dead cancer cells are obtained by admixing mannitol and live cancer cells with oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, dextran sulfate (anionic polysaccharide), and poly-l-arginine (cationic polypeptide) prior to atomization into a hot air stream...
June 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638734/severe-but-not-mild-heat-shock-treatment-induces-immunogenic-cell-death-in-cancer-cells
#17
Irena Adkins, Lenka Sadilkova, Nada Hradilova, Jakub Tomala, Marek Kovar, Radek Spisek
The mechanisms of immunogenicity underlying mild heat-shock (mHS) treatment < 42°C of tumor cells are largely attributed to the action of heat-shock proteins; however, little is known about the immunogenicity of tumor cells undergoing severe cytotoxic heat-shock treatment (sHS > 43°C). Here, we found that sHS, but not mHS (42°C), induces immunogenic cell death in human cancer cell lines as defined by the induction of ER stress response and ROS generation, cell surface exposure of calreticulin, HSP70 and HSP90, decrease of cell surface CD47, release of ATP and HMGB1...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638727/identification-of-an-immunogenic-neo-epitope-encoded-by-mouse-sarcoma-using-cxcr3-ligand-mrnas-as-sensors
#18
Keisuke Fujii, Yoshihiro Miyahara, Naozumi Harada, Daisuke Muraoka, Mitsuhiro Komura, Rui Yamaguchi, Hideo Yagita, Junko Nakamura, Sahoko Sugino, Satoshi Okumura, Seiya Imoto, Satoru Miyano, Hiroshi Shiku
The CXCR3 ligands CXCL9, 10, and 11 play critical roles in the amplification of immune responses by recruiting CXCR3(+) immune effector cells to the tumor site. Taking advantage of this property of CXCR3 ligands, we aimed to establish a novel approach to identify immunogenic mutated-antigens. We examined the feasibility of using CXCR3 ligand mRNAs as sensors for detection of specific immune responses in human and murine systems. We further investigated whether this approach is applicable for the identification of immunogenic mutated-antigens by using murine sarcoma lines...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637805/conjugation-of-pspa4pro-with-capsular-streptococcus-pneumoniae-polysaccharide-serotype-14-does-not-reduce-the-induction-of-cross-reactive-antibodies
#19
Míriam A da Silva, Thiago R Converso, Viviane M Gonçalves, Luciana C C Leite, Martha M Tanizaki, Giovana C Barazzone
Current pneumococcal vaccines are composed of bacterial polysaccharides as antigens plain or conjugated to carrier proteins. While efficacious against vaccine serotypes, epidemiologic data shows increasing incidence of infections caused by non-vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The use of Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) as a carrier protein in a conjugate vaccine could help preventing serotype replacement by increasing vaccine coverage and reducing selective pressure of S. pneumoniae serotypes...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637471/enhanced-humoural-and-cellular-immune-responses-to-influenza-h7n9-antigen-ha1-2-fused-with-flagellin-in-chickens
#20
Li Song, Dan Xiong, Maozhi Hu, Xilong Kang, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
BACKGROUND: Sudden increases in the number of human A (H7N9) cases reported during December and January have been observed in previous years. Most reported infection cases are due to prior exposure to live poultry or potentially contaminated environments. Low pathogenicity of influenza A (H7N9) virus in avian species complicates timely discovery of infected birds. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safe and effective anti-H7N9 vaccines for poultry to reduce the risk of human infection and prevent the emergence of novel mutated strains...
June 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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