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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165888/molecular-pathology-and-thyroid-fna
#1
REVIEW
D N Poller, S Glaysher
This review summarises molecular pathological techniques applicable to thyroid FNA. The molecular pathology of thyroid tumours is now fairly well understood. Molecular methods may be used as a rule-in test for diagnosis of malignancy in thyroid nodules, eg BRAF V600E point mutation, use of a seven-gene mutational panel (BRAF V600E, RAS genes, RET/PTC or PAX8/PPARG rearrangement), or as a comprehensive multigene next-generation sequencing panel, eg ThyroSeq v2. Molecular methods can also be applied as rule-out tests for malignancy in thyroid nodules, eg Afirma or ThyroSeq v2 or as markers of prognosis, eg TERT promoter mutation or other gene mutations including BRAF V600E, TP53 and AKT1, and as tests for newly defined tumour entities such as non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary like nuclei, or as a molecular marker(s) for targeted therapies...
December 2017: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931215/berberine-could-inhibit-thyroid-carcinoma-cells-by-inducing-mitochondrial-apoptosis-g0-g1-cell-cycle-arrest-and-suppressing-migration-via-pi3k-akt-and-mapk-signaling-pathways
#2
Liang Li, Xingchun Wang, Rampersad Sharvan, Jingyang Gao, Shen Qu
Berberine, an important natural isoquinoline alkaloid from traditional Chinese medicine, is reported to exhibit multiple pharmacological properties, including anti-microbial, anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. Although studies have shown that a wide range of carcinoma cells could be inhibited by berberine, few studies involved thyroid carcinoma. We therefore examined the effect of berberine on papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, the most common subtype) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC, the most malignant and aggressive subtype)...
November 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436990/tcrp1-promotes-nih-3t3-cell-transformation-by-over-activating-pdk1-and-akt1
#3
C Wang, H Liu, Q Qiu, Z Zhang, Y Gu, Z He
Tongue cancer resistance-related protein 1 (TCRP1) gene was first cloned from the multidrug resistance tongue cancer cell (Tca8113/pingyangmycin) in our lab. Our precious studies demonstrated that TCRP1 was involving in chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance of tongue cancer cells, lung cancer cells and ovarian cancer cells. In this study, we showed that TCRP1 overexpression promotes cell transformation and tumorigenesis through hyperphosphorylation of the oncogenic kinase 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and AKT1, whereas inhibition of PDK1 by OSU-03012 or PDK1 small interfering RNA reversed TCRP1-mediated cell transformation...
April 24, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431992/genomic-answers-for-recurrent-spontaneous-abortion-in-saudi-arabia-an-array-comparative-genomic-hybridization-approach
#4
Sajjad Karim, Hasan Salleh Jamal, Abdullraheem Rouzi, Mohammed Salleh M Ardawi, Hans-Juergen Schulten, Zeenat Mirza, Nuha A Alansari, Maha M Al-Quaiti, Heba Abusamra, Muhammad Imran Naseer, Rola Turki, Adeel Gulzar Chaudhary, Mamdooh Gari, Adel Mohammed Abuzenadah, Mohammed Hussain Al-Qhatani
To study the genomics/genetic factors associated with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), as ∼50% of RSA are unexplained. However, chromosome abnormalities have been reported to play major role in RSA. We performed whole genome array-CGH based genomic analysis of forty four Saudi RSA patients to identify potential molecular and chromosomal abnormalities. We identified a total of 845 alterations, usually not detected by classic cytogenetic methods, in different genomic regions using a cut off value of -0...
April 18, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231576/molecular-markers-involved-in-tumorigenesis-of-thyroid-carcinoma-focus-on-aggressive-histotypes
#5
REVIEW
Gustavo C Penna, Fernanda Vaisman, Mario Vaisman, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões, Paula Soares
Thyroid cancer derived from follicular cells (TCDFC) comprises well-differentiated (papillary and follicular) carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, and anaplastic carcinoma. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine cancer, and its incidence is steadily increasing. Lethality and aggressiveness of TCDFC is inversely correlated with differentiation degree. In this review, an emphasis has been put on molecular markers involved in tumorigenesis of thyroid carcinoma with a focus on aggressive histotypes and the role of such biomarkers in predicting thyroid cancer outcome...
2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150468/ciliated-muconodular-papillary-tumor-of-the-lung-harboring-alk-gene-rearrangement-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Yan Jin, Xuxia Shen, Lei Shen, Yihua Sun, Haiquan Chen, Yuan Li
Ciliated muconodular papillary tumor (CMPT) of the lung is an extremely rare peripheral tumor of the lung. The pathogenesis of CMPT is still unknown, and its nature as a benign tumor or reactive process is still open to discussion. Recent studies have identified BRAF, EGFR and AKT1 mutations in CMPT, which would support a true neoplastic process. Here for the first time, we report a case of morphologically typical CMPT harboring ALK gene rearrangement to further provide convincing evidence that CMPT is a neoplastic process rather than a reactive lesion...
March 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062544/somatic-mutation-profiling-of-hobnail-variant-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#7
Luca Morandi, Alberto Righi, Francesca Maletta, Paola Rucci, Fabio Pagni, Marco Gallo, Sabrina Rossi, Leonardo Caporali, Anna Sapino, Ricardo V Lloyd, Sofia Asioli
Hobnail variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (HPTC) represents a recently described, aggressive and rare group of thyroid tumors with poorly understood pathogenesis. Molecular data about this group of cancers are few, and a more detailed molecular characterization of these tumors is needed. The main objective of the study is to define a comprehensive molecular typing of HPTC. Eighteen patients affected by HPTC, including eighteen primary tumors and four lymph node metastases, were screened for NRAS, KRAS, HRAS, BRAF, TP53, PIK3CA, hTERT, PTEN, CDKN2A, EGFR, AKT1, CTNNB1 and NOTCH1 gene mutations...
February 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837029/digitalis-like-compounds-facilitate-non-medullary-thyroid-cancer-redifferentiation-through-intracellular-ca2-fos-and-autophagy-dependent-pathways
#8
Marika H Tesselaar, Thomas Crezee, Herman G Swarts, Danny Gerrits, Otto C Boerman, Jan B Koenderink, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Mihai G Netea, Johannes W A Smit, Romana T Netea-Maier, Theo S Plantinga
Up to 20%-30% of patients with metastatic non-medullary thyroid cancer have persistent or recurrent disease resulting from tumor dedifferentiation. Tumor redifferentiation to restore sensitivity to radioactive iodide (RAI) therapy is considered a promising strategy to overcome RAI resistance. Autophagy has emerged as an important mechanism in cancer dedifferentiation. Here, we demonstrate the therapeutic potential of autophagy activators for redifferentiation of thyroid cancer cell lines. Five autophagy-activating compounds, all known as digitalis-like compounds, restored hNIS expression and iodide uptake in thyroid cancer cell lines...
January 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618325/current-concepts-in-the-molecular-genetics-and-management-of-thyroid-cancer-an-update-for-radiologists
#9
REVIEW
Tatiana Kelil, Abhishek R Keraliya, Stephanie A Howard, Katherine M Krajewski, Marta Braschi-Amirfarzan, Jason L Hornick, Nikhil H Ramaiya, Sree Harsha Tirumani
Substantial improvement in the understanding of the oncogenic pathways in thyroid cancer has led to identification of specific molecular alterations, including mutations of BRAF and RET in papillary thyroid cancer, mutation of RAS and rearrangement of PPARG in follicular thyroid cancer, mutation of RET in medullary thyroid cancer, and mutations of TP53 and in the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/AKT1 pathway in anaplastic thyroid cancer. Ultrasonography (US) and US-guided biopsy remain cornerstones in the initial workup of thyroid cancer...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112325/lack-of-mutation-histopathology-correlation-in-a-patient-with-proteus-syndrome
#10
Meggie E Doucet, Hadley M Bloomhardt, Krzysztof Moroz, Marjorie J Lindhurst, Leslie G Biesecker
Proteus syndrome (PS) is characterized by progressive, disproportionate, segmental overgrowth, and tumor susceptibility caused by a somatic mosaic AKT1 activating mutation. Each individual has unique manifestations making this disorder extremely heterogeneous. We correlated three variables in 38 tissue samples from a patient who died with PS: the gross affection status, the microscopic affection status, and the mutation level. The AKT1 mutation was measured using a PCR-based RFLP assay. Thirteen samples were grossly normal; six had detectable mutation (2-29%) although four of these six were histopathologically normal...
June 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26635480/o-glcnacylation-enhances-the-invasion-of-thyroid-anaplastic-cancer-cells-partially-by-pi3k-akt1-pathway
#11
Peng Zhang, Chunli Wang, Tao Ma, Shengyi You
BACKGROUND: The PI3K family participates in multiple signaling pathways to regulate cellular functions. PI3K/Akt signaling pathway plays an important role in tumorigenesis and development. O-GlcNAcylation, a posttranslational modification, is thought to modulate a wide range of biological processes, such as transcription, cell growth, signal transduction, and cell motility. O-GlcNAcylation is catalyzed by the nucleocytoplasmic enzymes, OGT and OGA, which adds or removes O-GlcNAc moieties, respectively...
2015: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26355276/multiple-mutations-detected-preoperatively-may-predict-aggressive-behavior-of-papillary-thyroid-cancer-and-guide-management-a-case-report
#12
Rupendra T Shrestha, Arivarasan Karunamurthy, Khalid Amin, Yuri E Nikiforov, M Luiza Caramori
BACKGROUND: Multiple gene mutations in thyroid nodules are rare. The presence of several oncogenic mutations could be associated with aggressive biological behavior of tumors. PATIENT FINDINGS: A 60-year-old female presented to her physician after she felt a lump in her neck. On ultrasound, she was found to have a 1.4 cm × 0.8 cm × 1.3 cm nodule in the isthmus and a 0.5 cm × 0.6 cm × 0.6 cm nodule with irregular margins and hypoechogenicity in the right thyroid lobe, warranting fine-needle aspiration (FNA)...
December 2015: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26120150/cowden-syndrome-case-report-update-and-proposed-diagnostic-and-surveillance-routines
#13
Masuma Molvi, Yugal K Sharma, Kedarnath Dash
Cowden syndrome (CS) is an infrequent autosomal dominant multisystem genodermatosis, generally involving the skin, oral mucosa, thyroid, breast and gastrointestinal tract. It is characterized by a late onset in the 2(nd) or 3(rd) decade of life, an extraordinary potential for malignant transformation, especially of breast and thyroid, and an identifiable germline mutation. In 80% cases, the human tumor suppressor gene, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is mutated; mutations involving KILLIN, SDH B/D, PIK3CA and AKT1 genes account for the rest of the cases...
May 2015: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25673849/trip6-promotes-dendritic-morphogenesis-through-dephosphorylated-grip1-dependent-myosin-vi-and-f-actin-organization
#14
Kaosheng Lv, Liang Chen, Yuanjun Li, Zenglong Li, Pengli Zheng, Yingying Liu, Jianguo Chen, Junlin Teng
Thyroid receptor-interacting protein 6 (Trip6), a multifunctional protein belonging to the zyxin family of LIM proteins, is involved in various physiological and pathological processes, including cell migration and tumorigenesis. However, the role of Trip6 in neurons remains unknown. Here, we show that Trip6 is expressed in mouse hippocampal neurons and promotes dendritic morphogenesis. Through interaction with the glutamate receptor-interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) and myosin VI, Trip6 is crucial for the total dendritic length and the number of primary dendrites in cultured hippocampal neurons...
February 11, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25502934/glucose-dependent-glucose-transporter%C3%A2-1-expression-and-its-impact-on-viability-of-thyroid-cancer-cells
#15
Paweł Jóźwiak, Anna Krześlak, Magdalena Bryś, Anna Lipińska
Cancer cells exhibit an altered metabolism characterized by enhanced glycolysis and glucose consumption. In glucose‑addicted cancer cells upregulation of glucose transport across the plasma membrane is mediated by a family of facilitated glucose transporter proteins, particularly glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of GLUT1 expression on glucose uptake and viability of FTC-133 and 8305c thyroid cancer cells growing in hypoglycemic, normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions...
February 2015: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25231196/upregulation-of-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-the-tumorigenesis-of-canine-thyroid-carcinoma
#16
M Campos, M M J Kool, S Daminet, R Ducatelle, G Rutteman, H S Kooistra, S Galac, J A Mol
BACKGROUND: Information on the genetic events leading to thyroid cancer in dogs is lacking. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Upregulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway has an important role in the tumorigenesis of thyroid carcinoma in dogs. ANIMALS: Fifty-nine dogs with thyroid carcinoma and 10 healthy controls. METHODS: Quantitative RT-PCR was performed for VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, EGFR, PIK3CA, PIK3CB, PDPK1, PTEN, AKT1, AKT2, COX-2, and CALCA...
November 2014: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24424051/the-acute-inhibitory-effect-of-iodide-excess-on-sodium-iodide-symporter-expression-and-activity-involves-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#17
Caroline Serrano-Nascimento, Silvania da Silva Teixeira, Juan Pablo Nicola, Renato Tadeu Nachbar, Ana Maria Masini-Repiso, Maria Tereza Nunes
Iodide (I(-)) is an irreplaceable constituent of thyroid hormones and an important regulator of thyroid function, because high concentrations of I(-) down-regulate sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) expression and function. In thyrocytes, activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) cascade also inhibits NIS expression and function. Because I(-) excess and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway induce similar inhibitory effects on NIS expression, we aimed to study whether the PI3K/Akt cascade mediates the acute and rapid inhibitory effect of I(-) excess on NIS expression/activity...
March 2014: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23725177/akt1-inhibitory-dnazymes-inhibit-cell-proliferation-and-migration-of-thyroid-cancer-cells
#18
Le Yang, Jin-Ting He, Hong Guan, Ya-Dong Sun
AKT1 is a member of the serine/threoine AGC protein kinase family involved in thyroid cancer metabolism, growth, proliferation and survival. It is overexpressed in thyroid tumors. In this study, we designed two AKT1 specific DNAzymes (DRz1 and DRz2) that target AKT1 mRNA. The results showed that DRz1 could decrease the expression of AKT1 by 58%. Furthermore, DRz1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and inhibited invasion in SW597 cells. In addition, down-regulation of survivin expression was associated with decreased caspase-3, VEGF and MMP2 in SW597 cells after 24 h...
2013: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23543667/genomic-dissection-of-hurthle-cell-carcinoma-reveals-a-unique-class-of-thyroid-malignancy
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ian Ganly, Julio Ricarte Filho, Stephanie Eng, Ronald Ghossein, Luc G T Morris, Yupu Liang, Nicholas Socci, Kasthuri Kannan, Qianxing Mo, James A Fagin, Timothy A Chan
CONTEXT: Hurthle cell cancer (HCC) is an understudied cancer with poor prognosis. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to elucidate the genomic foundations of HCC. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a large-scale integrated analysis of mutations, gene expression profiles, and copy number alterations in HCC at a single tertiary-care cancer institution. METHODS: Mass spectrometry-based genotyping was used to interrogate hot spot point mutations in the most common thyroid oncogenes: BRAF, RET, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS, PIK3CA, MAP2K1, and AKT1...
May 2013: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23246288/germline-pik3ca-and-akt1-mutations-in-cowden-and-cowden-like-syndromes
#20
Mohammed S Orloff, Xin He, Charissa Peterson, Fusong Chen, Jin-Lian Chen, Jessica L Mester, Charis Eng
Cowden syndrome (CS) is a difficult-to-recognize multiple hamartoma syndrome with high risks of breast, thyroid, and other cancers. Germline mutations in PTEN on 10q23 were found to cause 85% of CS when accrued from tertiary academic centers, but prospective accrual from the community over the last 12 years has revealed a 25% PTEN mutation frequency. PTEN is the phosphatase that has been implicated in a heritable cancer syndrome and subsequently in multiple sporadic cancers and developmental processes. PTEN antagonizes the AKT1/PI3K signaling pathway and has roles in cell cycle, migration, cell polarity, and apoptosis...
January 10, 2013: American Journal of Human Genetics
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