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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666480/alpha-synuclein-activates-bv2-microglia-dependent-on-its-aggregation-state
#1
Alana Hoffmann, Benjamin Ettle, Ariane Bruno, Anna Kulinich, Anna-Carin Hoffmann, Julia von Wittgenstein, Jürgen Winkler, Wei Xiang, Johannes C M Schlachetzki
Synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are defined by the presence of intracellular alpha-synuclein aggregates in neurons and/or oligodendrocytes. In addition, post mortem tissue analysis revealed profound changes in microglial morphology, indicating microglial activation and neuroinflammation. Thus, alpha-synuclein may directly activate microglia, leading to increased production of key pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), which in turn modulates the disease progression...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420591/-the-meaning-of-the-latent-phase-of-labour-a-historical-analysis
#2
A Krahl, W Schnepp, F Zu Sayn-Wittgenstein
The division of the first stage of labour into the latent phase and active labour is based on the work of the Boston gynaecologist Emanuel A. Friedman in the 1950s. Since then international research and clinical practice have normally differentiated between the two. However, these concepts are not generally accepted in Germany, even though the basis for Friedman's work is to be found in the German speaking area. In an analysis of selected current and historical sources covering five centuries, the characteristics of the phases and the course of labour are described...
August 2016: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392284/-the-professional-practice-of-midwives-in-home-based-postnatal-care-a-literature-analysis
#3
S Simon, W Schnepp, F Zu Sayn-Wittgenstein
Background: Due to the reduction of the length of stay in hospital, postnatal care today takes place primarily in the ambulant sector. Midwives provide the health care and support young families. This literature study examines home-based postnatal care from the perspectives of midwives with the aim of exploring how midwives provide postnatal care and what influencing factors exist. Method: A systematic literature search was conducted. Studies that integrated the perceptions of midwives during their work in home-based postpartum care were included...
July 8, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125988/what-moral-status-should-be-accorded-to-those-human-beings-who-have-profound-intellectual-disabilities-a-reply-to-curtis-and-vehmas
#4
Hugh V McLachlan
Curtis and Vehmas present an argument in support of full moral status for those with profound intellectual disabilities based on Moore's famous defence of a common-sense view of the nature and existence of the external world. According to them, the need for such an argument arises from the disturbing inferences that can, supposedly, be drawn from the standard Lockean philosophical theory of personhood. This paper develops and supports Curtis and Vehmas's central claim concerning this equality of moral status by suggesting a basis for rejecting Locke's position, based on reflections upon Wittgenstein's remarks about games and family resemblances...
August 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26696908/against-explanatory-minimalism-in-psychiatry
#5
REVIEW
Tim Thornton
The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel...
2015: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26492674/-ludwig-wittgenstein-1889-1951-and-the-wound-shock
#6
Marc E Gentili
Ludwig Wittgenstein was born in 1889 in Vienna. As a scholar in Cambdrige University, his philosophical achievements are still major regarding the foundations of mathematics and language. In 1939, he took a job as a porter at London Guys' Hospital then under the Blitz. Wittgenstein met Drs. Grant and Reeve who worked in a dedicated "traumatic shock" under the auspices of the Medical Research Council unit, a unit which then moved to the Royal Victoria Infirmary in Newcastle; Wittgenstein followed them as a technician and improved the preparation of fine pieces of histology fixed by paraffin...
April 2015: Histoire des Sciences Médicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26274009/doing-therapy-a-post-structural-re-vision
#7
S de Shazer, I K Berg
The purpose of this essay is to develop a way to look at doing therapy based on (a) Wittgenstein's concept of "language game"; (b) the relationship between Wittgenstein's "private language" argument, language games, and constructivism; and (c) post-structural thinking about language, how therapy works within language, and how language works within therapy. Case material is used to illustrate the usefulness of this approach.
January 1992: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26061395/genotyping-by-sequencing-gbs-detects-genetic-structure-and-confirms-behavioral-qtl-in-tame-and-aggressive-foxes-vulpes-vulpes
#8
Jennifer L Johnson, Helena Wittgenstein, Sharon E Mitchell, Katie E Hyma, Svetlana V Temnykh, Anastasiya V Kharlamova, Rimma G Gulevich, Anastasiya V Vladimirova, Hiu Wa Flora Fong, Gregory M Acland, Lyudmila N Trut, Anna V Kukekova
The silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) offers a novel model for studying the genetics of social behavior and animal domestication. Selection of foxes, separately, for tame and for aggressive behavior has yielded two strains with markedly different, genetically determined, behavioral phenotypes. Tame strain foxes are eager to establish human contact while foxes from the aggressive strain are aggressive and difficult to handle. These strains have been maintained as separate outbred lines for over 40 generations but their genetic structure has not been previously investigated...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26039501/-the-experiences-of-chronically-ill-women-in-the-time-of-pregnancy-birth-and-postnatal-period-a-review-of-qualitative-studies
#9
REVIEW
U Lange, W Schnepp, F Zu Sayn-Wittgenstein
BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases are an increasing problem worldwide, especially in the industrialized countries. In pregnancy, during birth and in the post natal period the affected women are confronted with interventions and medical treatment in addition to the general physical and psychological challenges. However, there is only little knowledge about coping strategies and the experiences of women with chronic diseases during the childbirth period. METHOD: An international literature search was conducted from 11/2013 till 03/2014...
August 2015: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25892075/trust-and-truth-uncertainty-in-health-care-practice
#10
Stephen Tyreman
Uncertainty is the ubiquitous presence across health care. It is usually understood in terms of decision making, 'knowing' the correct diagnosis or understanding how the human body works. Using the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Georges Canguilhem and Tim Ingold, I outline a story of journeying and habitation, and argue that while uncertainty for practitioners may be about enhancing theoretical knowledge, for patients it is about knowing how to act in a taken-for-granted and largely unconscious way in a world that has become uncertain, and in which the main tool of action, the human body, no longer functions with the certainty it once had...
June 2015: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25713549/revisiting-wittgenstein-s-puzzle-hierarchical-encoding-and-comparison-facilitate-learning-of-probabilistic-relational-categories
#11
Wookyoung Jung, John E Hummel
Kittur et al. (2004, 2006) and Jung and Hummel (2011, 2014) showed that people have great difficulty learning relation-based categories with a probabilistic (i.e., family resemblance) structure, in which no single relation is shared by all members of a category. Yet acquisition of such categories is not strictly impossible: in all these studies, roughly half the participants eventually learned to criterion. What are these participants doing that the other half are not? We hypothesized that successful participants were those who divided the nominal categories into two or more sub-categories, each of which individually had a deterministic structure...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25684295/paul-wittgenstein-s-right-arm-and-his-phantom-the-saga-of-a-famous-concert-pianist-and-his-amputation
#12
François Boller, Julien Bogousslavsky
Reports of postamputation pain and problems linked to phantom limbs have increased in recent years, particularly in relation to war-related amputations. These problems are still poorly understood and are considered rather mysterious, and they are difficult to treat. In addition, they may shed light on brain physiology and neuropsychology. Functional neuroimaging techniques now enable us to better understand their pathophysiology and to consider new rehabilitation techniques. Several artists have suffered from postamputation complications and this has influenced not only their personal life but also their artistic work...
2015: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25225014/on-the-nature-of-obsessions-and-compulsions
#13
REVIEW
Sanneke de Haan, Erik Rietveld, Damiaan Denys
In this chapter, we give an overview of current and historical conceptions of the nature of obsessions and compulsions. We discuss some open questions pertaining to the primacy of the affective, volitional or affective nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Furthermore, we add some phenomenological suggestions of our own. In particular, we point to the patients' need for absolute certainty and the lack of trust underlying this need. Building on insights from Wittgenstein, we argue that the kind of certainty the patients strive for is unattainable in principle via the acquisition of factual knowledge...
2013: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25202285/from-cracking-the-orthographic-code-to-playing-with-language-toward-a-usage-based-foundation-of-the-reading-process
#14
Sebastian Wallot
The empirical study of reading dates back more than 125 years. But despite this long tradition, the scientific understanding of reading has made rather heterogeneous progress: many factors that influence the process of text reading have been uncovered, but theoretical explanations remain fragmented; no general theory pulls together the diverse findings. A handful of scholars have noted that properties thought to be at the core of the reading process do not actually generalize across different languages or from situations single-word reading to connected text reading...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25178810/the-association-between-attendance-of-midwives-and-workload-of-midwives-with-the-mode-of-birth-secondary-analyses-in-the-german-healthcare-system
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Nina Knape, Herbert Mayer, Wilfried Schnepp, Friederike zu Sayn-Wittgenstein
BACKGROUND: The continuous rise in caesarean rates across most European countries raises multiple concerns. One factor in this development might be the type of care women receive during childbirth. 'Supportive care during labour' by midwives could be an important factor for reducing fear, tension and pain and decreasing caesarean rates. The presence and availability of midwives to support a woman in line with her needs are central aspects for 'supportive care during labour'.To date, there is no existing research on the influence of effective 'supportive care' by German midwives on the mode of birth...
2014: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24956238/phantoms-in-artists-the-lost-limbs-of-blaise-cendrars-arthur-rimbaud-and-paul-wittgenstein
#16
Laurent Tatu, Julien Bogousslavsky, François Boller
There have been an increasing number of reports of postamputation pain and problems linked to phantom limbs over recent years, particularly in relation to war-related amputations. These problems, which are often poorly understood and considered rather mysterious, are still relevant because they are difficult to treat medically. Functional neuroimaging techniques now enable us to better understand their pathophysiology and to consider new rehabilitation techniques. Phantom limbs have often been a source of inspiration to writers, particularly in the period following the First World War, which was responsible for thousands of amputees...
2014: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24524929/stem-cell-responses-to-plasma-surface-modified-electrospun-polyurethane-scaffolds
#17
Carl Zandén, Nina Hellström Erkenstam, Thomas Padel, Julia Wittgenstein, Johan Liu, H Georg Kuhn
UNLABELLED: The topographical effects from functional materials on stem cell behavior are currently of interest in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here we investigate the influence of argon, oxygen, and hydrogen plasma surface modification of electrospun polyurethane fibers on human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and rat postnatal neural stem cell (NSC) responses. The plasma gases were found to induce three combinations of fiber surface functionalities and roughness textures...
July 2014: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24497242/wittgenstein-s-nightmare-why-the-rdoc-grid-needs-a-conceptual-dimension
#18
Jerome C Wakefield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2014: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24438197/evolutionary-classification-of-ammonium-nitrate-and-peptide-transporters-in-land-plants
#19
Neil J J B von Wittgenstein, Cuong H Le, Barbara J Hawkins, Jürgen Ehlting
BACKGROUND: Nitrogen uptake, reallocation within the plant, and between subcellular compartments involves ammonium, nitrate and peptide transporters. Ammonium transporters are separated into two distinct families (AMT1 and AMT2), each comprised of five members on average in angiosperms. Nitrate transporters also form two discrete families (NRT1 and NRT2), with angiosperms having four NRT2s, on average. NRT1s share an evolutionary history with peptide transporters (PTRs). The NRT1/PTR family in land plants usually has more than 50 members and contains also members with distinct activities, such as glucosinolate and abscisic acid transport...
2014: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24336857/-y-feel-me-how-do-we-understand-the-person-with-dementia
#20
Julian C Hughes
As dementia progresses problems of understanding emerge. Eventually spoken language can be lost. And yet, even into the severer stages of dementia, close carers can often understand the person in a variety of ways. Loss of language is not just a practical problem. It raises philosophical issues too. As Wittgenstein suggested, understanding entails grasping a form of life. Our understanding of agitated, pacing behaviour is similarly based on a unique history, on culture, on context. Hence, a philosophy gestures at the foundations of care...
May 2013: Dementia
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