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Mark Bevir
This symposium calls attention to the archival papers of the political philosopher John Rawls. As the symposium papers show, the archive illuminates the development of Rawls's philosophical and political visions, showing the varied intellectual traditions on which he drew. The papers portray Rawls as a naturalist who believed that moral and political arguments should be made in light of facts about natural human capacities and propensities. The papers explore Rawls's engagement with Wittgenstein, Dewey, and game theory...
2017: Journal of the History of Ideas
Ruth Beckervordersandforth, Birgit Ebert, Iris Schäffner, Jonathan Moss, Christian Fiebig, Jaehoon Shin, Darcie L Moore, Laboni Ghosh, Mariela F Trinchero, Carola Stockburger, Kristina Friedland, Kathrin Steib, Julia von Wittgenstein, Silke Keiner, Christoph Redecker, Sabine M Hölter, Wei Xiang, Wolfgang Wurst, Ravi Jagasia, Alejandro F Schinder, Guo-Li Ming, Nicolas Toni, Sebastian Jessberger, Hongjun Song, D Chichung Lie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Neuron
Espen Skarstein Kolberg
Non-adherence, i.e. medication intake behavior not corresponding with agreed recommendations, is associated with increased morbidity and death, and it has been estimated that as many as 50% of patients in developed countries are not taking their medications as prescribed. But even as efforts in improving medication adherence over the years have increased, results are inconsistent, with only a minority of clinical trials showing any improvement in both adherence and clinical outcome. Since patient education is central to promoting good medication adherence, and language is integral to education, perhaps an exploration of the meaning and use of language, using the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, is in order...
April 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Samir Kc, Wolfgang Lutz
This paper applies the methods of multi-dimensional mathematical demography to project national populations based on alternative assumptions on future, fertility, mortality, migration and educational transitions that correspond to the five shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP) storylines. In doing so it goes a significant step beyond past population scenarios in the IPCC context which considered only total population size. By differentiating the human population not only by age and sex-as is conventionally done in demographic projections-but also by different levels of educational attainment the most fundamental aspects of human development and social change are being explicitly addressed through modeling the changing composition of populations by these three important individual characteristics...
January 2017: Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions
Ruth Beckervordersandforth, Birgit Ebert, Iris Schäffner, Jonathan Moss, Christian Fiebig, Jaehoon Shin, Darcie L Moore, Laboni Ghosh, Mariela F Trinchero, Carola Stockburger, Kristina Friedland, Kathrin Steib, Julia von Wittgenstein, Silke Keiner, Christoph Redecker, Sabine M Hölter, Wei Xiang, Wolfgang Wurst, Ravi Jagasia, Alejandro F Schinder, Guo-Li Ming, Nicolas Toni, Sebastian Jessberger, Hongjun Song, D Chichung Lie
Precise regulation of cellular metabolism is hypothesized to constitute a vital component of the developmental sequence underlying the life-long generation of hippocampal neurons from quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs). The identity of stage-specific metabolic programs and their impact on adult neurogenesis are largely unknown. We show that the adult hippocampal neurogenic lineage is critically dependent on the mitochondrial electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation machinery at the stage of the fast proliferating intermediate progenitor cell...
February 8, 2017: Neuron
Alana Hoffmann, Benjamin Ettle, Ariane Bruno, Anna Kulinich, Anna-Carin Hoffmann, Julia von Wittgenstein, Jürgen Winkler, Wei Xiang, Johannes C M Schlachetzki
Synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are defined by the presence of intracellular alpha-synuclein aggregates in neurons and/or oligodendrocytes. In addition, post mortem tissue analysis revealed profound changes in microglial morphology, indicating microglial activation and neuroinflammation. Thus, alpha-synuclein may directly activate microglia, leading to increased production of key pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), which in turn modulates the disease progression...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
A Krahl, W Schnepp, F Zu Sayn-Wittgenstein
The division of the first stage of labour into the latent phase and active labour is based on the work of the Boston gynaecologist Emanuel A. Friedman in the 1950s. Since then international research and clinical practice have normally differentiated between the two. However, these concepts are not generally accepted in Germany, even though the basis for Friedman's work is to be found in the German speaking area. In an analysis of selected current and historical sources covering five centuries, the characteristics of the phases and the course of labour are described...
August 2016: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
S Simon, W Schnepp, F Zu Sayn-Wittgenstein
Due to the reduction of the length of stay in hospital, postnatal care today takes place primarily in the ambulant sector. Midwives provide the health care and support young families. This literature study examines home-based postnatal care from the perspectives of midwives with the aim of exploring how midwives provide postnatal care and what influencing factors exist. A systematic literature search was conducted. Studies that integrated the perceptions of midwives during their work in home-based postpartum care were included...
February 2017: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
Hugh V McLachlan
Curtis and Vehmas present an argument in support of full moral status for those with profound intellectual disabilities based on Moore's famous defence of a common-sense view of the nature and existence of the external world. According to them, the need for such an argument arises from the disturbing inferences that can, supposedly, be drawn from the standard Lockean philosophical theory of personhood. This paper develops and supports Curtis and Vehmas's central claim concerning this equality of moral status by suggesting a basis for rejecting Locke's position, based on reflections upon Wittgenstein's remarks about games and family resemblances...
August 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
Tim Thornton
The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel...
2015: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Marc E Gentili
Ludwig Wittgenstein was born in 1889 in Vienna. As a scholar in Cambdrige University, his philosophical achievements are still major regarding the foundations of mathematics and language. In 1939, he took a job as a porter at London Guys' Hospital then under the Blitz. Wittgenstein met Drs. Grant and Reeve who worked in a dedicated "traumatic shock" under the auspices of the Medical Research Council unit, a unit which then moved to the Royal Victoria Infirmary in Newcastle; Wittgenstein followed them as a technician and improved the preparation of fine pieces of histology fixed by paraffin...
April 2015: Histoire des Sciences Médicales
S de Shazer, I K Berg
The purpose of this essay is to develop a way to look at doing therapy based on (a) Wittgenstein's concept of "language game"; (b) the relationship between Wittgenstein's "private language" argument, language games, and constructivism; and (c) post-structural thinking about language, how therapy works within language, and how language works within therapy. Case material is used to illustrate the usefulness of this approach.
January 1992: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
Jennifer L Johnson, Helena Wittgenstein, Sharon E Mitchell, Katie E Hyma, Svetlana V Temnykh, Anastasiya V Kharlamova, Rimma G Gulevich, Anastasiya V Vladimirova, Hiu Wa Flora Fong, Gregory M Acland, Lyudmila N Trut, Anna V Kukekova
The silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) offers a novel model for studying the genetics of social behavior and animal domestication. Selection of foxes, separately, for tame and for aggressive behavior has yielded two strains with markedly different, genetically determined, behavioral phenotypes. Tame strain foxes are eager to establish human contact while foxes from the aggressive strain are aggressive and difficult to handle. These strains have been maintained as separate outbred lines for over 40 generations but their genetic structure has not been previously investigated...
2015: PloS One
U Lange, W Schnepp, F Zu Sayn-Wittgenstein
BACKGROUND: Chronic diseases are an increasing problem worldwide, especially in the industrialized countries. In pregnancy, during birth and in the post natal period the affected women are confronted with interventions and medical treatment in addition to the general physical and psychological challenges. However, there is only little knowledge about coping strategies and the experiences of women with chronic diseases during the childbirth period. METHOD: An international literature search was conducted from 11/2013 till 03/2014...
August 2015: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
Stephen Tyreman
Uncertainty is the ubiquitous presence across health care. It is usually understood in terms of decision making, 'knowing' the correct diagnosis or understanding how the human body works. Using the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein, Georges Canguilhem and Tim Ingold, I outline a story of journeying and habitation, and argue that while uncertainty for practitioners may be about enhancing theoretical knowledge, for patients it is about knowing how to act in a taken-for-granted and largely unconscious way in a world that has become uncertain, and in which the main tool of action, the human body, no longer functions with the certainty it once had...
June 2015: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Wookyoung Jung, John E Hummel
Kittur et al. (2004, 2006) and Jung and Hummel (2011, 2014) showed that people have great difficulty learning relation-based categories with a probabilistic (i.e., family resemblance) structure, in which no single relation is shared by all members of a category. Yet acquisition of such categories is not strictly impossible: in all these studies, roughly half the participants eventually learned to criterion. What are these participants doing that the other half are not? We hypothesized that successful participants were those who divided the nominal categories into two or more sub-categories, each of which individually had a deterministic structure...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
François Boller, Julien Bogousslavsky
Reports of postamputation pain and problems linked to phantom limbs have increased in recent years, particularly in relation to war-related amputations. These problems are still poorly understood and are considered rather mysterious, and they are difficult to treat. In addition, they may shed light on brain physiology and neuropsychology. Functional neuroimaging techniques now enable us to better understand their pathophysiology and to consider new rehabilitation techniques. Several artists have suffered from postamputation complications and this has influenced not only their personal life but also their artistic work...
2015: Progress in Brain Research
Sanneke de Haan, Erik Rietveld, Damiaan Denys
In this chapter, we give an overview of current and historical conceptions of the nature of obsessions and compulsions. We discuss some open questions pertaining to the primacy of the affective, volitional or affective nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Furthermore, we add some phenomenological suggestions of our own. In particular, we point to the patients' need for absolute certainty and the lack of trust underlying this need. Building on insights from Wittgenstein, we argue that the kind of certainty the patients strive for is unattainable in principle via the acquisition of factual knowledge...
2013: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
Sebastian Wallot
The empirical study of reading dates back more than 125 years. But despite this long tradition, the scientific understanding of reading has made rather heterogeneous progress: many factors that influence the process of text reading have been uncovered, but theoretical explanations remain fragmented; no general theory pulls together the diverse findings. A handful of scholars have noted that properties thought to be at the core of the reading process do not actually generalize across different languages or from situations single-word reading to connected text reading...
2014: Frontiers in Psychology
Nina Knape, Herbert Mayer, Wilfried Schnepp, Friederike zu Sayn-Wittgenstein
BACKGROUND: The continuous rise in caesarean rates across most European countries raises multiple concerns. One factor in this development might be the type of care women receive during childbirth. 'Supportive care during labour' by midwives could be an important factor for reducing fear, tension and pain and decreasing caesarean rates. The presence and availability of midwives to support a woman in line with her needs are central aspects for 'supportive care during labour'.To date, there is no existing research on the influence of effective 'supportive care' by German midwives on the mode of birth...
2014: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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