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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468181/seizure-semiology-an-important-clinical-clue-to-the-diagnosis-of-autoimmune-epilepsy
#1
Rui-Juan Lv, Hai-Tao Ren, Hong-Zhi Guan, Tao Cui, Xiao-Qiu Shao
Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze the seizure semiologic characteristics of patients with autoimmune epilepsy (AE) and describe the investigation characteristics of AE using a larger sample size. Methods: This observational retrospective case series study was conducted from a tertiary epilepsy center between May 2014 and March 2017. Cases of new-onset seizures were selected based on laboratory evidence of autoimmunity. At the same time, typical mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) were recruited as the control group from the subjects who underwent presurgical evaluation during the same period...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467392/alcohol-impairs-n100-response-to-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-stimulation
#2
Genane Loheswaran, Mera S Barr, Reza Zomorrodi, Tarek K Rajji, Daniel M Blumberger, Bernard Le Foll, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Alcohol is thought to exert its effect by acting on gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) inhibitory neurotransmission. The N100, the negative peak on electroencephalography (EEG) that occurs approximately 100 ms following the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse, is believed to represent GABAB receptor mediated neurotransmission. However, no studies have examined the effect of alcohol on the N100 response to TMS stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In the present study, we aimed to explore the effect of alcohol on the DLPFC TMS-evoked N100 response...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459821/pre-and-postsynaptic-activation-of-gaba-b-receptors-modulates-principal-cell-excitation-in-the-piriform-cortex
#3
Leah B Gerrard, Malinda L S Tantirigama, John M Bekkers
The piriform cortex (PC), like other cortical regions, normally operates in a state of dynamic equilibrium between excitation and inhibition. Here we examined the roles played by pre- and postsynaptic GABAB receptors in maintaining this equilibrium in the PC. Using whole-cell recordings in brain slices from the anterior PC of mice, we found that synaptic activation of postsynaptic GABAB receptors hyperpolarized the two major classes of layer 2 principal neurons and reduced the intrinsic electrical excitability of these neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432796/opioid-and-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-mechanisms-are-activated-by-gaba-agonists-in-the-lateral-parabrachial-nucleus-to-induce-sodium-intake
#4
Lisandra B De Oliveira, Carina A F Andrade, Laurival A De Luca, Débora S A Colombari, José V Menani
The activation of GABA, opioid or α 2 adrenergic mechanisms in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) facilitates hypertonic NaCl intake in rats. In the present study, we combined opioid or α 2 adrenergic antagonists with GABA agonists into the LPBN in order to investigate if NaCl intake caused by GABAergic activation in normohydrated rats depends on opioid or α 2 -adrenergic mechanisms in this area. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally in the LPBN were used. Bilateral injections of muscimol or baclofen (GABA A and GABA B agonists, respectively, 0...
February 9, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419884/balancing-tonic-and-phasic-inhibition-in-hypothalamic-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons
#5
Phillip L W Colmers, Jaideep S Bains
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) are integratory hubs that regulate the endocrine response to stress. GABA inputs provide a basal inhibitory tone that constrains this system and circulating glucocorticoids (CORT) are important feedback controllers of CRH output. Surprisingly little is known about the direct effects of CORT on GABA synapses in PVN. Here we used whole-cell patch clamp recordings from CRH neurons in mouse hypothalamic brain slices to examine the effects of CORT on synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA signalling...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407764/rimonabant-a-potent-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-antagonist-is-a-g%C3%AE-i-o-protein-inhibitor
#6
Alessandra Porcu, Miriam Melis, Rostislav Turecek, Celine Ullrich, Ignazia Mocci, Bernhard Bettler, Gian Luigi Gessa, M Paola Castelli
Rimonabant is a potent and selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist widely used in animal and clinical studies. Besides its antagonistic properties, numerous studies have shown that, at micromolar concentrations rimonabant behaves as an inverse agonist at CB1 receptors. The mechanism underpinning this activity is unclear. Here we show that micromolar concentrations of rimonabant inhibited Gαi/o-type G proteins, resulting in a receptor-independent block of G protein signaling. Accordingly, rimonabant decreased basal and agonist stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding to cortical membranes of CB1- and GABAB-receptor KO mice and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell membranes stably transfected with GABAB or D2 dopamine receptors...
January 27, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373653/presynaptic-gabaa-receptors-modulate-thalamocortical-inputs-in-layer-4-of-rat-v1
#7
L Wang, M Kloc, E Maher, A Erisir, A Maffei
Fast inhibitory GABAergic transmission plays a fundamental role in neural circuits. Current theories of cortical function assume that fast GABAergic inhibition acts via GABAA receptors on postsynaptic neurons, while presynaptic effects of GABA depend on GABAB receptor activation. Manipulations of GABAA receptor activity in vivo produced different effects on cortical function, which were generally ascribed to the mode of action of a drug, more than its site of action. Here we show that in rodent primary visual cortex, α4-containing GABAA receptors can be located on subsets of glutamatergic and GABAergic presynaptic terminals and decrease synaptic transmission...
January 24, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360168/activity-dependent-plasticity-of-presynaptic-gabab-receptors-at-parallel-fiber-synapses
#8
Adeline Orts-Del'Immagine, Jason R Pugh
Parallel fiber synapses in the cerebellum express a wide range of presynaptic receptors. However, presynaptic receptor expression at individual parallel fiber synapses is quite heterogeneous, suggesting physiological mechanisms regulate presynaptic receptor expression. We investigated changes in presynaptic GABAB receptors at parallel fiber-stellate cell synapses in acute cerebellar slices from juvenile mice. GABAB receptor-mediated inhibition of EPSCs is remarkably diverse at these synapses, with transmitter release at some synapses inhibited by more than 50% and little or no inhibition at others...
January 23, 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352772/neurotransmitters-and-receptors-changes-in-medial-nucleus-of-the-trapezoid-body-mntb-of-early-developmental-rats-with-single-side-deafness
#9
Jinsheng Dai, Jinfeng Liu, Mo Zhou, Wenjiao Wang, Zhi-Qing David Xu, Ningyu Wang
BACKGROUND Congenital single-side deafness (SSD) affects sound localization even after cochlear implantation (CI) in some conditions. The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) plays an important role in binaural benefit and sound localization, but little is known about intrinsic molecular changes in MNTB with SSD. We aimed to observe changes in MNTB in early-developmental SSD rats, including the key neurotransmitters (GABA, Gly, Glu) and major receptors (GABAa-R/GABAb-R for GABA, Gly-R for Gly, and AMPA/NMDA for Glu)...
January 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343689/a-novel-%C3%AE-conopeptide-eu1-6-inhibits-n-type-cav2-2-calcium-channels-and-exhibits-potent-analgesic-activity
#10
Zhuguo Liu, Peter Bartels, Mahsa Sadeghi, Tianpeng Du, Qing Dai, Cui Zhu, Shuo Yu, Shuo Wang, Mingxin Dong, Ting Sun, Jiabin Guo, Shuangqing Peng, Ling Jiang, David J Adams, Qiuyun Dai
We here describe a novel α-conopeptide, Eu1.6 from Conus eburneus, which exhibits strong anti-nociceptive activity by an unexpected mechanism of action. Unlike other α-conopeptides that largely target nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), Eu1.6 displayed only weak inhibitory activity at the α3β4 and α7 nAChR subtypes and TTX-resistant sodium channels, and no activity at TTX-sensitive sodium channels in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, or opiate receptors, VR1, KCNQ1, L- and T-type calcium channels expressed in HEK293 cells...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317600/altered-avalanche-dynamics-in-a-developmental-nmdar-hypofunction-model-of-cognitive-impairment
#11
Saurav Seshadri, Andreas Klaus, Daniel E Winkowski, Patrick O Kanold, Dietmar Plenz
Disturbed activity patterns in cortical networks contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Several lines of evidence implicate NMDA receptor hypofunction in SZ, and blocking NMDA receptor signaling during early neurodevelopment produces cognitive deficits in rodent models that resemble those seen in schizophrenic patients. However, the altered network dynamics underlying these cognitive impairments largely remain to be characterized, especially at the cellular level. Here, we use in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to describe pathological dynamics, occurring in parallel with cognitive dysfunction, in a developmental NMDA receptor hypofunction model...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317225/anatomical-recovery-of-the-gabaergic-system-after-a-complete-spinal-cord-injury-in-lampreys
#12
D Romaus-Sanjurjo, S M Valle-Maroto, A Barreiro-Iglesias, B Fernández-López, M C Rodicio
Lampreys recover locomotion spontaneously several weeks after a complete spinal cord injury. Dysfunction of the GABAergic system following SCI has been reported in mammalian models. So, it is of great interest to understand how the GABAergic system of lampreys adapts to the post-injury situation and how this relates to spontaneous recovery. The spinal cord of lampreys contains 3 populations of GABAergic neurons and most of the GABAergic innervation of the spinal cord comes from these local cells. GABAB receptors are expressed in the spinal cord of lampreys and they play important roles in the control of locomotion...
January 6, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317185/cortical-inhibition-assessed-using-paired-pulse-tms-eeg-is-increased-in-older-adults
#13
George M Opie, Simranjit K Sidhu, Nigel C Rogasch, Michael C Ridding, John G Semmler
BACKGROUND: Alterations in inhibitory processes mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors may contribute to age-related functional impairments. However, investigation of these circuits using conventional paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at long interstimulus intervals (∼100-200ms) have produced conflicting results in older adults, possibly due to the indirect nature of the TMS motor evoked potential (MEP). OBJECTIVE: To utilise electroencephalography and TMS coregistration (TMS-EEG) to more directly assess age-related changes in GABAB-mediated long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI)...
December 30, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311610/interneuron-specific-signaling-evokes-distinctive-somatostatin-mediated-responses-in-adult-cortical-astrocytes
#14
Letizia Mariotti, Gabriele Losi, Annamaria Lia, Marcello Melone, Angela Chiavegato, Marta Gómez-Gonzalo, Michele Sessolo, Serena Bovetti, Angelo Forli, Micaela Zonta, Linda Maria Requie, Iacopo Marcon, Arianna Pugliese, Cécile Viollet, Bernhard Bettler, Tommaso Fellin, Fiorenzo Conti, Giorgio Carmignoto
The signaling diversity of GABAergic interneurons to post-synaptic neurons is crucial to generate the functional heterogeneity that characterizes brain circuits. Whether this diversity applies to other brain cells, such as the glial cells astrocytes, remains unexplored. Using optogenetics and two-photon functional imaging in the adult mouse neocortex, we here reveal that parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons, two key interneuron classes in the brain, differentially signal to astrocytes inducing weak and robust GABAB receptor-mediated Ca2+ elevations, respectively...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305121/allosteric-interactions-between-gabab1-subunits-control-orthosteric-binding-sites-occupancy-within-gabab-oligomers
#15
REVIEW
Gregory D Stewart, Laëtitia Comps-Agrar, Lenea Blanc Nørskov-Lauritsen, Jean-Philippe Pin, Julie Kniazeff
The GABAB receptor was the first G protein-coupled receptor identified as an obligate heterodimer. It is composed of two subunits, GABAB1 containing the agonist binding site and GABAB2 responsible for G protein activation. The GABAB receptor was found to associate into larger complexes through GABAB1-GABAB1 interactions, both in transfected cells and in brain membranes. Here we assessed the possible allosteric interactions between GABAB heterodimers by analyzing the effect of mutations located at the putative interface between the extracellular binding domains...
January 2, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299214/intervention-of-the-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-type-b-receptors-of-the-amygdala-central-nucleus-on-the-sensitivity-of-the-morphine-induced-conditionally-preferred-location-in-wistar-female-rats
#16
Firoozeh Alavian, Saeedeh Ghiasvand, Hedayat Sahraei, Maryam Rafiei-Rad
Background: The amygdala is one of the nerve centers involved in drug reward. It is suggested that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is involved in morphine dependency. The CeA gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) system is a mediator of morphine rewarding effects. In this research, the effects of stimulation or inhibition of CeA GABA type B (GABAB) receptors on sensitization acquisition to morphine-induced reward was evaluated in Wistar female rats using conditioned place preferential (CPP) method...
April 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298431/postsynaptic-gababrs-inhibit-l-type-calcium-channels-and-abolish-long-term-potentiation-in-hippocampal-somatostatin-interneurons
#17
Sam A Booker, Desiree Loreth, Annabelle L Gee, Masahiko Watanabe, Peter C Kind, David J A Wyllie, Ákos Kulik, Imre Vida
Inhibition provided by local GABAergic interneurons (INs) activates ionotropic GABAA and metabotropic GABAB receptors (GABABRs). Despite GABABRs representing a major source of inhibition, little is known of their function in distinct IN subtypes. Here, we show that, while the archetypal dendritic-inhibitory somatostatin-expressing INs (SOM-INs) possess high levels of GABABR on their somato-dendritic surface, they fail to produce significant postsynaptic inhibitory currents. Instead, GABABRs selectively inhibit dendritic CaV1...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298327/gabaergic-mechanisms-involved-in-the-prepulse-inhibition-of-auditory-evoked-cortical-responses-in-humans
#18
Koji Inui, Nobuyuki Takeuchi, Shunsuke Sugiyama, Eishi Motomura, Makoto Nishihara
Despite their essential roles in signal processing in the brain, the functions of interneurons currently remain unclear in humans. We recently developed a method using the prepulse inhibition of sensory evoked cortical responses for functional measurements of interneurons. When a sensory feature is abruptly changed in a continuous sensory stimulus, change-related cortical responses are recorded using MEG. By inserting a weak change stimulus (prepulse) before the test change stimulus, it is possible to observe the inhibition of the test response...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283181/loss-of-constitutive-functional-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-b-receptor-crosstalk-in-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-of-human-epileptic-temporal-cortex
#19
Katiuscia Martinello, Miriam Sciaccaluga, Roberta Morace, Addolorata Mascia, Antonietta Arcella, Vincenzo Esposito, Sergio Fucile
OBJECTIVE: γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in adult central nervous system, and profound alterations of GABA receptor functions are linked to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here we describe the functional relationships between GABA receptors type B (GABAB R) and type A (GABAA R) in human temporal cortex and how TLE affects this aspect of GABAergic signaling. METHODS: Miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) were recorded by patch-clamp techniques from human L5 pyramidal neurons in slices from temporal cortex tissue obtained from surgery...
December 28, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218727/gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-subunit-localization-on-neurochemically-identified-neurons-of-the-human-subthalamic-nucleus
#20
Xi Hua Wu, Jennifer Junru Song, Richard Lewis Maxwell Faull, Henry John Waldvogel
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a critical excitatory signaling center within the basal ganglia circuitry. The activity of subthalamic neurons is tightly controlled by upstream inhibitory signaling centers in the basal ganglia. In this study, we used immunohistochemical techniques to firstly, visualize and quantify the STN neurochemical organization based on neuronal markers including parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), SMI-32, and GAD65/67 . Secondly, we characterized the detailed regional, cellular and subcellular expression of GABAA (α1 , α2 , α3 , β2/3 , and γ2 ) and GABAB (R1 and R2) receptor subunits within the normal human STN...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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