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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934129/a-comprehensive-survey-of-the-roles-of-highly-disordered-proteins-in-type-2-diabetes
#1
Zhihua Du, Vladimir N Uversky
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic and progressive disease that is strongly associated with hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) related to either insulin resistance or insufficient insulin production. Among the various molecular events and players implicated in the manifestation and development of diabetes mellitus, proteins play several important roles. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database has information on 34 human proteins experimentally shown to be related to the T2DM pathogenesis...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933585/oncogenic-ras-induced-downregulation-of-atg12-is-required-for-survival-of-malignant-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#2
Byong Hoon Yoo, Iman Aftab Khan, Ananda Koomson, Pramod Gowda, Takehiko Sasazuki, Senji Shirasawa, Shashi Gujar, Kirill Rosen
Activating mutations of RAS GTPase contribute to the progression of many cancers, including colorectal carcinoma. So far, attempts to develop treatments of mutant RAS-carrying cancers have been unsuccessful owing to insufficient understanding of the salient mechanisms of RAS signalling. We found that RAS downregulates the protein ATG12 in colon cancer cells. ATG12 is a mediator of autophagy, a process of degradation and reutilization of cellular components. In addition, ATG12 can kill cells via autophagy-independent mechanisms...
September 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814571/microrna-15b-deteriorates-hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-by-downregulating-bcl-2-and-mapk3
#3
Yaling Liu, Liqun Yang, Jiemin Yin, Diansan Su, Zhiying Pan, Peiying Li, Xiaodong Wang
To investigate the role of miRNA-15b in cardiomyocyte apoptosis after ischemia reperfusion injury in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we conducted the AMI rat model by using left anterior descending ligation and performed hypoxia/reoxygenation experiments in H9c2 cells. MiRNA-15b was measured by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining. Synthesized miRNA-15b mimic and inhibitor were transfected into H9c2 cells by Lipofectamine regent...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743518/nitric-oxide-no-inhibition-of-meiotic-g2-m1-transition-in-anabas-testudineus-oocytes-participation-of-camp-dependent-protein-kinase-pka-in-regulation-of-intra-oocyte-signaling-events
#4
Poulomi Nath, Debabrata Das, Soumojit Pal, Sudipta Maitra
Nitric oxide (NO) regulation of ovarian function in mammals has been studied extensively. However, relatively less information is available on NO action on meiotic G2-M1 transition in teleost oocytes. In the present study using follicle-enclosed oocytes of Anabas testudineus, NO regulation of intra-oocyte signaling events during meiotic G2-M1 transition were examined. Priming with NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) prevented 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregenen-3-one (17,20β-P)-induced germinal vesicle break down (GVBD) in dose- and duration-dependent manner...
July 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733346/regulation-and-action-of-early-growth-response-1-in-bovine-granulosa-cells
#5
Peng Han, Hilda Guerrero-Netro, Anthony Estienne, Binyun Cao, Christopher Price
Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) modify cell proliferation and differentiation through receptor tyrosine kinases, which stimulate the expression of transcription factors including members of the early growth response (EGR) family. In ovarian granulosa cells, most FGFs activate typical response genes, although the role of EGR proteins has not been described. In the present study, we determined the regulation of EGR mRNA by FGFs and explored the role of EGR1 in the regulation of FGF response genes. Addition of FGF1, FGF2, FGF4 or FGF8b increased EGR1 and EGR3 mRNA levels, whereas FGF18 increased only EGR1 mRNA abundance...
July 21, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721437/erk1-is-dispensable-for-mouse-pancreatic-beta-cell-function-but-is-necessary-for-glucose-induced-full-activation-of-msk1-and-creb
#6
Michele Leduc, Joy Richard, Safia Costes, Dany Muller, Annie Varrault, Vincent Compan, Julia Mathieu, Jean-François Tanti, Gilles Pagès, Jacques Pouyssegur, Gyslaine Bertrand, Stéphane Dalle, Magalie A Ravier
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Insufficient insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, which is associated with a decrease in beta cell mass, is a characteristic of type 2 diabetes. Extracellular signal-related kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) inhibition in beta cells has been reported to affect insulin secretion, gene transcription and survival, although whether ERK1 and ERK2 play distinct roles is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the individual roles of ERK1 and ERK2 in beta cells using ERK1 (also known as Mapk3)-knockout mice (Erk1 (-/-) mice) and pharmacological approaches...
July 18, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706419/intestinal-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-ground-cherry-physalis-angulata-l-standardized-co2-phytopharmaceutical-preparation
#7
Luiz Domingues Almeida Junior, Ana Elisa Valencise Quaglio, Celso Acácio Rodrigues de Almeida Costa, Luiz Claudio Di Stasi
AIM: To investigate the effects of Ground Cherry (Physalis angulata L.) standardized supercritical CO2 extract in trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat intestinal inflammation. METHODS: The animals were divided into groups that received vehicle or P. angulata extract (PACO2) orally at the doses 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg daily by 5 d before TNBS damage. Protective effects of PACO2 were assessed by macroscopic analysis, biochemical determinations of the levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione and cytokines (such as INF-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α), gene expression evaluation (including Hsp70, heparanase, NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases (Mapk) 1, 3, 6 and 9, and the mucins genes Muc 1, 2, 3 and 4) and histopathological studies using optical, and electronic (transmission and scanning) microscopy...
June 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659758/chronic-oxidative-stress-mitochondrial-dysfunction-nrf2-activation-and-inflammation-in-the-hippocampus-accompany-heightened-systemic-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-an-animal-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#8
Geetha A Shetty, Bharathi Hattiangady, Dinesh Upadhya, Adrian Bates, Sahithi Attaluri, Bing Shuai, Maheedhar Kodali, Ashok K Shetty
Memory and mood dysfunction are the key symptoms of Gulf war illness (GWI), a lingering multi-symptom ailment afflicting >200,000 veterans who served in the Persian Gulf War-1. Research probing the source of the disease has demonstrated that concomitant exposures to anti-nerve gas agent pyridostigmine bromide (PB), pesticides, and war-related stress are among the chief causes of GWI. Indeed, exposures to GWI-related chemicals (GWIR-Cs) and mild stress in animal models cause memory and mood impairments alongside reduced neurogenesis and chronic low-level inflammation in the hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644106/viability-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-periodontal-ligament-progenitor-cells-are-maintained-after-incubation-with-porphyromonas-gingivalis-protein-extract
#9
Mayra Laino Albiero, Rafael Nóbrega Stipp, Miki Taketomi Saito, Márcio Zaffalon Casati, Enilson Antonio Sallum, Francisco Humberto Nociti, Karina Gonzales Silvério
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) is a major periodontal pathogen that contains immunostimulatory components. Periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (PDLSCs) are responsible for regeneration of the periodontium that is lost due to periodontitis. Pathologic factors within the microenvironment that impair resident PDLSCs are not well understood. The present study investigated in vitro the effects of Pg protein extract (PgPE) on the biological properties of CD105-enriched PDL progenitor cell populations (PDL-CD105(+) cells)...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611764/interplay-of-pathogen-induced-defense-responses-and-symbiotic-establishment-in-medicago-truncatula
#10
Tao Chen, Liujian Duan, Bo Zhou, Haixiang Yu, Hui Zhu, Yangrong Cao, Zhongming Zhang
Suppression of host innate immunity appears to be required for the establishment of symbiosis between rhizobia and host plants. In this study, we established a system that included a host plant, a bacterial pathogen and a symbiotic rhizobium to study the role of innate immunity during symbiotic interactions. A pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pst DC3000), was shown to cause chlorosis in Medicago truncatula A17. Sinorhizobium meliloti strain Sm2011 (Sm2011) and Pst DC3000 strain alone induced similar defense responses in M...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592245/in-silico-identification-of-potential-key-regulatory-factors-in-smoking-induced-lung-cancer
#11
Salem A El-Aarag, Amal Mahmoud, Medhat H Hashem, Hatem Abd Elkader, Alaa E Hemeida, Mahmoud ElHefnawi
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and is the most commonly diagnosed cancer. Like other cancers, it is a complex and highly heterogeneous disease involving multiple signaling pathways. Identifying potential therapeutic targets is critical for the development of effective treatment strategies. METHODS: We used a systems biology approach to identify potential key regulatory factors in smoking-induced lung cancer. We first identified genes that were differentially expressed between smokers with normal lungs and those with cancerous lungs, then integrated these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with data from a protein-protein interaction database to build a network model with functional modules for pathway analysis...
June 7, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581888/il17a-augments-autophagy-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infected-monocytes-from-patients-with-active-tuberculosis-in-association-with-the-severity-of-the-disease
#12
Nancy Liliana Tateosian, Joaquín Miguel Pellegrini, Nicolás Oscar Amiano, Agustín Rolandelli, Nicolás Casco, Domingo Juan Palmero, María Isabel Colombo, Verónica Edith García
During mycobacterial infection, macroautophagy/autophagy, a process modulated by cytokines, is essential for mounting successful host responses. Autophagy collaborates with human immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) in association with specific IFNG secreted against the pathogen. However, IFNG alone is not sufficient to the complete bacterial eradication, and other cytokines might be required. Actually, induction of Th1 and Th17 immune responses are required for protection against Mt. Accordingly, we showed that IL17A and IFNG expression in lymphocytes from tuberculosis patients correlates with disease severity...
July 3, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574608/role-of-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-and-maturation-promoting-factor-during-the-achievement-of-meiotic-competency-in-mammalian-oocytes
#13
Meenakshi Tiwari, Anumegha Gupta, Alka Sharma, Shilpa Prasad, Ashutosh N Pandey, Pramod K Yadav, Ajai K Pandey, Tulsidas G Shrivastav, Shail K Chaube
The oocyte quality remains as one of the major problems associated with poor in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate and assisted reproductive technology (ART) failure worldwide. The oocyte quality is dependent on its meiotic maturation that begins inside the follicular microenvironment and gets completed at the time of ovulation in most of the mammalian species. Follicular oocytes are arrested at diplotene stage of first meiotic prophase. The resumption of meiosis from diplotene arrest, progression through metaphase-I (M-I) and further arrest at metaphase-II (M-II) are important physiological requirements for the achievement of meiotic competency in mammalian oocytes...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560380/sorafenib-induces-variations-of-the-dna-methylome-in-ha22t-vgh-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-derived-cells
#14
Edoardo Abeni, Alessandro Salvi, Eleonora Marchina, Michele Traversa, Bruna Arici, Giuseppina De Petro
Sorafenib is currently used to treat advanced and/or unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the increase of the median survival was only 3 months. Moreover, sorafenib has severe side effects and patients develop resistance quickly. Epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation play a decisive role in the development and progression of HCC. To our knowledge, there are no studies that analysed the global DNA methylation changes in HCC cells treated with sorafenib. Using MeDip-chip technologies, we found 1230 differentially methylated genes in HA22T/VGH cells treated with sorafenib compared to untreated cells...
July 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559407/neutrophil-elastase-and-il17-expressed-in-the-pig-colon-during-brachyspira-hyodysenteriae-infection-synergistically-with-the-pathogen-induce-increased-mucus-transport-speed-and-production-via-mapk3
#15
Macarena P Quintana-Hayashi, Nazanin Navabi, Maxime Mahu, Vignesh Venkatakrishnan, Harvey R Fernandez, Freddy Haesebrouck, Frank Pasmans, Sara K Lindén
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonizes the pig colon resulting in mucoid hemorragic diarrhea and mucus layer changes. These changes are characterized by a disorganized mucus structure and a massive mucus induction with de novo expression of MUC5AC and increased production of MUC2. To investigate the mechanisms behind this altered mucin environment, we quantified the mRNA levels of mucin pathway genes and factors from the immune system in the colon of infected and control pigs, revealing upregulation of neutrophil elastase, SPDEF, FOXA3, MAPK3/ERK1, IL-17A, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 expression...
May 30, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456913/the-effect-and-osteoblast-signaling-response-of-trace-silicon-doping-hydroxyapatite
#16
Tian Sun, Ming Wang, Yiran Shao, Liping Wang, Yingchun Zhu
It is commonly accepted that silicon-doped hydroxyapatite (HAp) can achieve good repair effects for both spinal fusion and bone defect filling. However, the underlying mechanism by which silicon aids such beneficial effects is still not fully understood. Herein, we report on silicon-doped hydroxyapatites with excellent biocompatibility to osteoblast cells and suggest the signaling pathway involved. Non-doped HAp and trace Si-doped HAp (Si/HAp) with Si concentration close to and higher than natural bones were synthesized (i...
April 29, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438610/hyperglycemia-increases-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-via-mapk1-and-mapk3-signaling-to-etv1-and-kit-leading-to-rapid-gastric-emptying
#17
Yujiro Hayashi, Yoshitaka Toyomasu, Siva Arumugam Saravanaperumal, Michael R Bardsley, John A Smestad, Andrea Lorincz, Seth T Eisenman, Gianluca Cipriani, Molly H Nelson Holte, Fatimah J Al Khazal, Sabriya A Syed, Gabriella B Gajdos, Kyoung Moo Choi, Gary J Stoltz, Katie E Miller, Michael L Kendrick, Brian P Rubin, Simon J Gibbons, Adil E Bharucha, David R Linden, Louis James Maher, Gianrico Farrugia, Tamas Ordog
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) is common in diabetic gastroparesis. However, in approximately 20% of patients with diabetes, gastric emptying (GE) is accelerated. GE also occurs faster in obese individuals, and is associated with increased blood levels of glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. To understand the fate of ICCs in hyperinsulinemic, hyperglycemic states characterized by rapid GE, we studied mice with mutation of the leptin receptor (Lepr(db/db)), which in our colony had accelerated GE...
August 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433874/systematically-characterize-the-absorbed-effective-substances-of-wutou-decoction-and-their-metabolic-pathways-in-rat-plasma-using-uhplc-q-tof-ms-combined-with-a-target-network-pharmacological-analysis
#18
Tengfei Xu, Shizhe Li, Yufei Sun, Zifeng Pi, Shu Liu, Fengrui Song, Zhiqiang Liu
Wu-tou Decoction (WTD) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula which is applied to treat arthritis and pain of joints. In this study, a sensitive and rapid method was developed for the separation and identification of the absorbed constituents and metabolites of WTD in the rats plasma by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). A total of 22 absorbed prototype constituents and 49 metabolites were identified or tentatively characterized in dosed plasma...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389370/prostaglandin-e2-stimulates-the-expression-of-cumulus-expansion-related-genes-in-pigs-the-role-of-protein-kinase-b
#19
Milan Blaha, Radek Prochazka, Katerina Adamkova, Jan Nevoral, Lucie Nemcova
The production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) seems to play an important role in the ovulation process. PGE2 was found to induce cumulus expansion and meiosis resumption in mice, but little is known about its role in pigs. The goals of this study were (a) to assess the effect of PGE2 on the expression levels of cumulus expansion-related genes, (b) to define the signaling pathways that drive the PGE2-stimulated expression of cumulus expansion-related genes, (c) to measure the effect of PGE2 on the activation of key signaling molecules (MAPK3/1, PKB) and on hyaluronan production in cumulus cells, and (d) to assess the effect of PGE2 on meiosis resumption...
May 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315333/triiodothyronine-promotes-the-proliferation-of-epicardial-progenitor-cells-through-the-mapk-erk-pathway
#20
Song-Bai Deng, Xiao-Dong Jing, Xiao-Ming Wei, Jian-Lin Du, Ya-Jie Liu, Qin Qin, Qiang She
Thyroid hormone has important functions in the development and physiological function of the heart. The aim of this study was to determine whether 3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine (T3) can promote the proliferation of epicardial progenitor cells (EPCs) and to investigate the potential underlying mechanism. Our results showed that T3 significantly promoted the proliferation of EPCs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The thyroid hormone nuclear receptor inhibitor bisphenol A (100 μmol/L) did not affect T3's ability to induce proliferation...
April 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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