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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674970/hypothesis-the-psychedelic-ayahuasca-heals-traumatic-memories-via-a-sigma-1-receptor-mediated-epigenetic-mnemonic-process
#1
Antonio Inserra
Ayahuasca ingestion modulates brain activity, neurotransmission, gene expression and epigenetic regulation. N,N -Dimethyltryptamine (DMT, one of the alkaloids in Ayahuasca) activates sigma 1 receptor (SIGMAR1) and others. SIGMAR1 is a multi-faceted stress-responsive receptor which promotes cell survival, neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, and neuroimmunomodulation. Simultaneously, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) also present in Ayahuasca prevent the degradation of DMT. One peculiarity of SIGMAR1 activation and MAOI activity is the reversal of mnemonic deficits in pre-clinical models...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674967/no-acute-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-the-sleep-wake-cycle-of-healthy-subjects-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#2
Ila M P Linares, Francisco S Guimaraes, Alan Eckeli, Ana C S Crippa, Antonio W Zuardi, Jose D S Souza, Jaime E Hallak, José A S Crippa
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a component of Cannabis sativa that has a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic effects in neuropsychiatric and other disorders. However, few studies have investigated the possible interference of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a clinically anxiolytic dose of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle of healthy subjects in a crossover, double-blind design. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers that fulfilled the eligibility criteria were selected and allocated to receive either CBD (300 mg) or placebo in the first night in a double-blind randomized design (one volunteer withdrew from the study)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671814/sex-specific-alterations-in-%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-receptor-expression-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#3
Joan Y Holgate, Josephine R Tarren, Selena E Bartlett
Background : The mechanisms leading from traumatic stress to social, emotional and cognitive impairment and the development of mental illnesses are still undetermined and consequently there remains a critical need to develop therapies for preventing the adverse consequences of traumatic stress. Research indicates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4 subunits (α4*nAChRs) are both impacted by stress and capable of modulating the stress response. In this study, we investigated whether varenicline, a partial α4β2*nAChR agonist which reduces nicotine, alcohol and sucrose consumption, can reduce stress, a driving factor in substance use disorders...
April 19, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669557/discovery-biology-of-neuropsychiatric-syndromes-dbns-a-center-for-integrating-clinical-medicine-and-basic-science
#4
Biju Viswanath, Naren P Rao, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Palanimuthu T Sivakumar, Arun Kandasamy, Muralidharan Kesavan, Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, John P John, Odity Mukherjee, Meera Purushottam, Ramakrishnan Kannan, Bhupesh Mehta, Thennarasu Kandavel, B Binukumar, Jitender Saini, Deepak Jayarajan, A Shyamsundar, Sydney Moirangthem, K G Vijay Kumar, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Prabha S Chandra, Bangalore N Gangadhar, Pratima Murthy, Mitradas M Panicker, Upinder S Bhalla, Sumantra Chattarji, Vivek Benegal, Mathew Varghese, Janardhan Y C Reddy, Padinjat Raghu, Mahendra Rao, Sanjeev Jain
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that there are shared genetic, environmental and developmental risk factors in psychiatry, that cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries. With this background, the Discovery biology of neuropsychiatric syndromes (DBNS) proposes to recruit patients from five different syndromes (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, Alzheimer's dementia and substance use disorders), identify those with multiple affected relatives, and invite these families to participate in this study...
April 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667182/breathing-regulation-and-blood-gas-homeostasis-after-near-complete-lesions-of-the-retrotrapezoid-nucleus-in-adult-rats
#5
George M P R Souza, Roy Kanbar, Daniel S Stornetta, Stephen B G Abbott, Ruth L Stornetta, Patrice G Guyenet
The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is one of several CNS nuclei that contribute, in various capacities (e.g. CO2 detection, neuronal modulation) to the central respiratory chemoreflex (CRC). Here we test how important the RTN is to PCO2 homeostasis and breathing during sleep or wake. RTN Nmb positive neurons were killed with targeted microinjections of substance-P-saporin conjugate in adult rats. Under normoxia, rats with large RTN lesions (92 ± 4 % cell loss) had normal blood pressure (BP) and arterial pH but were hypoxic (-8 mmHg PaO2 ) and hypercapnic (+10 mmHg PaCO2 )...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662964/comparison-of-the-effects-of-ginger-extract-with-clomiphene-citrate-on-sex-hormones-in-rats-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#6
Shekoufeh Atashpour, Hossein Kargar Jahromi, Zahra Kargar Jahromi, Mozhgan Maleknasab
Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women which affect fertility. Clomiphene citrate is used as first-line treatment for this disorder, which is associated with some complications and therapeutic resistance. Objective: In this research, we compare the effectiveness of ginger with clomiphene on sexual hormones such as Luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen and progesterone in order to treat PCOS effectively with fewer side effects...
September 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653309/bioactive-extracellular-compounds-produced-by-the-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-minutum-are-highly-detrimental-for-oysters
#7
J Castrec, P Soudant, L Payton, D Tran, P Miner, C Lambert, N Le Goïc, A Huvet, V Quillien, F Boullot, Z Amzil, H Hégaret, C Fabioux
Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium spp., known as producers of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are regularly detected on the French coastline. PSTs accumulate into harvested shellfish species, such as the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and can cause strong disorders to consumers at high doses. The impacts of Alexandrium minutum on C. gigas have often been attributed to its production of PSTs without testing separately the effects of the bioactive extracellular compounds (BECs) with allelopathic, hemolytic, cytotoxic or ichthyotoxic properties, which can also be produced by these algae...
March 29, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651507/efficacy-and-side-effects-of-baclofen-and-the-novel-gaba-b-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator-cmppe-in-animal-models-for-alcohol-and-cocaine-addiction
#8
Valentina Vengeliene, Tatiane T Takahashi, Olga A Dravolina, Irina Belozertseva, Edwin Zvartau, Anton Y Bespalov, Rainer Spanagel
RATIONALE: Preclinical studies suggest that the GABAB receptor is a potential target for treatment of substance use disorders. However, recent clinical trials report adverse effects in patients treated with the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen and even question efficacy. How can the discrepancy between preclinical and clinical findings be explained? OBJECTIVE: To test efficacy and adverse effects of baclofen and the novel GABAB positive allosteric modulator (PAM) CMPPE in rat addiction models, which were developed in accordance with DSM...
April 12, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649467/monosodium-glutamate-ingestion-during-the-development-period-reduces-aggression-mediated-by-the-vagus-nerve-in-a-rat-model-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Ruriko Nishigaki, Yoshihiro Yokoyama, Yuko Shimizu, Ryosuke Marumoto, Sachiyo Misumi, Yoshitomo Ueda, Akimasa Ishida, Yasuyuki Shibuya, Hideki Hida
We used an umami substance, monosodium glutamate (MSG), as a simple stimulant to clarify the mechanism of the formation of emotional behavior. A 60 mM MSG solution was fed to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), used as a model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, from postnatal day 25 for 5 weeks kept in isolation. Emotional behaviors (anxiety and aggression) were then assessed by the open-field test, cylinder test and social interaction test. MSG ingestion during the developmental period resulted in a significant reduction in aggressive behavior but had few effects on anxiety-like behavior...
April 9, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648469/the-stimulation-of-the-vaginal-immune-system-with-short-term-administration-of-a-vaginal-gel-containing-fraction-of-propionibacterium-acnes-hyaluronic-acid-and-polycarbophil-is-efficacious-in-vaginal-infections-dependent-on-disorders-in-the-vaginal-ecosystem
#10
Gian Benedetto Melis, Bruno Piras, Maria Francesca Marotto, Manuela Neri, Valentina Corda, Valerio Vallerino, Alessandra Saba, Stefano Lello, Monica Pilloni, Pierina Zedda, Anna Maria Paoletti, Valerio Mais
The vaginal immune system (VIS) is the first defense against antigens recognized as foreign. Substances capable of locally activating the VIS could be a valid strategy to treat vulvo-vaginal infections (VVI), caused by changes in the vaginal ecosystem, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (CA), and mixed vaginitis (MV). Bacterial lysates, obtained by crushing bacterial cultures, exert immuno-modulatory activities. The parietal fraction from Propionibacterium acnes is a patent of Depofarma (MoglianoVeneto, Italy)...
April 12, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618427/amelioration-of-methylmercury-induced-neural-damage-by-essential-oil-of-selinum-vaginatum-edgew-c-b-clarke
#11
Kalaivani Thiagarajan, Naisarg Gamit, Saurabh Mandal, Dhanoop Manikoth Ayyathan, Rajasekaran Chandrasekaran
Methylmercury (MeHg), an organometallic contaminant is a well spotted cause for a series of disorders, especially in the central nervous system. As there is no proper treatment, Selinum vaginatum (Edgew) C. B. Clarke, a traditional medicinal plant, is taken in the present study for assessing its neuroprotective effect against MeHg induced toxicity using rat brain mitochondrial fractions. The results of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide dye (MTT) assay indicated that there was a reduction in the mitochondrial viability in MeHg treated sample and IC50 value recorded was 2...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609134/effect-of-methamphetamine-exposure-on-the-plasma-levels-of-endothelial-derived-microparticles
#12
Azadeh Nazari, Maryam Zahmatkesh, Esmaeil Mortaz, Soheila Hosseinzadeh
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (Meth), a neurotoxin, induces inflammation, oxidative stress, and triggers endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease which is the second cause of death among individuals with Meth-use disorder. Oxidative stress and inflammation trigger the microparticle (MP) release. These are extracellular vesicles extracted from cell surface and identified in biological fluids. MP levels alter during pathological conditions, suggesting its potential biomarker role...
March 27, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604592/quercus-dilatata-lindl-ex-royle-ameliorates-bpa-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#13
Syeda Tayyaba Batool Kazmi, Muhammad Majid, Sonia Maryam, Aymen Rahat, Madiha Ahmed, Muhammad Rashid Khan, Ihsan Ul Haq
Quercus dilatata Lindl. ex Royle was evaluated for in vitro polyphenol content and antioxidant potential as well as in vivo protective role against bisphenol A (BPA) induced hepatotoxicity. The distilled water-acetone (QDDAE) and methanol-ethyl acetate (QDMEtE) extracts were standardized and administered in high (300 mg/kg body weight (BW) and low (150 mg/kg BW) doses to Sprague Dawley rats, injected with BPA (25 mg/kg BW). Silymarin (50 mg/kg BW) was used as positive control. Subsequently, blood and liver homogenates were collected after four weeks of treatment, and the defensive effects of both extracts against oxidative damage and genotoxicity were assessed via hematological and biochemical investigations, determination of endogenous expression of enzymes as well as levels of free radicals and comet assay...
March 28, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595410/a-novel-approach-to-treating-adolescents-with-opioid-use-disorder-in-pediatric-primary-care
#14
Sharon Levy, Shannon Mountain-Ray, Jason Reynolds, Steven J Mendes, Jonas Bromberg
BACKGROUND: Medication treatment for opioid use disorder is effective, and recommended for adolescents, though very few adolescents with opioid use disorder ever receive medications. Reasons include lack of trained medication prescribers for this age group and difficulty in identifying adolescents with substance use disorders. This manuscript examines a novel implementation model of identifying and providing treatment for substance use disorders, including opioid use disorder, in a pediatric primary care practice...
March 29, 2018: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593589/comorbid-diagnosis-of-psychotic-disorders-in-borderline-personality-disorder-prevalence-and-influence-on-outcome
#15
C W Slotema, Jan D Blom, Marieke B A Niemantsverdriet, Mathijs Deen, Iris E C Sommer
Background: A diagnosis of psychotic disorder is traditionally considered incompatible with borderline personality disorder (BPD), even though patients sometimes fulfill the diagnostic criteria for both disorders. How often this happens is barely known, as is the influence of comorbid psychotic disorders on the outcome of BPD. Since studies on isolated auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with BPD indicate that these perceptual symptoms have severe consequences and are associated with suicidal behavior and hospitalization, patients with comorbid psychotic disorders are unlikely to fare better...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580705/-consultation-liaison-addiction-medicine-tools-and-specificities
#16
P Poloméni, G Cleirec, C Icard, A Ramos, B Rolland
Since the 1970s, the concept of "consultation/liaison (CL) psychiatry" has pertained to specialized mobile teams which meet inpatients hospitalized in non-psychiatric settings to offer them on-the-spot psychiatric assessment, treatment, and, if needed, adequate referral. Since the birth of CL psychiatry, a long set of theoretical books and articles has aimed at integrating CL psychiatry into the wider scope of psychosomatic medicine. In the year 2000, a circular issued by the Health Ministry defined the organization of "CL addiction services" in France...
March 23, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578426/dysfunction-of-various-organ-systems-induced-by-sepsis-with-underlying-severe-myelomic-diseases-and-prostate-cancer-case-report
#17
L Ratiani, N Intskirveli, L Goliadze, T Chkhikvadze, L Koptonashvili, E Khuchua
A 65-year-old male patient, unconscious, was admitted into the clinic by the Ambulance. From the patient's medical history it was revealed that several hours before the admission in the clinic the following symptoms were present: shortness of breath, fever, hypotonia, consciousness inhibition, because of which emergency brigade was called and was brought by the Emergency Brigade. The history is loaded by chronic pathologies: myeloma disease, prostate cancer, ciliary arrhythmia, heart failure; received several courses of polichemotherapy, last ten days has been treated for pneumonia with antibiotics of ceftriaxone group in outpatient setting...
February 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577965/bisphenol-a-induced-changes-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-duodenum
#18
Kamila Szymanska, Slawomir Gonkowski
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound from the phenolic group commonly used for the production of plastics. The use of BPA in food and drinking water containers carries a significant risk to human health since BPA can be washed out and enter consumables. BPA entering the human body with food shows a multi-directional effect and causes disorders in the functioning of many systems and organs. There is no current knowledge about the effects of BPA on the enteric nervous system. The purpose of the present study was to verify the influence of BPA on tolerable daily intake (TDI) dose (0...
March 22, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576695/demethoxycurcumin-a-natural-derivative-of-curcumin-abrogates-rotenone-induced-dopamine-depletion-and-motor-deficits-by-its-antioxidative-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-in-parkinsonian-rats
#19
Muthu Ramkumar, Srinivasagam Rajasankar, Veerapan Venkatesh Gobi, Udaiyappan Janakiraman, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Ranganathan Chidambaram, Saravana Babu Chidambaram, Giles J Guillemin
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder (NDD) associated with the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and subsequently has an effect on motor function and coordination. The pathology of PD is multifactorial, in which neuroinflammation and oxidative damage are the two of the main protagonists. Objectives: The present study aims to assess the potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of demethoxycurcumin (DMC), a natural derivative of curcumin, against rotenone-induced PD in rats...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572651/diazepam-blocks-50-khz-ultrasonic-vocalizations-and-stereotypies-but-not-the-increase-in-locomotor-activity-induced-in-rats-by-amphetamine
#20
Gisele de Oliveira Guaita, Debora Dalla Vecchia, Roberto Andreatini, Donita L Robinson, Rainer K W Schwarting, Claudio Da Cunha
RATIONALE: We have recently shown that the benzodiazepine diazepam inhibits dopamine release in the NAc and blocks the increased release of dopamine induced by DL-amphetamine. Rewarding stimuli and many drugs of abuse can induce dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens as well as 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in rats. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that diazepam can also block the increase in locomotor activity and USVs elicited by amphetamine...
March 23, 2018: Psychopharmacology
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