Read by QxMD icon Read

Substance-induced disorders

Kaori Sadakane, Takamichi Ichinose, Masataka Nishikawa, Hirohisa Takano, Takayuki Shibamoto
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have implicated Asian sand dust (ASD) in the increased prevalence of respiratory disorders, including asthma. It has been observed that fungal elements such as β-glucan can be adsorbed onto ASD. In the present study, the exacerbating effect of the combined exposure to zymosan A (ZymA) containing yeast β-glucan and heat-inactivated ASD on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine lung eosinophilia was investigated. METHODS: BALB/c mice were repeatedly instilled intratracheally with one of eight immunogenic formulations consisting of various combinations of (1) ZymA, (2) ASD that was briefly heated to remove organic substances (H-ASD), and (3) OVA in normal saline, or each of the above alone...
2016: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Fadia S Youssef, Mohamed L Ashour, Mansour Sobeh, Hesham A El-Beshbishy, Abdel Nasser Singab, Michael Wink
BACKGROUND: The Australian plant Eremophila maculata F. Muell (Scrophulariaceae) is cultivated worldwide as an ornamental plant. PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of a methanol extract from E. maculata leaves (EMM) both in vitro and in vivo (rats) experiments. Detailed phytochemical study was done on the extract followed by molecular docking experiments on TNF-α ascertain the efficacy of the isolated compounds...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Joseph Tseng, Peter Poullos
Fournier's gangrene is a severe polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital, or perianal regions. The classic presentation is severe pain and swelling with systemic signs. Crepitus and cutaneous necrosis are often seen. Characteristic CT findings include subcutaneous gas and inflammatory stranding. Unless treated aggressively, patients can rapidly become septic and die. Factitious Disorder is the falsification of one's own of medical or psychological signs and symptoms. Many deceptive methods have been described, from falsely reporting physical or psychological symptoms, to manipulating lab tests, or even injecting or ingesting foreign substances in order to induce illness...
September 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Nuria García Marchena, Pedro Araos, Francisco Javier Pavón, Guillermo Ponce, María Pedraz, Antonia Serrano, Francisco Arias, Pablo Romero-Sanchiz, Juan Suárez, Antoni Pastor, Rafael De la Torre, Marta Torrens, Gabriel Rubio, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Alcohol addiction is associated with high psychiatric comorbidity. Objective stratification of patients is necessary to optimize care and improve prognosis. The present study is designed to gain insights into this challenge by addressing the following objectives: a) to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in a sample of outpatients seeking treatment for alcohol use disorder, b) to describe the existence of gender differences and c) to validate 2-acyl-glycerols as biomarkers of alcohol use disorder and/or psychiatric comorbidity...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Falk Mancke, Gintarė Kaklauskaitė, Jennifer Kollmer, Markus Weiler
Nitrous oxide (N2O), a long-standing anesthetic, is known for its recreational use, and its consumption is on the rise. Several case studies have reported neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O use. To date, however, there has not been a study using standardized diagnostic procedures to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a patient consuming N2O. Here, we report about a 35-year-old male with magnetic resonance imaging confirmed subacute myelopathy induced by N2O consumption, who suffered from comorbid cannabinoid and nicotine dependence as well as abuse of amphetamines, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ketamine...
2016: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Marta Martin-Subero, Crisanto Diez-Quevedo
This paper aims to review the epidemiology and management of mental disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected patients, the need for antiviral therapy in this specific population, and current treatment strategies for HIV/HCV patients with psychiatric and/or substance use disorders. This is a narrative review. Data was sourced from electronic databases and was not limited by language or date of publication. HIV infection has become a survivable chronic illness. Prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected patients is high ranging from 50% to 90%...
September 26, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Johannes M Just, Klaus Weckbecker, Katja S Just
BACKGROUND: Nocturnal leg cramps are painful, involuntary muscle contractions commonly seen in elderly. While mostly harmless, they can severely impair quality of life and often disrupt sleep. Adverse drug effects may be responsible for a fraction of nocturnal leg cramps but often go unrecognized, resulting in additional prescribing intended to deal with adverse effects that might be better addressed by reduction, substitution, or discontinuation of the offending agent. CASE PRESENTATION: An 87 year old female presented as outpatient in family medicine with nocturnal leg cramps which had been present for five years and increasingly burdened her quality of life...
October 1, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
Filiz Civil Arslan, Ahmet Tiryaki, Mehmet Yıldırım, Evrim Özkorumak, Ahmet Alver, İlkay Keleş Altun, İmran İnce, Öznur Gedikli
Bipolar disorder is a chronic disease characterized by recurring episodes of mania and depression that can lead to disability. This study investigates the protective effects of edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one), a drug with well-known antioxidant properties, in a model of mania induced by ketamine in rats. Locomotor activity was assessed in the open-field test. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were measured in order to evaluate oxidative damage in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex...
2016: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
José-Ángel García-Pedraza, Pedro Ferreira-Santos, Rubén Aparicio, María-José Montero, Asunción Morán
This study aimed to determine whether the serotonergic modulation, through selective 5-HT2 receptor blockade, restores cardiovascular disturbances in type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by alloxan (150 mg/kg, s.c.) and maintained for 4 weeks. 5-HT2 receptor was blocked by sarpogrelate (30 mg/; 14 days; p.o.). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), glycaemia and body weight (BW) were monitored periodically. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study and the heart, right kidney and thoracic aorta were removed; plasma samples were also obtained...
2016: Scientific Reports
Denise E Chou, Amy R Tso, Peter J Goadsby
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of oral aprepitant, a substance P/neurokinin A receptor antagonist, in controlling nausea associated with IV dihydroergotamine (DHE) administered for medically refractory migrainous headache in patients not responding to standard antiemetics or with a history of uncontrolled nausea with DHE. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of prospectively collected hourly diary data and clinical notes of patients hospitalized between 2011 and 2015 for inpatient treatment with DHE...
October 11, 2016: Neurology
Éva Borbély, Zsófia Hajna, Liza Nabi, Bálint Scheich, Valéria Tékus, Kristóf László, Tamás Ollmann, Viktória Kormos, Balázs Gaszner, Zoltán Karádi, László Lénárd, Christopher J Paige, John P Quinn, János Szolcsányi, Erika Pintér, Julie Keeble, Alexandra Berger, Zsuzsanna Helyes
The tachykinin NK1 receptor was suggested to be involved in psychiatric disorders, but its antagonists have failed to be effective as antidepressants in clinical trials. Hemokinin-1 (HK-1), the newest tachykinin, is present in several brain regions and activates the NK1 receptor similarly to substance P (SP), but acts also through other mechanisms. Therefore, we investigated the roles of the Tac4 gene-derived HK-1 in comparison with SP and neurokinin A (NKA) encoded by the Tac1 gene, as well as the NK1 receptor in anxiety and depression-like behaviors in mice...
September 9, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Simon Loiodice, Poppy Winlow, Sarah Dremier, Etienne Hanon, David Dardou, Omar Ouachikh, Aziz Hafidi, Andre Nogueira da Costa, Franck Durif
RATIONALE: Impulsive-compulsive disorders (ICD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been described as behavioral or substance addictions including hypersexuality, gambling, or compulsive medication use of the dopamine replacement therapy (DRT). OBJECTIVES: A remaining challenge is to understand the neuroadaptations leading to reward bias in PD patients under DRT. METHODS: To this end, the appetitive effect of the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole was assessed after chronic exposure to L-dopa in an alpha-synuclein PD rat model...
September 10, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Luis H Martín Arias, Carlos Treceño Lobato, Susana Pérez García, María Sáinz Gil, Rosario Sanz Fadrique, Pilar García Ortega
Severe mental disorders are associated with an increased mortality risk and the use of antipsychotic drugs may be one of the causes. In this study, we addressed the potential association of the reported mortality among patients on antipsychotics compared to other drugs from a pharmacovigilance database with the aim of evaluating the drug-induced mortality risk. A database containing 189 441 entries of suspected adverse reactions reported from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2012 was explored for fatal outcomes...
September 3, 2016: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Murray G Tucker, Sebastian Kekulawala, Michelle Kent, Sam Mostafa, Richard Harvey
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of comorbid illicit drug use in persons with chronic psychotic illness represents a strong determinant of psychotic relapse and rehospitalization. Epidemiological studies indicate changing patterns of illicit drug use in Australia, which are concerning because of increased use of crystal methamphetamine, also known as "ice." An important complication of habitual use of crystal methamphetamine is the development of a dose-dependent acute psychotic reaction...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Shalini Jayant, Bhupesh Sharma
Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of cognitive decline in aged people but the effectual therapeutic target is still missing. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been widely found in vascular dementia (VaD) patients. CCH is thought to link with neurodegenerative disorders and their subsequent cognitive impairment. The present study has been framed to investigate the role of selective agonist of CB2 receptor (1-phenylisatin) in CCH induced VaD. Permanent bilateral common carotid arteries ligation or two vessels occlusion (2VO) technique was used to induce CCH in rats...
September 6, 2016: Current Neurovascular Research
Agata Mierzwicka, Marek Bolanowski
Among new peptides responsible for the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders and carbohydrate metabolism, adipokines are of great importance. Adipokines are substances of hormonal character, secreted by adipose tissue. Apart from the well-known adipokines, adropin and preptin are relatively newly discovered, hence their function is not fully understood. They are peptides not secreted by adipose tissue but their role in the metabolic regulations seems to be significant. Preptin is a 34-amino acid peptide, a derivative of proinsulin growth factor II (pro-IGF-II), secreted by pancreatic β cells, considered to be a physiological enhancer of insulin secretion...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Shalini Jayant, Bhupesh Sharma
Vascular dementia is the highly devastating neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mainly found in aged people but the effectual therapeutic target is still not there. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been broadly found in vascular dementia (VaD) patients. CCH is thought to link with neurodegenerative disorders and their subsequent cognitive deteriorate on. This study has been framed to examine the role of a selective agonist of cannabinoid receptor type 2(CB2); 1-phenylisatin in CCH induced VaD...
September 2, 2016: Current Neurovascular Research
Sang-Min Baek, Seung-Young Yu, Youngsook Son, Hyun Sook Hong
PURPOSE: Senescence of the retina causes an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress associated with ROS can damage RPE cells, leading to neovascularization and severe ocular disorders, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Thus, the early treatment of the damage caused by oxidative stress is critical for preventing the development of ocular diseases such as AMD. In this study, we examined the role of substance P (SP) in the recovery of RPE cells damaged by oxidative stress...
2016: Molecular Vision
Emmanuel Fenouillet, Aude Vigouroux, Jean Guillaume Steinberg, Alexandre Chagvardieff, Frédérique Retornaz, Regis Guieu, Yves Jammes
BACKGROUND: Myalgic encephalomyelitis chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a common debilitating disorder associated with an intense fatigue, a reduced physical activity, and an impaired quality of life. There are no established biological markerof the syndrome. The etiology is unknown and its pathogenesis appears to be multifactorial. Various stressors, including intense physical activity, severe infection, and emotional stress are reported in the medical history of ME/CFS patients which raises the question whether any physiological and biological abnormalities usually found in these patients could be indicative of the etiology and/or the quality-of-life impairment...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Mayuka Nakajima, Kei Arimatsu, Takayoshi Minagawa, Yumi Matsuda, Keisuke Sato, Naoki Takahashi, Takako Nakajima, Kazuhisa Yamazaki
BACKGROUND: Periodontitis has been implicated as a risk factor for metabolic disorders associated with insulin resistance. Recently, we have demonstrated that orally administered Porphyromonas gingivalis, a representative periodontopathic bacterium, induces endotoxemia via reduced gut barrier function coupled with changes in gut microbiota composition, resulting in systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Propolis, a resinous substance collected by honeybees from leaf buds and cracks in the bark of various plants, can positively affect metabolic disorders in various experimental models...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"