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Substance-induced disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814468/persistent-effects-of-acute-stress-on-fear-and-drug-seeking-in-a-novel-model-of-the-comorbidity-between-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-addiction
#1
Christie L Pizzimenti, Tom M Navis, K Matthew Lattal
Even following long periods of abstinence, individuals with anxiety disorders have high rates of relapse to drugs of abuse. Although many current models of relapse demonstrate effects of acute stress on drug-seeking, most of these studies examine stressful experiences that occur in close temporal and physical proximity to the reinstatement test. Here, we assess the effects of a stressful experience in one context on fear and drug-seeking in a different context. We adapt the stress-enhanced fear learning procedure to examine impacts on drug-seeking long after the stressful experience occurred...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807853/aqueous-extract-from-pecan-nut-carya-illinoinensis-wangenh-c-koch-shell-show-activity-against-breast-cancer-cell-line-mcf-7-and-ehrlich-ascites-tumor-in-balb-c-mice
#2
Josiane Hilbig, Priscila de Britto Policarpi, Valdelúcia Maria Alves de Souza Grinevicius, Nádia Sandrine Ramos Santos Mota, Rozangela Curi Pedrosa, Jane Mara Block
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Brazil, use of teas are common for the treatment of many health disorders. Shell extracts of pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) are popularly taken as tea to prevent diverse pathologies due to their phytochemical composition presenting significant amounts of phenolic substances. AIM OF THE STUDY: Phenolic compounds from pecan nut shell extract have been associated with diverse biological effects but the effect on tumor cells has not been reported yet...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802560/traumatic-brain-injuries-during-development-disrupt-dopaminergic-signaling
#3
Kate Karelina, Kristopher R Gaier, Zachary M Weil
Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) sustained during peri-adolescent development produce lasting neuro-behavioral changes that render individuals at an increased risk for developing substance abuse disorders. Experimental and clinical evidence of a prolonged period of hypodopaminergia after TBI have been well documented, but the effect of juvenile TBI on dopaminergic dysfunction and its relationship with substance abuse have not been investigated. In order to determine the effect of juvenile brain injury on dopaminergic signaling, female mice were injured at 21days of age and then beginning seven weeks later were assessed for behavioral sensitization to amphetamine, a drug that increases synaptic dopamine availability...
August 9, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794695/water-filtered-infrared-a-wira-overcomes-swallowing-disorders-and-hypersalivation-a-case-report
#4
Gerd Hoffmann
Case description: A patient with a Barrett oesophageal carcinoma and a resection of the oesophagus with gastric pull-up developed swallowing disorders 6 years and 2 months after the operation. Within 1 year and 7 months two recurrences of the tumor at the anastomosis were found and treated with combined chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy respectively. 7 years and 9 months after the operation local tumor masses and destruction were present with no ability to orally drink or eat (full feeding by jejunal PEG tube): quality of life was poor, as saliva and mucus were very viscous (pulling filaments) and could not be swallowed and had to be spat out throughout the day and night resulting in short periods of sleep (awaking from the necessity to spit out)...
2017: German Medical Science: GMS E-journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791757/differential-stimulus-control-of-drug-seeking-multimodal-reinstatement
#5
Seth R Batten, Joshua S Beckmann
In animal models of substance-use disorder, individuals that repeatedly self-administer drugs of abuse have long-lasting neuronal adaptations that do not occur ostensibly in control animals only exposed to natural reinforcers (e.g. food). Because any treatment for substance-use disorder will be given to individuals with drug-taking histories, adequate dissociation of the specific neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying drug reinforcement, natural reinforcement and their associated cue effects requires an experimental model that exposes individuals to both reinforcer conditions, along with their associated stimuli...
August 9, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782904/role-of-olfactory-reactions-nociception-and-immunoendocrine-shifts-in-addictive-disorders
#6
Elena Masterova, Tatiana Nevidimova, Dariya Savochkina, Valentina Nikitina, Olga Lobacheva, Tamara Vetlugina, Nikolay Bokhan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Addictive pathology is associated with nervous, immune, and endocrine shifts. Meanwhile, the nature of intersystemic relationship lying beneath addictive disorders remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to identify neuroimmunoendocrine markers of addictive disorders in male subjects defining the nature of their interaction. METHODS: The study enrolled 69 subjects aged 18-43 years: 59 males and 10 females divided into those with addictive disorders (n = 39) and conditionally healthy subjects (n = 30)...
August 7, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766129/use-and-safety-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-psychiatric-inpatients-data-from-the-amsp-study
#7
Katrin Druschky, Stefan Bleich, Renate Grohmann, Rolf R Engel, Alexandra Kleimann, Susanne Stübner, Waldemar Greil, Sermin Toto
The psychiatric utilization patterns and risks of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were assessed by using data from the drug safety programme Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie over the time period 1993-2013. In a total of 432,215 patients, the main indications for AED use were acute mania, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenic and organic psychoses. Valproic acid (VPA) was the most common substance across all of those groups, reaching administration rates of up to 50% since 2005, at which time carbamazepine (CBZ) administration consistently dropped below a rate of 10%...
August 1, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763750/new-insights-into-the-antioxidant-and-apoptotic-potential-of-glycyrrhiza-glabra-l-during-hydrogen-peroxide-mediated-oxidative-stress-an-in-vitro-and-in-silico-evaluation
#8
Iram Iqbal Hejazi, Rashmin Khanam, Syed Hassan Mehdi, Abdul Roouf Bhat, M Moshahid Alam Rizvi, Asimul Islam, Sonu Chand Thakur, Fareeda Athar
Plant-derived substances (phytochemicals) are well recognized as sources of pharmacologically potent drugs in the treatment of several oxidative stress related disorders. Our study aims to evaluate the antioxidant and apoptotic effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. in both cell free and cell culture system. Plant fractions have been prepared with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water and their antioxidant properties are reviewed. Potent antioxidant activity has been well established in both in vitro and in silico studies which is believed to be responsible for the anticancerous nature of the plant...
July 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756181/effects-of-escitalopram-and-imipramine-on-cocaine-reward-and-drug-seeking-behaviors-in-a-rat-model-of-depression
#9
Joanna Jastrzębska, Małgorzata Frankowska, Agata Suder, Karolina Wydra, Ewa Nowak, Małgorzata Filip, Edmund Przegaliński
Depression and substance-abuse (e.g., use of cocaine) are disorders with a high frequency of comorbidity. In the present study, we combined bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), an animal model of depression, with intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement in rats to investigate the effects of two antidepressant drugs, escitalopram (ESC) and imipramine (IMI), with the goal of determining whether these drugs altered cocaine-induced rewarding and seeking behaviors. Acutely administered ESC (2...
July 26, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755998/loperamide-induced-torsades-de-pointes-a-case-series
#10
Kenneth D Katz, Robert D Cannon, Matthew D Cook, Alexandra Amaducci, Ryan Day, Joshua Enyart, Glenn Burket, Lauren Porter, Timothy Roach, Jennifer Janssen, Karl E Williams
Loperamide is an over-the-counter, inexpensive, antidiarrheal opioid that can produce life-threatening toxicity at high concentrations. CASE REPORT 1: A 28-year-old man with a history of depression and substance abuse disorder (SUD) presented to the emergency department (ED) with shortness of breath and lightheadedness. He ingested large amounts of loperamide daily. The patient's initial electrocardiogram (ECG) demonstrated sinus rhythm, right axis deviation, undetectable PR interval, QRS 168 ms, and QTc 693 ms...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750179/effects-of-propofol-on-conditioned-place-preference-in-male-rats-involvement-of-nitrergic-system
#11
Andleeb Shahzadi, Tuğçe Uskur, A Gökhan Akkan, Burcu Çevreli, Tayfun Uzbay
BACKGROUND: Drug-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) is linked to the addictive properties of the drug used. The number of studies that have investigated the effects of propofol on CPP is limited. Research findings suggest that nitric oxide (NO) might play an important role in substance use disorders. OBJECTIVES: The present study sought to investigate the role of the nitrergic system on the rewarding effects of propofol by using the CPP protocol in rats...
July 27, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748060/a-case-of-attempted-bilateral-self-enucleation-in-a-patient-with-bipolar-disorder
#12
Hannah Muniz Castro, John Alvarez, Robert G Bota, Marc Yonkers, Jeremiah Tao
Attempted and completed self-enucleation, or removal of one's own eyes, is a rare but devastating form of self-mutilation behavior. It is often associated with psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia, substance induced psychosis, and bipolar disorder. We report a case of a patient with a history of bipolar disorder who gouged his eyes bilaterally as an attempt to self-enucleate himself. On presentation, the patient was manic with both psychotic features of hyperreligous delusions and command auditory hallucinations of God telling him to take his eyes out...
March 22, 2017: Mental Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741623/effects-of-suvorexant-a-dual-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-antagonist-on-impulsive-behavior-associated-with-cocaine
#13
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, Mia N Watson, Krista L Connelly, Eugen Brailoiu, Yanan Zhang, John W Muschamp
Hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) peptides mediate arousal, attention, and reward processing. Fibers containing orexins project to brain structures that govern motivated behavior, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA). A number of psychiatric conditions, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders, are characterized by deficits in impulse control, however the relationship between orexin and impulsive behavior is incompletely characterized. The effects of systemic or centrally administered orexin receptor (OXR) antagonists on measures of impulsive-like behavior in rats were evaluated using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and delay discounting procedures...
July 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737982/knocking-on-prison-s-door-a-10-fold-rise-in-the-number-of-psychotic-prisoners-in-finland-during-the-years-2005-2016
#14
Alo Jüriloo, Lauri Pesonen, Hannu Lauerma
BACKGROUND: As in many European countries, Finnish psychiatric services experienced a rapid process of deinstitutionalization in the 1990s. In recent decades, the decrease in numbers of psychiatric hospital beds has in several countries been found to be linked with increasing criminality among severely mentally ill individuals. It has been concluded that deinstitutionalization could be the main reason for this development. AIM: To investigate whether the prevalence of severely mentally ill persons to prison is a growing trend also in Finland...
July 24, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730160/epigenetic-interactions-between-alcohol-and-cannabinergic-effects-focus-on-histone-modification-and-dna-methylation
#15
Tiyash Parira, Alejandra Laverde, Marisela Agudelo
Epigenetic studies have led to a more profound understanding of the mechanisms involved in chronic conditions. In the case of alcohol addiction, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 16 million adults suffer from Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Even though therapeutic interventions like behavioral therapy and medications to prevent relapse are currently available, no robust cure exists, which stems from the lack of understanding the mechanisms of action of alcohol and the lack of development of precision medicine approaches to treat AUDs...
April 2017: Journal of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721538/-methamphetamine-epidemiology-clinical-importance-and-sequelae-of-abuse
#16
N Arnaud, T Thomasius
Methamphetamine (also known as meth and crystal meth) is a highly psychoactive synthetic amphetamine type stimulant, which falls under the German Federal Narcotics Law. The substance is similar to other stimulants but has distinct features with respect to psychoactive effects, clinical symptoms, user characteristics and short and long-term consequences including substance-induced problems and comorbidities. The consumption and misuse of crystal meth is still limited to certain regions in Germany; however, the substance causes significant clinical and public health concerns in the affected regions and beyond due to the associated high potential for misuse and dependence, neurotoxic and neurodegenerative effects as well as many other severe health risks...
July 18, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720118/inhibiting-function-of-human-fetal-dermal-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-bioactivities-of-keloid-fibroblasts
#17
Ya Jiao, Xiao Wang, Jixun Zhang, Yongjun Qi, Hongmin Gong, Duyin Jiang
BACKGROUND: Keloid is one kind of benign skin disease caused by hyperplasia of fibroblasts and collagen fibrils. It is refractory due to the lack of an effective treatment at present, which puts pressure on seeking a new therapeutic regimen. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from fetal skin are considered to play a crucial role in scarless healing. Nevertheless, the efficacy of them in keloid disorders remains poorly understood. METHODS: Keloid fibroblasts (KFs), human adult dermal fibroblasts (ADFs), and human fetal dermal mesenchymal stem cells (FDMSCs) were isolated to single cells and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)...
July 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715077/age-and-gender-related-peculiarities-of-patients-with-delirium-in-the-cardiac-intensive-care-unit
#18
Pranas Serpytis, Petras Navickas, Alvydas Navickas, Rokas Serpytis, Giedrius Navickas, Sigita Glaveckaite
BACKGROUND: The overall evidence base regarding delirium has been growing steadily over the past few decades. There has been considerable analysis of delirium concerning, for example, mechanically ventilated patients, patients in the general intensive care unit (ICU) setting, and patients with exclusively postoperative delirium. Nevertheless, there are few studies regarding delirium in a cardiovascular ICU (ICCU) setting and especially scarce literature about the particular features of delirium relating to patient age and gender...
July 17, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705037/saffron-and-its-derivatives-crocin-crocetin-and-safranal-a-patent-review
#19
Maryam Rameshrad, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Saffron and its main components have traditionally been used as pharmaceutical agents. Current experimental research projects have also exhibited their applications in a wide spectrum of disorder treatments. Area covered: This review covers the demonstrated findings and patents on therapeutic/pharmaceutical properties of saffron and related derivatives, since 2000 to bold their outstanding merit on human health. An extensive literature review was performed in USP Patent, Patentscope, Espacenet and Google Patent in the field of CNS, cardiovascular, urogenital, dermatological and inflammatory disorders...
July 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704190/modulating-effects-of-cholecalciferol-treatment-on-estrogen-deficiency-induced-anxiety-like-behavior-of-adult-female-rats
#20
Julia Fedotova, Daria Zarembo, Jozef Dragasek, Martin Caprnda, Peter Kruzliak, Tatyana Dudnichenko
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D can be one of the candidate substances that are used as additional supplementation in the treatment of anxiety-related disorders in women with estrogen imbalance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of chronic cholecalciferol administration (1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg/day, s.c.) on the anxiety-like behavior and monoamines levels in the rat hippocampus following ovariectomy in female rats. Cholecalciferol was given to ovariectomized (OVX) rats and OVX rats treated with 17β-estradiol (17β-E2, 0...
June 1, 2017: Folia Medica
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