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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245171/effects-of-atorvastatin-on-autophagy-in-skeletal-muscles-of-diabetic-rats
#1
Bingquan Yang, Jie Sun, Yang Yuan, Zilin Sun
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Atorvastatin is usually used to decrease the amount of fatty substances in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, it can cause side effects, such as breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue. This study focuses on the effects of atorvastatin on autophagy of the skeletal muscles in diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes in rats in the diabetic (D) and atorvastatin (T) groups was induced using streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234141/cannabinoid-type-2-receptors-in-dopamine-neurons-inhibits-psychomotor-behaviors-alters-anxiety-depression-and-alcohol-preference
#2
Qing-Rong Liu, Ana Canseco-Alba, Hai-Ying Zhang, Patricia Tagliaferro, Monika Chung, Eugene Dennis, Branden Sanabria, Norman Schanz, Joao Carlos Escosteguy-Neto, Hiroki Ishiguro, Zhicheng Lin, Susan Sgro, Claire M Leonard, Jair Guilherme Santos-Junior, Eliot L Gardner, Josephine M Egan, Jeung Woon Lee, Zheng-Xiong Xi, Emmanuel S Onaivi
Cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2Rs) are expressed in mouse brain dopamine (DA) neurons and are involved in several DA-related disorders. However, the cell type-specific mechanisms are unclear since the CB2R gene knockout mice are constitutive gene knockout. Therefore, we generated Cnr2-floxed mice that were crossed with DAT-Cre mice, in which Cre- recombinase expression is under dopamine transporter gene (DAT) promoter control to ablate Cnr2 gene in midbrain DA neurons of DAT-Cnr2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227894/substance-induced-psychotic-symptoms-in-borderline-personality-disorder-among-substance-use-disorder-samples-in-spain
#3
Carmen Barral, Laia Rodríguez-Cintas, Lara Grau-López, Constanza Daigre, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Natalia Calvo, Marc Ferrer, Carlos Roncero
Substance-induced psychosis (SIP) is frequent in substance use disorder patients. However, little is known about the presence of SIP in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and what the risk factors for the development of SIP in this population would be. A sample of 91 BPD drug-dependent patients attending an outpatient substance use disorder unit was evaluated. Comorbidity with Axis I and II was assessed using SCID-I and SCID-II. Psychoactive drug related variables were registered as well as the presence of the ninth criterion of DSM-IV-TR as a code of psychotic symptoms...
December 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204368/beneficial-effects-of-oral-pure-caffeine-on-oxidative-stress
#4
Daniela Metro, Valeria Cernaro, Domenico Santoro, Mattia Papa, Michele Buemi, Salvatore Benvenga, Luigi Manasseri
Ingestion of coffee (which is a mixture of over 1000 hydrosoluble substances) is known to protect from type-2 diabetes mellitus and its complications, and other chronic disorders associated with increased oxidative damage in blood and tissues. This protection is generally attributed to polyphenols and melanoidins. Very few studies were conducted on the amelioration of classic blood markers of oxidative stress induced after a few days of caffeine administration, but results vary. To assess whether caffeine per se could account for antioxidant properties of coffee in the short-term, we tested the ability of pure caffeine ingestion (5 mg/kg body weight/day in two daily doses for seven consecutive days) to improve plasma levels of six biochemical indices in healthy male volunteers (n = 15)...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194445/safety-and-efficacy-of-an-oxycodone-vaccine-addressing-some-of-the-unique-considerations-posed-by-opioid-abuse
#5
M D Raleigh, S J Peterson, M Laudenbach, F Baruffaldi, F I Carroll, S D Comer, H A Navarro, T L Langston, S P Runyon, S Winston, M Pravetoni, P R Pentel
Among vaccines aimed at treating substance use disorders, those targeting opioids present several unique medication development challenges. 1) Opioid overdose is a common complication of abuse, so it is desirable for an opioid vaccine to block the toxic as well as the addictive effects of opioids. 2) It is important that an opioid vaccine not interfere with the action of opioid antagonists used to reverse opioid overdose or treat addiction. 3) Some opioids are immunosuppressive and chronic ongoing opioid use could interfere with vaccine immunogenicity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188295/association-of-environment-with-the-risk-of-developing-psychotic-disorders-in-rural-populations-findings-from-the-social-epidemiology-of-psychoses-in-east-anglia-study
#6
Lucy Richardson, Yasir Hameed, Jesus Perez, Peter B Jones, James B Kirkbride
Importance: Social determinants are important risk factors for the development of first-episode psychosis (FEP); their effects in rural areas are largely unknown. Objective: To investigate neighborhood-level factors associated with FEP in a large, predominantly rural population-based cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study extracted data on referrals for treatment of potential FEP at 6 Early-Intervention Psychosis services from the Social Epidemiology of Psychoses in East Anglia naturalistic cohort study data set, which covered a population of more than 2 million people in a rural area in the East of England for a period of 3...
November 29, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181814/a-high-working-memory-load-prior-to-memory-retrieval-reduces-craving-in-non-treatment-seeking-problem-drinkers
#7
Anne Marije Kaag, Anna E Goudriaan, Taco J De Vries, Tommy Pattij, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND: Reconsolidation-based interventions have been suggested to be a promising treatment strategy for substance use disorders. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a working memory intervention to interfere with the reconsolidation of alcohol-related memories in a sample of non-treatment seeking heavy drinkers. METHODS: Participants were randomized to one of the two conditions that underwent a 3-day intervention: in the experimental condition, a 30-min working memory training was performed immediately after a 15-min memory retrieval session (i...
November 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179576/rates-and-predictors-of-conversion-to-schizophrenia-or-bipolar-disorder-following-substance-induced-psychosis
#8
Marie Stefanie Kejser Starzer, Merete Nordentoft, Carsten Hjorthøj
OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated the rates of conversion to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder after a substance-induced psychosis, as well as risk factors for conversion. METHOD: All patient information was extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Psychiatric Central Research Register. The study population included all persons who received a diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis between 1994 and 2014 (N=6,788); patients were followed until first occurrence of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder or until death, emigration, or August 2014...
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175958/amphetamine-reverses-escalated-cocaine-intake-via-restoration-of-dopamine-transporter-conformation
#9
Cody A Siciliano, Kaustuv Saha, Erin S Calipari, Steve C Fordahl, Rong Chen, Habibeh Khoshbouei, Sara R Jones
Cocaine abuse disrupts dopamine system function, including reduced cocaine inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT), which results in tolerance. Although tolerance is a hallmark of cocaine addiction and a DSM-V criteria for substance abuse disorders, the molecular adaptations producing tolerance are unknown, and testing the impact of DAT changes on drug taking behaviors has proven difficult. In regard to treatment, amphetamine has shown efficacy in reducing cocaine intake; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been explored...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169723/protective-effects-of-allicin-on-1-3-dcp-induced-lipid-metabolism-disorder-in-hepg2-cells
#10
Jing Lu, Bijun Cheng, Baochen Fang, Zhuoqun Meng, Yiying Zheng, Xiaochen Tian, Shuang Guan
Allicin (2-propene-1-sulfinothioic acid S-2-propenyl ester), with quite a good range of hepatoprotective and antineoplastic properties, is a functional substance from garlic (Allium sativum L.) The purpose of this study was to provide evidence that allicin could protect 1,3-DCP-induced lipid metabolism disorder in HepG2 cells. Allicin reduced the accumulation of triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) in 1,3-DCP-induced HepG2 cells. Allicin significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and down-regulated the levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) in 1,3-DCP-induced HepG2 cells...
November 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163257/free-will-and-the-brain-disease-model-of-addiction-the-not-so-seductive-allure-of-neuroscience-and-its-modest-impact-on-the-attribution-of-free-will-to-people-with-an-addiction
#11
Eric Racine, Sebastian Sattler, Alice Escande
Free will has been the object of debate in the context of addiction given that addiction could compromise an individual's ability to choose freely between alternative courses of action. Proponents of the brain-disease model of addiction have argued that a neuroscience perspective on addiction reduces the attribution of free will because it relocates the cause of the disorder to the brain rather than to the person, thereby diminishing the blame attributed to the person with an addiction. Others have worried that such displacement of free will attribution would make the person with a drug addiction less responsible...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163022/the-insula-and-taste-learning
#12
REVIEW
Adonis Yiannakas, Kobi Rosenblum
The sense of taste is a key component of the sensory machinery, enabling the evaluation of both the safety as well as forming associations regarding the nutritional value of ingestible substances. Indicative of the salience of the modality, taste conditioning can be achieved in rodents upon a single pairing of a tastant with a chemical stimulus inducing malaise. This robust associative learning paradigm has been heavily linked with activity within the insular cortex (IC), among other regions, such as the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152432/acute-changes-in-mentation-in-a-patient-with-hepatic-cirrhosis-treated-with-high-doses-of-dexamethasone
#13
Luis Dabul, Andrew Droney, Juan Oms, Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez
Despite the anti-inflammatory benefits of steroids in the management of multiple medical conditions, they are associated with undesired metabolic and psychiatric side effects. We present a case of a 57-year-old Hispanic man with hepatic cirrhosis due to hepatitis C and no past medical history of psychiatric illnesses who became delirious after treatment with high doses of intravenous Dexamethasone. The patient presented to Larkin Community Hospital, USA with complaints of lower back pain requiring treatment with steroids for severe lumbar central canal stenosis...
September 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151642/fusarium-infection-causes-phenolic-accumulations-and-hormonal-disorders-in-orobanche-spp
#14
Mehmet Aybeke
The physiological effects of Fusarium oxysporum on in-root parasitic weed, Orobanche spp. (broomrape) with references to change in plant hormones and secondary plant constituents were investigated. The levels of IAA, GA, ABA and JA in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group, while the level of SA was higher in the experimental group. In secondary metabolic studies, the quantities of various phenols were measured in the two groups and catechin, syringic acid and p-coumaric acid amounts were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group, unlike gallic acid which have a lower amount...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145774/predicting-the-risk-of-opioid-use-disorder-based-on-early-maladaptive-schemas
#15
Somayeh Zamirinejad, Seyed Kaveh Hojjat, Alireza Moslem, Vahideh MoghaddamHosseini, Arash Akaberi
Substance use is a globally devastating social problem. Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are inefficient mechanisms leading directly or indirectly to psychological distress. The current study aimed to assess the role of EMSs in predicting opioid use disorder. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Bojnurd at northeast of Iran on 60 male opioid users who received Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) and 60 control males. The opioid users were selected randomly from MMT clinics and control subjects were selected and matched with opioid users using demographic variables...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143853/sex-specific-risk-assessment-of-pfhxs-using-a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model
#16
Sook-Jin Kim, Hwajin Shin, Yong-Bok Lee, Hea-Young Cho
Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), which belongs to the group of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), has been extensively used in industry and subsequently detected in the environment. Its use may be problematic, as PFHxS is known to induce neuronal cell death, and has been associated with early onset menopause in women and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Due to these impending issues, the aim of this study is to develop and evaluate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for PFHxS in male and female rats, and apply this to a human health risk assessment...
November 16, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117908/clinical-characteristics-of-primary-psychotic-disorders-with-concurrent-substance-abuse-and-substance-induced-psychotic-disorders-a-systematic-review
#17
Lorna Wilson, Attila Szigeti, Angela Kearney, Mary Clarke
BACKGROUND: Distinguishing between a primary psychotic disorder with concurrent substance abuse (PPD+SA) and a substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD) can be diagnostically challenging. We aimed to determine if these two diagnoses are clinically distinct, particularly in relation to psychopathology. In addition, we aimed to examine the specific clinical features of cannabis-induced psychotic disorder (CIPD) as compared to primary psychotic disorder with concurrent cannabis abuse (PPD+CA) and also to SIPD associated with any substance...
November 5, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115467/coenzyme-q10-promotes-osteoblast-proliferation-and-differentiation-and-protects-against-ovariectomy-induced-osteoporosis
#18
Delu Zheng, Chenli Cui, Meng Yu, Xiang Li, Lu Wang, Xinyan Chen, Yichen Lin
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a fat‑soluble vitamin‑like substance used for the treatment of a variety of disorders, including osteoporosis. The exact mechanism underlying CoQ10‑mediated protection against osteoporosis remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of CoQ10 on osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation, and therapeutic effects on a rat model of osteoporosis. Following treatment with different concentrations of CoQ10, cell proliferation and differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), and expression of osteoblastogenic markers, were measured...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108028/decreased-plasma-concentrations-of-bdnf-and-igf-1-in-abstinent-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorders
#19
Nuria García-Marchena, Daniel Silva-Peña, Ana Isabel Martín-Velasco, María Ángeles Villanúa, Pedro Araos, María Pedraz, Rosa Maza-Quiroga, Pablo Romero-Sanchiz, Gabriel Rubio, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Juan Suárez, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Antonia Serrano, Francisco Javier Pavón
The identification of growth factors as potential biomarkers in alcohol addiction may help to understand underlying mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Previous studies have linked growth factors to neural plasticity in neurocognitive impairment and mental disorders. In order to further clarify the impact of chronic alcohol consumption on circulating growth factors, a cross-sectional study was performed in abstinent AUD patients (alcohol group, N = 91) and healthy control subjects (control group, N = 55) to examine plasma concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1 binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100755/total-flavonoid-extract-from-dracoephalum-moldavica-l-attenuates-%C3%AE-amyloid-induced-toxicity-through-anti-amyloidogenesic-and-neurotrophic-pathways
#20
Qing-Shan Liu, Hai-Lun Jiang, Yu Wang, Lin-Lin Wang, Jun-Xia Zhang, Cheng-Hui He, Shuai Shao, Tian-Tai Zhang, Jian-Guo Xing, Rui Liu
AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder characterized by global cognitive impairment that involves accumulation of amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ) in the brain. Herbal approaches can be used as alternative medicines to slow the progression of AD. This study aimed to determine the beneficial effects and potential underlying mechanisms of total flavonoid extract from Dracoephalum moldavica L. (TFDM) for attenuating Alzheimer-related deficits induced by Aβ...
October 31, 2017: Life Sciences
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