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Substance-induced disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523543/drug-addiction-and-dna-modifications
#1
Amber N Brown, Jian Feng
Drug addiction is a complex disorder which can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Research has shown that epigenetic modifications can translate environmental signals into changes in gene expression, suggesting that epigenetic changes may underlie the causes and possibly treatment of substance use disorders. This chapter will focus on epigenetic modifications to DNA, which include DNA methylation and several recently defined additional DNA epigenetic changes. We will discuss the functions of DNA modifications and methods for detecting them, followed by a description of the research investigating the function and consequences of drug-induced changes in DNA methylation patterns...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513780/reduction-of-the-dna-damages-hepatoprotective-effect-and-antioxidant-potential-of-the-coconut-water-ascorbic-and-caffeic-acids-in-oxidative-stress-mediated-by-ethanol
#2
Vanderson S Bispo, Lucas S Dantas, Adriano B Chaves, Isabella F D Pinto, Railmara P DA Silva, Felipe A M Otsuka, Rodrigo B Santos, Aline C Santos, Danielle J Trindade, Humberto R Matos
Hepatic disorders such as steatosis and alcoholic steatohepatitis are common diseases that affect thousands of people around the globe. This study aims to identify the main phenol compounds using a new HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS method, to evaluate some oxidative stress parameters and the hepatoprotective action of green dwarf coconut water, caffeic and ascorbic acids on the liver and serum of rats treated with ethanol. The results showed five polyphenols in the lyophilized coconut water spiked with standards: chlorogenic acid (0...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511824/psychiatric-disorders-and-pruritus
#3
Helen Gin Lee, Carolyn Stull, Gil Yosipovitch
The skin and psyche are intimately related with various skin diseases caused by or resulting in psychiatric disturbances. Pruritus is a commonly reported symptom in psychiatric patients, and likewise psychiatric co-morbidities, including anxiety and depression, are frequently seen in chronic pruritus patients. Primary psychodermatologic conditions, such as somatic symptom disorder, dermatitis artefacta, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (excoriation disorder and prurigo nodularis), delusional infestation, and substance use disorder, can all induce significant pruritus in patients, severely affecting their quality of life...
May 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511374/assessment-of-lipid-peroxidation-and-antioxidant-status-in-vanillic-acid-treated-7-12-dimethylbenz-a-anthracene-induced-hamster-buccal-pouch-carcinogenesis
#4
Vinoth Anbalagan, Kowsalya Raju, Manoharan Shanmugam
INTRODUCTION: Vanillic acid, a naturally occurring bioactive substance, possesses diverse pharmacological potential including free radical scavenging and anticancer properties. Excessive generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and insufficient antioxidant potential has been involved in numerous pathological disorders, including cancer. AIM: To explore the anti-lipid peroxidative and antioxidant efficacy of vanillic acid in Dimethylbenz[a]Anthracene (DMBA) induced oral carcinogenesis...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511159/effect-of-apple-polyphenol-concentrate-on-lipid-metabolism-in-rats-under-experimental-insulin-resistance
#5
Andriy L Zagayko, Ganna B Kravchenko, Viktoriia P Fylymonenko, Oksana A Krasilnikova
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is strongly associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance as the metabolic indicator of prediabetes and a major risk factor in diabetes mellitus type 2 pathogenesis. Medicinal products obtained from apples can be used as potent prophylactic and therapeutic remedies in treatment of diabetes mellitus. AIM: Experiment was designed to study the effect of total apple polyphenol food concentrate on lipid metabolism under experimental IR...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499448/comparison-of-demographic-characteristics-and-psychiatric-comorbidity-among-methamphetamine-heroin-and-methamphetamine-heroin-co-dependent-males-in-hunan-china
#6
Huixi Dong, Mei Yang, Liang Liu, Chenxi Zhang, Mengqi Liu, Yidong Shen, Huanzhong Liu, Wei Hao
BACKGROUND: There is little research of psychiatric comorbidity differences among people with different types of drug dependence in Chinese population. We explored demographic and comorbid psychiatric differences among methamphetamine- dependent males (MDs), heroin-dependent males (HDs) and methamphetamine and heroin co-dependent males (M/HDs) in Hunan province, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional, structured and clinical interview method was used to examine differences in DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders among 346 MDs, 698 HDs and 247 M/HDs from three compulsory rehabilitation centers and two voluntary rehabilitation centers in Hunan...
May 12, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492960/dual-diagnosis-in-depression-treatment-recommendations
#7
Judit Tirado Muñoz, Adriana Farré, Joan Mestre-Pintó, Nestor Szerman, Marta Torrens
Comorbidity between substance use disorders (SUD) and major depression (MD) is the most common dual pathology in the field of addiction to substances and has prevalence rates ranging between 12% and 80%, which complicates the response to treatment and worsens the prognosis of patients. Differentiating between diagnoses of induced depressive episodes and primary depressive episodes concurrent to substance use is especially relevant for therapeutic management. This article presents the state of the art of the currently available pharmacologic treatments of comorbid depression in patients with SUD, taking into account the safety and risk of abuse of antidepressant drugs...
April 12, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479741/effect-of-naringenin-a-naturally-occurring-flavanone-against-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-and-oxidative-stress-in-mice
#8
Sheeba Shakeel, Muneeb U Rehman, Nahida Tabassum, Umar Amin, Manzoor Ur Rahman Mir
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures. It is a very common disease in which approximately 30% of patients do not respond favourably to treatment with anticonvulsants. Oxidative stress is associated with neuronal damage arising from epileptic seizures. The present study investigated the effects of naringenin in pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in mice. Naringenin, one of the most frequently occurring flavanone in citrus fruits, was evaluated for its shielding effect against the pilocarpine induced behavioural, oxidative and histopathological alterations in rodent model of epilepsy...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479719/caffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-cape-prevents-development-of-stz-icv-induced-dementia-in-rats
#9
Manish Kumar, Devinder Kaur, Nitin Bansal
BACKGROUND: Chronic oxidative stress and inflammation severely affect the normal physiology of neurons and lead to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Polyphenols proved a boon in the prevention of dementia due to their antioxidant and neuroprotective potential. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a natural polyphenolic compound attributed with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective properties. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the effect of CAPE on experimental dementia in rats...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476267/chronic-pain-among-patients-with-opioid-use-disorder-results-from-electronic-health-records-data
#10
Yih-Ing Hser, Larissa J Mooney, Andrew J Saxon, Karen Miotto, Douglas S Bell, David Huang
PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of comorbid chronic pain among patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) and to compare other comorbidities (substance use disorder (SUD), mental health disorders, health/disease conditions) among patients in four categories: no chronic pain (No Pain), OUD prior to pain (OUD First), OUD and pain at the same time (Same Time), or pain condition prior to OUD (Pain First). METHODS: Using an electronic health record (EHR) database from 2006-2015, the study assessed 5307 adult patients with OUD in a large healthcare system; 35...
June 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471848/l-borneol-induces-transient-opening-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-enhances-the-therapeutic-effect-of-cisplatin
#11
Yi Yin, Liu Cao, Hongfei Ge, Wangsheng Duanmu, Liang Tan, Jichao Yuan, Chen Tunan, Fei Li, Rong Hu, Fabao Gao, Hua Feng
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the central nervous system from external insults by limiting substance diffusion through the endothelial interface. The presence of the BBB makes drug delivery in neurological disorders very challenging. Cisplatin has been shown to be cytotoxic to glioma cells, but substantial limitations exist in its clinical applications due to difficulties in penetration across the BBB. Here, we show that L-borneol, a messenger drug widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, can induce transient disruption of the BBB after 20 min of oral administration...
May 3, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464965/risk-of-transition-to-schizophrenia-following-first-admission-with-substance-induced-psychotic-disorder-a-population-based-longitudinal-cohort-study
#12
H L Alderson, D M Semple, C Blayney, F Queirazza, V Chekuri, S M Lawrie
BACKGROUND: The potential for drugs of abuse to induce acute psychotic symptoms is well recognised. However, the likelihood of transition from initial substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD) to chronic psychosis is much less well understood. This study investigated the rate of SIPD transition to schizophrenia (F20), the time to conversion and other possible related factors. METHODS: Using data from the Scottish Morbidity Record, we examined all patients (n = 3486) since their first admission to psychiatric hospital with a diagnosis of SIPD [International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes F10-F19, with third digit five] from January 1997 to July 2012...
May 3, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441106/jwh-122-consumption-adverse-effects-a-case-of-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-five-year-follow-up
#13
Maurizio Coppola, Raffaella Mondola
Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists are a heterogeneous group of psychotropic drugs functionally related to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. These substances, marketed as cannabis substitutes, have been associated with numerous cases of severe intoxication and death across the world. In our article, we describe a case of hallucinogen persisting perception disorder developing in a natural cannabis user after consumption of JWH-122, a naphthoylindole largely used since 2010. Clinical symptomatology persisted for about four years and was alleviated through treatment with clonazepam...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436446/opioid-self-administration-is-attenuated-by-early-life-experience-and-gene-therapy-for-anti-inflammatory-il-10-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-male-rats
#14
Michael J Lacagnina, Ashley M Kopec, Stewart S Cox, Richa Hanamsagar, Corinne Wells, Susan Slade, Peter M Grace, Linda R Watkins, Edward D Levin, Staci D Bilbo
Early-life conditions can contribute to the propensity for developing neuropsychiatric disease, including substance abuse disorders. However, the long-lasting mechanisms that shape risk or resilience for drug addiction remain unclear. Previous work has shown that a neonatal handling procedure in rats (which promotes enriched maternal care) attenuates morphine conditioning, reduces morphine-induced glial activation, and increases microglial expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10)...
April 24, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431292/cannabis-and-cue-induced-craving-in-cocaine-dependent-individuals-a-pilot-study
#15
K Giasson-Gariépy, S Potvin, M Ghabrash, J Bruneau, D Jutras-Aswad
BACKGROUND: Cannabis consumption is common among cocaine users; however, little is known about its effect on cocaine craving. The objective of this study was to assess whether cannabis co-use is associated with lower cue-induced cocaine craving in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals. METHODS: Data from twenty-eight cocaine-dependent men were analyzed in this pilot study. Cocaine-dependent subjects (n=12) were compared with cocaine-dependent subjects who also abused or were dependent on cannabis (n=16)...
March 30, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428740/protein-quality-control-by-molecular-chaperones-in-neurodegeneration
#16
REVIEW
Aaron Ciechanover, Yong Tae Kwon
Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) requires the timely degradation of misfolded proteins and their aggregates by protein quality control (PQC), of which molecular chaperones are an essential component. Compared with other cell types, PQC in neurons is particularly challenging because they have a unique cellular structure with long extensions. Making it worse, neurons are postmitotic, i.e., cannot dilute toxic substances by division, and, thus, are highly sensitive to misfolded proteins, especially as they age...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427398/euphorbia-dracunculoides-l-abrogates-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-and-dna-damage-in-rats
#17
Riffat Batool, Muhammad Rashid Khan, Muhammad Majid
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of Euphorbia dracunculoides of family Euphorbiaceae during previous studies had established the in vitro antioxidant and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities. The plant is used by the local communities of Pakistan for various disorders including rheumatism and edema. In this investigation we have evaluated the hepatoprotective effects against CCl4 induced toxicity in rat. METHODS: Dry powder of the aerial parts of E. dracunculoides was extracted with 95% methanol to get the extract (EDME)...
April 20, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421057/gut-microbiota-modulation-and-its-relationship-with-obesity-using-prebiotic-fibers-and-probiotics-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Dinesh K Dahiya, Renuka, Monica Puniya, Umesh K Shandilya, Tejpal Dhewa, Nikhil Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar, Anil K Puniya, Pratyoosh Shukla
In the present world scenario, obesity has almost attained the level of a pandemic and is progressing at a rapid rate. This disease is the mother of all other metabolic disorders, which apart from placing an added financial burden on the concerned patient also has a negative impact on his/her well-being and health in the society. Among the various plausible factors for the development of obesity, the role of gut microbiota is very crucial. In general, the gut of an individual is inhabited by trillions of microbes that play a significant role in host energy homeostasis by their symbiotic interactions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419646/suvorexant-an-orexin-hypocretin-receptor-antagonist-attenuates-motivational-and-hedonic-properties-of-cocaine
#19
Taylor A Gentile, Steven J Simmons, David J Barker, Jessica K Shaw, Rodrigo A España, John W Muschamp
Orexins ('hypocretins') are peptides produced by neurons of the hypothalamus that project to structures implicated in reward and emotion processing. Converging evidence demonstrates functional roles of orexin signaling in arousal, sleep/wakefulness and motivated behaviors for natural and drug rewards. Suvorexant, a dual orexin receptor antagonist, recently received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration to treat insomnia. In Experiment 1, rats self-administered cocaine under a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement and the effects of suvorexant on motivation to self-administer cocaine were measured...
April 17, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419384/risk-factors-for-serious-prescription-opioid-induced-respiratory-depression-or-overdose-comparison-of-commercially-insured-and-veterans-health-affairs-populations
#20
Pramit A Nadpara, Andrew R Joyce, E Lenn Murrelle, Nathan W Carroll, Norman V Carroll, Marie Barnard, Barbara K Zedler
Objective. : To characterize the risk factors associated with overdose or serious opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) among medical users of prescription opioids in a commercially insured population (CIP) and to compare risk factor profiles between the CIP and Veterans Health Administration (VHA) population. Subjects and Methods. : Analysis of data from 18,365,497 patients in the IMS PharMetrics Plus health plan claims database (CIP) who were dispensed a prescription opioid in 2009 to 2013...
April 13, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
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