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Substance-induced disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457317/effects-of-alcohol-intoxication-on-self-reported-drinking-patterns-expectancies-motives-and-personality-a-randomized-controlled-experimental-study
#1
Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Elisabeth Obst, Ruth Schmidt, Christian Sommer, Paula T Kuitunen, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Ulrich S Zimmermann
Alcohol intoxication may affect self-reports of alcohol use and related constructs, such as impulsivity and dependence symptoms. Improved knowledge about potential systematic reporting biases induced by alcohol, e.g. through disinhibition, may be relevant for the assessment of intoxicated individuals both in clinical routine and research. We therefore randomly assigned 54 socially drinking males aged 18 to 19 without lifetime diagnosis of DSM-IV alcohol dependence to one of two experimental arms: either placebo infusion at day 1 and alcohol infusion at day 2, or vice versa...
February 19, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441300/trauma-induced-focal-nodular-mucinoses-a-rare-entity
#2
Gunjan Verma, Pooja A Mrig, R K Gautam, Purnima Malhotra
Cutaneous mucinoses refer to disorders with abnormal accumulation of mucin in the skin. Mucin is an amorphous material that is a part of the extracellular matrix in dermis. Cutaneous mucinoses could be primary or secondary. The latter is associated with systemic disorders such as autoimmune diseases, diabetes mellitus, paraproteinemia, or altered thyroid function. Here, we report an adult female patient with trauma-induced cutaneous focal nodular mucinoses on left-sided scapular region. Histology showed replacement of collagen bundles by mucinous deposits in superficial and mid-dermis...
January 2018: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430793/medial-habenula-cholinergic-signaling-regulates-cocaine-associated-relapse-like-behavior
#3
Alberto J López, Yousheng Jia, André O White, Janine L Kwapis, Monica Espinoza, Philip Hwang, Rianne Campbell, Yasaman Alaghband, Om Chitnis, Dina P Matheos, Gary Lynch, Marcelo A Wood
Propensity to relapse, even following long periods of abstinence, is a key feature in substance use disorders. Relapse and relapse-like behaviors are known to be induced, in part, by re-exposure to drug-associated cues. Yet, while many critical nodes in the neural circuitry contributing to relapse have been identified and studied, a full description of the networks driving reinstatement of drug-seeking behaviors is lacking. One area that may provide further insight to the mechanisms of relapse is the habenula complex, an epithalamic region composed of lateral and medial (MHb) substructures, each with unique cell and target populations...
February 12, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430384/exercise-as-a-prevention-for-substance-use-disorder-a-review-of-sex-differences-and-neurobiological-mechanisms
#4
Wendy J Lynch, Andrea M Robinson, Jean Abel, Mark A Smith
Purpose of Review: This report provides an update on clinical and preclinical findings for the efficacy of exercise to prevent substance use disorder with a focus on recent evidence for sex differences and neurobiological mechanisms. Recent Findings: Exercise/physical activity is associated with decreased drug use in humans. Preclinical results further indicate that exercise decreases vulnerability to drug use and the development of features of substance use disorder, and suggest that females have an enhanced sensitivity to its reward-substitution effects...
December 2017: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428364/metaplasticity-at-the-addicted-tetrapartite-synapse-a-common-denominator-of-drug-induced-adaptations-and-potential-treatment-target-for-addiction
#5
Daniela Neuhofer, Peter Kalivas
In light of the current worldwide addiction epidemic, the need for successful therapies is more urgent than ever. Although we made substantial progress in our basic understanding of addiction, reliable therapies are lacking. Since 40-60% of patients treated for substance use disorder return to active substance use within a year following treatment discharge, alleviating the vulnerability to relapse is regarded as the most promising avenue for addiction therapy. Preclinical addiction research often focuses on maladaptive synaptic plasticity within the reward pathway...
February 8, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425713/the-effect-of-oxidative-stress-induced-by-tert-butylhydroperoxide-under-distinct-folic-acid-conditions-an-in-vitro-study-using-cultured-human-trophoblast-derived-cells
#6
Jaqueline Vieira Carletti, Ana Correia-Branco, Claudia Raquel Silva, Nelson Andrade, Lenir Orlandi Pereira Silva, Fátima Martel
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy disorder characterized by maternal blood pressure, fetal growth restriction and intrauterine hypoxia. Folic acid is a vitamin required during pregnancy. In this work, we investigated the relationship between preeclampsia and the intake of distinct doses of folic acid during pregnancy. Considering that preeclampsia is associated with increased placental oxidative stress levels, we investigated the effect of oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBH) in human trophoblast-derived cells cultured upon deficient/low, physiological and supra-physiological folic acid levels...
February 6, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423710/intravenous-cocaine-self-administration-in-a-panel-of-inbred-mouse-strains-differing-in-acute-locomotor-sensitivity-to-cocaine
#7
Amanda J Roberts, Linzy Casal, Salvador Huitron-Resendiz, Trey Thompson, Lisa M Tarantino
RATIONALE: Initial sensitivity to drugs of abuse often predicts subsequent use and abuse, but this relationship is not always observed in human studies. Moreover, studies examining the relationship between initial locomotor sensitivity and the rewarding and reinforcing effects of drugs in animal models have also been equivocal. Understanding the relationship between initial drug effects and propensity to continue use, potentially resulting in the development of a substance use disorder, may help to identify key targets for prevention and treatment...
January 29, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420901/enhancing-efficacy-and-stability-of-an-anti-heroin-vaccine-examination-of-antinociception-opioid-binding-profile-and-lethality
#8
Candy S Hwang, Paul T Bremer, Cody J Wenthur, Sam On Ho, SuMing Chiang, Beverly Ellis, Bin Zhou, Gary Fujii, Kim D Janda
In recent years, drug conjugate vaccines have shown promise as therapeutics for substance use disorder. As a means to improve the efficacy of a heroin conjugate vaccine, we systematically explored twenty vaccine formulations with varying combinations of carrier proteins and adjuvants. In regard to adjuvants, we explored a Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist and a TLR3 agonist in the presence of alum. The TLR9 agonist was cytosine-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide 1826 (CpG ODN 1826), while the TLR3 agonist was virus-derived genomic doubled-stranded RNA (dsRNA)...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406581/crf2-receptor-deficiency-eliminates-social-behaviour-deficits-and-vulnerability-induced-by-cocaine
#9
Nadège Morisot, Romain Monier, Catherine Le Moine, Mark J Millan, Angelo Contarino
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Poor social behaviour and vulnerability to stress are major clinical features of stimulant use disorders. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system mediates stress responses and might underlie substance use disorders; however, its implication in social impairment induced by stimulant substances remains unknown. CRF signalling is mediated by two receptor types, CRF1 and CRF2 . The present study investigated the role for the CRF2 receptor in social behaviour deficits, vulnerability to stress and related brain alterations induced by cocaine administration and withdrawal...
February 6, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404264/exercise-as-a-sex-specific-treatment-for-substance-use-disorder
#10
Wendy J Lynch, Jean Abel, Andrea M Robinson, Mark A Smith
Purpose of Review: Exercise is a promising treatment for substance use disorder that may reduce withdrawal symptoms and prevent relapse. In this review, we discuss recent evidence from clinical and preclinical studies for its efficacy, from a behavioral to a molecular level, in order to understand the exercise conditions that lead to beneficial effects. We also highlight the few recent findings of sex-specific differences. Recent Findings: Clinical and preclinical findings show that exercise decreases withdrawal symptoms, including craving, in both males and females...
December 2017: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401155/combined-nmda-inhibitor-use-in-a-patient-with-multisubstance-induced-psychotic-disorder
#11
Matteo Caloro, Giuseppa Calabrò, Eleonora de Pisa, Enrico Rosini, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Davide Lonati, Carlo Alessandro Locatelli, Pietro Papa, Fabrizio Schifano, Paolo Girardi
: Novel psychoactive substance use is a major social concern. Their use may elicit or uncover unpredictably as yet undescribed clinical pictures. We aimed to illustrate a multisubstance use case indistinguishable from paranoid schizophrenia, so to alert clinicians on possibly misdiagnosing substance-induced psychotic disorders. CASE REPORT: We describe a case of a 32-year-old man who started at 18 years with cannabinoids and ketamine, and is currently using N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378270/d-ribose-induced-glycoxidative-insult-to-hemoglobin-protein-an-approach-to-spot-its-structural-perturbations
#12
Zeba Siddiqui, Mohd Ishtikhar, Moinuddin, Saheem Ahmad
Glycation of biological macromolecule leads to the establishment of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) having implications in metabolic disorders. d‑ribose appears to be the most reactive among the naturally occurring sugars and contribute significantly to the glycation reactions in vivo, however, no report have been published yet to discuss d‑ribose induced glycation of hemoglobin (Hb). Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate d‑ribose induced glycoxidative damage to Hb protein. Briefly, the commercially available Hb was glycated with d‑ribose for varying time intervals...
January 26, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374602/reduction-in-endogenous-cardiac-steroids-protects-the-brain-from-oxidative-stress-in-a-mouse-model-of-mania-induced-by-amphetamine
#13
Anastasia Hodes, Tzuri Lifschytz, Haim Rosen, Hagit Cohen-Ben Ami, David Lichtstein
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mental illness characterized by episodes of mania and depression. Numerous studies have implicated the involvement of endogenous cardiac steroids (CS), and their receptor, Na+, K+ -ATPase, in BD. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of brain oxidative stress in the CS-induced behavioral effects in mice. METHODS: Amphetamine (AMPH)-induced hyperactivity, assessed in the open-field test, served as a model for manic-like behavior in mice...
January 25, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374304/differences-in-trait-impulsivity-do-not-bias-the-response-to-pharmacological-drug-challenge-in-the-rat-five-choice-serial-reaction-time-task
#14
Rebecca L Barlow, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
RATIONALE: Maladaptive impulsivity is symptomatic of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance abuse disorders; paradigms designed to assess the underlying neurobiology of this behavior are essential for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. Various models may be used to assess impulsivity as measured by the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), including variable inter-trial interval (ITI) sessions, the selection of extreme high and low impulsivity phenotypes from a large outbred population of rats, as well as pharmacological challenges...
January 26, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372043/mast-cells-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-roles-in-assessment-of-grape-seeds-extract-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-rat-model-of-carrageenan-induced-paw-edema
#15
Amany Ahmed Mohamed Abd-Allah, Nasr Abdelwahab Mohamed Nasr El-Deen, Wafaa Abdou Mohamed Mohamed, Fatma Mohamed Naguib
Objectives: Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-produced oxidative disorders were involved at the pathophysiology of many inflammatory processes via the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antioxidant defense system suppression. Although herbal antioxidants as mono-therapy relief many inflammatory diseases including, autoimmunity rheumatoid arthritis, but as combination therapy with other proven anti-inflammatory drugs in order to decreasing their toxic impacts has not yet been studied clearly, especially against chemical substances that's induced local inflammation with characteristic edema...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360435/cerebellar-oxidative-stress-and-fine-motor-impairment-in-adolescent-rats-exposed-to-hyperthermia-induced-seizures-is-prevented-by-maternal-caffeine-intake-during-gestation-and-lactation
#16
María Crespo, David Agustín León-Navarro, Mairena Martín
Febrile seizures (FS) is one of the most common convulsive disorders in infants and young children that only occurs during the first years of life in humans, when the cerebellum is still developing. Several works have shown that maternal caffeine consumption during gestation and lactation can exert protective effects on developing brain under pathological conditions. Here, we have used an animal model of FS to know whether maternal caffeine consumption during gestation and lactation exhibited protective effects on rat cerebellum...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337238/advantages-of-the-alpha-lipoic-acid-association-with-chlorpromazine-in-a-model-of-schizophrenia-induced-by-ketamine-in-rats-behavioral-and-oxidative-stress-evidences
#17
Luis Rafael Leite Sampaio, Francisco Maurício Sales Cysne Filho, Jamily Cunha de Almeida, Danilo Dos Santos Diniz, Cláudio Felipe Vasconcelos Patrocínio, Caren Nádia Soares de Sousa, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo Patrocínio, Danielle S Macêdo, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder reported to compromise about 1% of the world's population. Although its pathophysiological process is not completely elucidated, evidence showing the presence of an oxidative imbalance has been increasingly highlighted in the literature. Thus, the use of antioxidant substances may be of importance for schizophrenia treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavioral and oxidative alterations by the combination of chlorpromazine (CP) and alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a potent antioxidant, in the ketamine (KET) model of schizophrenia in rats...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332575/protective-role-of-italian-juglans-regia-l-nut-ethanolic-extract-in-human-keratinocytes-under-oxidative-and-inflammatory-stress
#18
Cinzia Calcabrini, Umberto Mancini, Roberta De Bellis, Alessandra Frati, Anna Rita Mastrogiacomo, Giosue Annibalini, Piero Sestili, Luigi Cucchiarini, Vilberto Stocchi, Lucia Potenza
OBJECTIVE: In this research, fatty acid profile and polyphenolic content of an ethanolic extract of walnut from Juglans regia L. collected in Central Italy, were performed. The potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the extract were investigated in the human keratinocytes cell line. METHODS: Fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu method and aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for determination of total flavonoids...
January 12, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329860/ethyl-carbamate-an-emerging-food-and-environmental-toxicant
#19
REVIEW
Vemana Gowd, Hongming Su, Petr Karlovsky, Wei Chen
Ethyl carbamate (EC), a chemical substance widely present in fermented food products and alcoholic beverages, has been classified as a Group 2A carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). New evidence indicates that long-term exposure to EC may cause neurological disorders. Formation of EC in food and its metabolism have therefore been studied extensively and analytical methods for EC in various food matrices have been established. Due to the potential threat of EC to human health, mitigation strategies for EC in food products by physical, chemical, enzymatic, and genetic engineering methods have been developed...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327316/-diagnosis-differential-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-substance-use-disorders-in-general-hospital-general-section
#20
REVIEW
Anton Schmick, Josef Jenewein, Sönke Böttger
Substance use disorders are becoming an increasingly significant problem in general hospitals and hence play a key role in consultation- and liaison psychiatry. Diverse psychotropic effects of various substances mimic psychiatric disorders. An alcohol intoxication can present depressive or manic symptoms, a cannabis delirium can present as a psychosis while stimulants use can suggest the diagnosis of an anxiety disorder. Obtaining dual diagnoses by identifying substance-induced and non-substance-induced psychopathologies is clinically challenging...
January 11, 2018: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
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