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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078209/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-co-occurring-with-psychosis-systematic-review-of-evidence
#1
Antonio Tundo, Roberta Necci
AIM: To review available evidence on the use of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for treating obsessive compulsive disorder co-occurring with psychosis. METHODS: In this paper we present a detailed and comprehensive review of the current literature focusing on CBT treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) co-occurring with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We identified relevant literature published between 2001 and May 2016 through MEDLINE/PubMed search using as search string ("obsessive compulsive disorders" or "obsessive compulsive symptoms") and ("schizophrenia" or "schizoaffective disorder" or "psychosis") and ("cognitive behavioural therapy")...
December 22, 2016: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072643/early-life-trauma-in-hospitalized-patients-with-mood-disorders-and-its-association-with-clinical-outcomes
#2
Ajay K Parsaik, Noha Abdelgawad, Jigar K Chotalia, Scott D Lane, Teresa A Pigott
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood trauma and its impact on clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with mood disorders is unknown. We studied the frequency of childhood trauma among inpatient adults with mood disorders and its association with clinical outcomes. METHODS: Patients admitted to our hospital with a primary diagnosis of mood disorders completed the short form of the Early Trauma Inventory-Self-Report (ETISR-SF), the Sheehan Disability Scale, and the Clinician-Rated Dimensions of Psychosis Symptom Severity scale...
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066011/role-of-membrane-cholesterol-and-lipid-peroxidation-in-regulating-the-na-k-atpase-activity-in-schizophrenia
#3
Suparna Roy, Anindya Dasgupta, Ushasi Banerjee, Piali Chowdhury, Ashis Mukhopadhyay, Gautam Saha, Omprakash Singh
BACKGROUND: Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity is compromised in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Oxidative stress and membrane lipid composition play important roles in regulating NKA activity. AIMS: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of oxidative stress-induced membrane lipid damage and membrane cholesterol composition on NKA pump activity in schizophrenia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: It was a hospital-based, cross-sectional, observational study in 49 cases and 51 controls for 1 year...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061970/nitric-oxide-and-anxiety
#4
K Gulati, N Rai, A Ray
Anxiety is a common neuropsychiatric disorder which affects both physical and mental health. Complex neurobiological mechanisms are involved in the genesis of anxiety, and the drugs used to date, though effective, are not free from shortcomings. Conventional agents like the classical benzodiazepines and the atypical nonbenzodiazepine agents like buspirone have their own limitations. There is thus need to explore newer neurochemical pathways to develop efficacious and safer drugs for the disorder. Nitric oxide (NO) is a unique neuromodulator substance, with the ability to influence and modulate several other conventional messengers which play an important role in anxiety...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054436/low-dose-of-caffeine-enhances-the-efficacy-of-antidepressants-in-major-depressive-disorder-and-the-underlying-neural-substrates
#5
Qing-Shan Liu, Ran Deng, Yuyan Fan, Keqin Li, Fanggang Meng, Xueli Li, Rui Liu
SCOPE: Caffeine is one of the most frequently used psychoactive substances ingested mainly via beverage or food products. Major depressive disorder is a serious and devastating psychiatric disorder. Emerging evidence indicates that caffeine enhances the antidepressant-like activity of common antidepressant drugs in rodents. However, whether joint administration of low dose of caffeine enhances the antidepressant actions in depressed patients remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 95 male inpatients were assigned to three groups and were asked to take either caffeine (60, 120mg) or placebo (soymilk powder) daily for 4 weeks on the basis of their current antidepressant medications...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049097/in-vivo-anti-arthritic-efficacy-of-camellia-sinensis-l-in-collagen-induced-arthritis-model
#6
Ankit Tanwar, Raman Chawla, Md Meraj Ansari, Neha, Pallavi Thakur, Ankita Singh Chakotiya, Rajeev Goel, Himanshu Ojha, M Asif, Mitra Basu, Rajesh Arora, Haider Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune inflammatory disorder with synovial hyperplasia, destruction of cartilage, bone damage is often associated with risk of infections. Such risk could be attributed towards usage of immunosuppressive agents. Thus, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-arthritic efficacy of aquo-alcoholic extract of Camellia sinensis (L.). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dried leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) or Cs were filtered and extracted in 1:1 aqueous: ethanol by Soxhlet apparatus followed by lyophilization and spray drying to develop amorphous powder...
December 31, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049086/structural-and-metabolic-differentiation-between-bipolar-disorder-with-psychosis-and-substance-induced-psychosis-an-integrated-mri-pet-study
#7
A C Altamura, G Delvecchio, G Marotta, L Oldani, A Pigoni, V Ciappolino, E Caletti, C Rovera, C Dobrea, C Arici, B Benatti, G Camuri, C Prunas, R A Paoli, B Dell'osso, C Cinnante, F M Triulzi, P Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) may be characterized by the presence of psychotic symptoms and comorbid substance abuse. In this context, structural and metabolic dysfunctions have been reported in both BD with psychosis and addiction, separately. In this study, we aimed at identifying neural substrates differentiating psychotic BD, with or without substance abuse, versus substance-induced psychosis (SIP) by coupling, for the first time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)...
December 30, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049084/a-single-session-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-reduces-cue-induced-craving-in-patients-with-gambling-disorder
#8
A Gay, C Boutet, T Sigaud, A Kamgoue, J Sevos, J Brunelin, C Massoubre
BACKGROUND: Gambling disorder (GD) is common and disabling addictive disorder. In patients with substance use disorders, the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) offers promise to alleviate craving. We hypothesized that applying real compared to sham rTMS over the left DLPFC would reduce gambling craving in patients with GD. METHODS: In a randomized sham-controlled crossover design, 22 treatment-seeking patients with GD received real or sham treatment with high frequency rTMS over the left DLPFC followed a week later by the other type of treatment...
December 30, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044061/in-silico-identification-and-in-vivo-validation-of-mir-495-as-a-novel-regulator-of-motivation-for-cocaine-that-targets-multiple-addiction-related-networks-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#9
R M Bastle, R J Oliver, A S Gardiner, N S Pentkowski, F Bolognani, A M Allan, T Chaudhury, M St Peter, N Galles, C Smith, J L Neisewander, N I Perrone-Bizzozero
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and are implicated in the etiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including substance use disorders (SUDs). Using in silico genome-wide sequence analyses, we identified miR-495 as a miRNA whose predicted targets are significantly enriched in the Knowledgebase for Addiction Related Genes (ARG) database (KARG; http://karg.cbi.pku.edu.cn). This small non-coding RNA is also highly expressed within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a pivotal brain region underlying reward and motivation...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#10
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028581/time-trends-in-first-admission-rates-for-schizophrenia-and-other-psychotic-disorders-in-taiwan-1998-2007-a-10-year-population-based-cohort-study
#11
Chih-Lin Chiang, Pei-Chun Chen, Ling-Ya Huang, Po-Hsiu Kuo, Yu-Chi Tung, Chen-Chung Liu, Wei J Chen
PURPOSE: To examine the trend in annual first admission rates for psychotic disorders as a whole as well as individual psychotic disorders in Taiwan from 1998 to 2007, and influences of age, sex, and geographic region on the trend. METHOD: Using the inpatient claims records in the National Health Insurance Research Database, we estimated the yearly first admission rates for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, including voluntary (1998-2007) and involuntary (2004-2007) admissions...
December 27, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025529/anticonvulsant-effects-of-fractions-isolated-from-dinoponera-quadriceps-kempt-ant-venom-formicidae-ponerinae
#12
Diana Aline Morais Ferreira Nôga, Luiz Eduardo Mateus Brandão, Fernanda Carvalho Cagni, Delano Silva, Dina Lilia Oliveira de Azevedo, Arrilton Araújo, Wagner Ferreira Dos Santos, Antonio Miranda, Regina Helena da Silva, Alessandra Mussi Ribeiro
Natural products, sources of new pharmacological substances, have large chemical diversity and architectural complexity. In this context, some toxins obtained from invertebrate venoms have anticonvulsant effects. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects about 65 million people worldwide, and approximately 30% of cases are resistant to pharmacological treatment. Previous studies from our group show that the denatured venom of the ant Dinoponera quadriceps (Kempt) protects mice against bicuculline (BIC)-induced seizures and death...
December 23, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017695/mir-29c-is-implicated-in-the-cardioprotective-activity-of-panax-notoginseng-saponins-against-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-fibrogenesis
#13
Li Liu, Bingbing Ning, Jingang Cui, Teng Zhang, Yu Chen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H. Chen (Araliaceae) has a long history of clinical application in China for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) have been proven to be the major cardioprotective substances of Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H. Chen (Araliaceae). AIM OF THE STUDY: The current study further investigated the molecular mechanisms associated with the cardioprotective effect of PNS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were subject to isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury in the absence or presence of PNS treatment...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011402/the-impact-of-the-appetite-regulating-orexigenic-peptide-ghrelin-on-alcohol-use-disorders-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-and-clinical-data
#14
Anne Koopmann, Rilana Schuster, Falk Kiefer
Ghrelin, which is mainly released from the stomach, is the most important orexigenic regulator of food intake, inducing appetite, enhancing adiposity and releasing growth hormone. Besides the hypothalamus, ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1A) are also expressed in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, which increases the possibility that ghrelin plays an important role in reward regulation for substance use disorders such as alcohol addiction, especially through activating the cholinergic-dopaminergic reward link. In this review we focus on the impact of ghrelin on the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction/dependence, alcohol consumption, alcohol craving and alcohol withdrawal, attempting to integrate preclinical and clinical studies concerning the intriguing relationship between appetite regulation, reward and alcohol addiction...
December 21, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005086/-evaluation-of-color-perception-in-individuals-addicted-to-narcotic-substances-in-the-farnsworth-munsell-100-hue-test
#15
Krystyna Nadolska, Roman Goś
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess color perception in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test in individuals addicted to narcotic substances, and to analyze the acquired color vision disorders, depending on the duration of addiction and abstinence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-five persons were qualified for the study. All the subjects were divided into 3 groups. Group I (drug addicts) comprised 45 individuals addicted to narcotic substances and nicotine...
December 22, 2016: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995279/from-bench-to-bedside-mglur2-positive-allosteric-modulators-as-medications-to-treat-substance-use-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Jane B Acri, Alan J Cross, Phil Skolnick
OBJECTIVE: This paper provides an overview of the role of type 2 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2) in addiction and behaviors reflecting addictive processes. RESULTS: AZD8529, an mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), failed to separate from placebo in a phase II schizophrenia trial. The demonstration by Athina Markou's laboratory that AZD8529 attenuated both nicotine self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement was a key factor in the decision to move this compound into a smoking cessation study...
December 20, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991906/hepatic-stimulator-substance-inhibits-calcium-overflow-through-the-mitochondria-associated-membrane-compartment-during-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#17
Fan Xiao, Jing Zhang, Can Zhang, Wei An
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is considered a disorder of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. Recent studies have shown that the ER and mitochondrial membranes overlap by 15-20%, a region referred to as the 'mitochondria-associated ER membrane' (MAM). Some proteins, including sarco/ER calcium ATPase (SERCA), are located in the MAM and have an important role in Ca(2+) signaling and homeostasis between the ER and the mitochondria. Our previous study showed that hepatic stimulator substance (HSS) inhibits the ER stress induced by reactive oxygen species, thus reducing mitochondrial damage...
December 19, 2016: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983845/towards-understanding-the-structural-basis-of-partial-agonism-at-the-dopamine-d3-receptor
#18
Mayako Michino, Comfort A Boateng, Prashant Donthamsetti, Hideaki Yano, Oluyomi M Bakare, Alessandro Bonifazi, Michael P Ellenberger, Thomas M Keck, Vivek Kumar, Clare Zhu, Ravi Verma, Jeffrey R Deschamps, Jonathan A Javitch, Amy Hauck Newman, Lei Shi
Both dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) partial agonists and antagonists have been implicated as potential medications for substance use disorders. In contrast to antagonists, partial agonists may cause fewer side effects since they maintain some dopaminergic tone and may be less disruptive to normal neuronal functions. Here, we report three sets of 4-phenylpiperazine stereoisomers that differ considerably in efficacy: the (R)-enantiomers are antagonists/weak partial agonists whereas the (S)-enantiomers are much more efficacious...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975356/-is-nutritional-obesity-a-substance-use-disorder
#19
Özgür Albayrak, Martina de Zwaan
Today, food addiction has become an increasing area of research. Multiple studies aim to characterize individuals in terms of food addiction based on the assumption, that hyperpalatable foods rich of salt, sugar and fat may induce a cluster of behavioral changes that may resemble a substance use disorder, despite the fact that to date there is no evidence, that nutritional factors lead to an addictive eating-like behavior in humans. In this review article, we aim to introduce the basic experiments, that build the framework upon which food addiction is being investigated and to critically discuss the concept of food addiction...
December 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973423/regressive-effect-of-myricetin-on-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#20
Shu-Fang Xia, Guo-Wei Le, Peng Wang, Yu-Yu Qiu, Yu-Yu Jiang, Xue Tang
Myricetin is an effective antioxidant in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the regressive effect of myricetin on pre-existing hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a HFD for 12 weeks and then half of the mice were treated with myricetin (0.12% in the diet, w/w) while on their respective diets for further 12 weeks. Myricetin treatment significantly alleviated HFD-induced steatosis, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels, and increased antioxidative enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities...
December 11, 2016: Nutrients
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