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Substance-induced disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901032/emotion-recognition-and-its-relation-to-prefrontal-function-and-network-in-heroin-plus-nicotine-dependence-a-pilot-study
#1
Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Many patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) live in a stressful environment, and comorbidity is not uncommon. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying heroin and nicotine dependences and their relationships to social cognition could facilitate behavioral therapy efficacy. We aimed to provide a translational approach that leads to identifying potential biomarkers for opioid use disorder (OUD) susceptibility during recovery. We examined the clinical characters and the relationships between theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions in three groups: heroin plus nicotine-dependent (HND) patients who had remained heroin abstinent ( <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896880/mechanical-load-increase-induced-changes-in-cytoskeletal-structure-and-cellular-barrier-function-in-human-cerebral-endothelial-cells
#2
Dongjoo Kim, Soonjo Kwon
Globally, approximately billion patients are estimated to suffer from neurological disorders. Although there are many therapeutic candidates for the central nervous system (CNS), treatment of brain disorders is restricted by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is a highly selective membrane that protects the brain from exogenous substances. This study was undertaken to develop a novel strategy to overcome the BBB and improve the efficiency of drug delivery to the brain by mechanical load increase using hypergravity...
June 13, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875667/polyacetylene-from-dendropanax-morbifera-alleviates-diet-induced-obesity-and-hepatic-steatosis-by-activating-ampk-signaling-pathway
#3
Myung-Ji Kang, Eun-Bin Kwon, Hyung Won Ryu, Seoghyun Lee, Jae-Won Lee, Doo-Young Kim, Mi Kyeong Lee, Sei-Ryang Oh, Hyun-Sun Lee, Su Ui Lee, Mun-Ock Kim
The extract tea of Dendropanax morbifera is popular beverages in Korea, and their preventive and therapeutic roles in metabolic disorders have been reported. However, the molecular mechanism has not been studied despite the known efficacy of D. morbifera . Eleven fractions (fr.1-fr.11) were divided by MPLC to find the active compound. Among them, Fr.5 was superior to others in that the inhibitory efficacy of de novo triglyceride (TG) biosynthesis. NMR analysis revealed that Fr.5 is composed 98% or more (9 Z ,16 S )-16-hydroxy-9,17-octadecadiene-12,14-diynoic acid (HOD)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864987/effect-of-cocoa-on-endorphin-levels-and-craniofacial-muscle-sensitivity-in-healthy-individuals
#4
A H Simoni, A Randers, K Jønsson, S Arpe, J N Poulsen, P Gazerani
Aims Migraine headache is a recurrent incapacitating neurovascular disorder. A combination of events occurring within the trigeminovascular system has been suggested to underlie migraine pathogenesis, including release of inflammatory neuropeptides with subsequent effects on meningeal vessels and sensory transmission. Increased craniofacial muscle tenderness is also present in patients with migraine and a lower β-endorphin concentration has been observed in these patients. Several external factors have been identified, which can modulate migraine...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864483/neuroprotective-effect-of-linagliptin-against-cuprizone-induced-demyelination-and-behavioural-dysfunction-in-mice-a-pivotal-role-of-ampk-sirt1-and-jak2-stat3-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-pathway-modulation
#5
Eman M Elbaz, Mahmoud A Senousy, Dalia M El-Tanbouly, Rabab H Sayed
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system disorder leading to serious neurological deficits. Linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, recently showed neuroprotective properties against neurodegenerative diseases. This study investigated the possible neuroprotective effect of linagliptin against cuprizone-induced demyelination in mice and its potential early-remyelinating properties. C57Bl/6 mice were fed chow containing 0.7% cuprizone for 1 week, followed by 3 weeks of a 0...
June 1, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29857893/females-have-stronger-neurogenic-response-than-males-after-non-specific-nasal-challenge-in-patients-with-seasonal-allergic-rhinitis
#6
Dejan Tomljenovic, Tomislav Baudoin, Zeljka Bukovec Megla, Goran Geber, Glenis Scadding, Livije Kalogjera
Epidemiological studies show female predominance in the prevalence of non- allergic rhinitis (NAR) and local allergic rhinitis (LAR). Experimental studies show female patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) demonstrate higher levels of sensitivity to irritants and airway hyperresponsiveness than males. Bronchial asthma shows female predominance in post-puberty patients, and gender interaction with severe asthma endotypes. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, migraine and chronic cough, syndromes, which are commonly related to neurokinin substance P (SP) in the literature, also show strong female predominance...
July 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29842964/diuretic-herb-gomphrena-celosioides-mart-amaranthaceae-promotes-sustained-arterial-pressure-reduction-and-protection-from-cardiac-remodeling-on-rats-with-renovascular-hypertension
#7
Paulo César de Paula Vasconcelos, Cleide Adriani Signor Tirloni, Rhanany Alan Calloi Palozi, Maicon Matos Leitão, Maria Tainara Soares Carneiro, Maysa Isernhagen Schaedler, Aniely Oliveira Silva, Roosevelt Isaias Carvalho Souza, Marcos José Salvador, Arquimedes Gasparotto Junior, Cândida Aparecida Leite Kassuya
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gomphrena celosioides Mart., belonging to the Amaranthaceae family, is a weed known as "perpétua," and its ethnopharmacological use is to treat of urinary tract disorders and kidney stones. Urinary tract disorders and kidney stones could include several pathological conditions such hypertension, diuretic and lithiasic problems. In the present work a model of renovascular hypertension was developed in vivo to investigate its usefulness as an antihypertensive drug...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793521/substance-induced-anxiety-disorder-after-one-dose-of-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-a-case-report
#8
Kaeley Kaplan, Fiona Kurtz, Kelly Serafini
BACKGROUND: In this report, we describe a case of a patient with substance-induced anxiety disorder occurring after a single dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Furthermore, we describe the use and efficacy of the Primary Care Behavioral Health model, a collaborative approach to integrative primary mental health care, in evaluating and treating this rare mental health disorder. CASE PRESENTATION: Three days following ingestion of one dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, a 35-year-old Hispanic man with no significant prior mental health history and no history of prior 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine use presented to our hospital with severe, acute anxiety and panic symptoms...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793313/therapeutic-effects-of-scoparone-on-pilocarpine-pilo-induced-seizures-in-mice
#9
Jie Xia, Cheng-Yan Li, Hui Wang, Qi-Mei Zhang, Zhong-Mou Han
Epilepsy is a common and devastating neurological disorder. Inflammatory processes and apoptosis in brain tissue have been reported in human epilepsy. Scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) is an important chemical substance, which has multiple beneficial activities, including antitumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties. In our present study, we attempted to investigate if scoparone could attenuate seizures-induced blood brain barrier breakdown, inflammation and apoptosis. Pilocarpine (Pilo) and methylscopolamine were used to establish acute seizure animal model...
January 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776789/transdiagnostic-effects-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-cue-reactivity
#10
Tonisha E Kearney-Ramos, Logan T Dowdle, Daniel H Lench, Oliver J Mithoefer, William H Devries, Mark S George, Raymond F Anton, Colleen A Hanlon
BACKGROUND: Elevated frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues is a transdiagnostic hallmark of substance use disorders. The goal of these experiments was to determine if it is possible to decrease frontal and striatal reactivity to drug cues in both cocaine users and heavy alcohol users through continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). METHODS: Two single-blinded, within-subject, active sham-controlled experiments were performed wherein neural reactivity to drug/alcohol cues versus neutral cues was evaluated immediately before and after receiving real or sham cTBS (110% resting motor threshold, 3600 pulses, Fp1 location; N = 49: 25 cocaine users [experiment 1], 24 alcohol users [experiment 2]; 196 total functional magnetic resonance imaging scans)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766293/nmda-receptor-subunits-change-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-pure-opioid-and-multi-drug-abusers-a-post-mortem-study
#11
Hamidreza Daneshparvar, Mitra-Sadat Sadat-Shirazi, Monir Fekri, Solmaz Khalifeh, Ali Ziaie, Nasrin Esfahanizadeh, Nasim Vousooghi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder and is one of the most important issues in the world. Changing the level of neurotransmitters and the activities of their receptors, play a major role in the pathophysiology of substance abuse disorders. It is well-established that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a significant role in the molecular basis of addiction. NMDAR has two obligatory GluN1 and two regionally localized GluN2 subunits. This study investigated changes in the protein level of GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B in the prefrontal cortex of drug abusers...
May 16, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755644/potential-implication-of-sgk1-dependent-activity-change-in-bv-2-microglial-cells
#12
Hayato Asai, Koichi Inoue, Eisuke Sakuma, Yoshiaki Shinohara, Takatoshi Ueki
It has recently been established that microglial activation is involved in the pathophysiology of various neurological and psychiatric disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and schizophrenia. The pathological molecular machineries underlying microglial activation and its accelerating molecules have been precisely described in the diseased central nervous system (CNS). However, to date, the details of physiological mechanism, which represses microglial activation, are still to be elucidated. Our latest report demonstrated that serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinases (SGK1 and SGK3) were expressed in multiple microglial cell lines, and their inhibitor enhanced the toxic effect of lipopolysaccharide on microglial production of inflammatory substances such as TNFα and iNOS...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754278/behavioral-and-noradrenergic-sensitizations-in-vulnerable-traumatized-rats-suggest-common-bases-with-substance-use-disorders
#13
Claire Le Dorze, Jean-Pol Tassin, Fréderic Chauveau, Pascale Gisquet-Verrier
The aim of the present study was to strengthen our hypothesis of a common physiological basis for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders. This paper investigates the possibility that rats exposed to a PTSD model exhibit noradrenergic and behavioral sensitization, as observed following repeated drugs of abuse injections. First, rats received a single prolonged stress (SPS), combining three consecutive stressors. They were then tested, 2 weeks after the trauma for PTSD-like symptoms to discriminate between vulnerable and resilient rats...
May 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753569/first-presentation-with-psychotic-symptoms-to-the-emergency-department
#14
Yousef Etlouba, Abdullah Laher, Feroza Motara, Muhammed Moolla, Nazeema Ariefdien
BACKGROUND: Mental health conditions account for 52.8 million (4.9-6.3%) emergency department (ED) visits in the United States. Psychotic conditions are responsible for approximately 10% of all mental health presentations. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the underlying etiology and characteristics of patients presenting to the ED with a first episode of psychotic symptoms. METHODS: Medical records of 159 African, Asian, white, and mixed-race patients were prospectively reviewed...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746899/ncs-1-is-a-regulator-of-calcium-signaling-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Göran R Boeckel, Barbara E Ehrlich
Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 (NCS-1) is a highly conserved calcium binding protein which contributes to the maintenance of intracellular calcium homeostasis and regulation of calcium-dependent signaling pathways. It is involved in a variety of physiological cell functions, including exocytosis, regulation of calcium permeable channels, neuroplasticity and response to neuronal damage. Over the past 30 years, continuing investigation of cellular functions of NCS-1 and associated disease states have highlighted its function in the pathophysiology of several disorders and as a therapeutic target...
May 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745700/heavy-marijuana-use-but-not-deprivation-is-associated-with-increased-stressor-reactivity
#16
Kathryn R Hefner, Mark J Starr, John J Curtin
Although stressors appear to motivate marijuana use, and marijuana use, in turn, is believed to induce stress system neuroadaptations, relatively little empirical work has explicitly tested for stress neuroadaptations associated with heavy marijuana use. We examined stressor reactivity to threat of unpredictable electric shock via startle potentiation among heavy marijuana users and a control group that reported minimal history of marijuana use. Heavy marijuana users were randomly assigned to 3 days of marijuana deprivation or no deprivation...
May 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737638/preventing-morphine-reinforcement-with-high-frequency-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-lateral-hypothalamic-area
#17
Mojdeh Fattahi, Ghorbangol Ashabi, Seyed Morteza Karimian, Esmail Riahi
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as a promising intervention for patients with treatment-refractory substance use disorder. Here, we investigated if high-frequency DBS in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) could affect drug-induced reinforcement. Rats were bilaterally implanted with bipolar stimulation electrodes in the LHA and trained to the morphine conditioned place preference. DBS (monophasic square pulses, 130 Hz, 100-microsecond pulse duration and 150 μA) was applied during the morphine-pairing trials (30 minutes daily for 4 days) or drug-free postconditioning test (15 minutes) to determine its effect on the acquisition or expression of morphine reward, respectively...
May 8, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727040/how-is-the-human-umbilical-artery-regulated
#18
REVIEW
Margarida Lorigo, Melissa Mariana, Joana Feiteiro, Elisa Cairrao
The purpose of this review is to present an update of the main mechanisms involved in the physiological regulation of contraction and relaxation of the human umbilical artery (HUA) smooth muscle cells. A literature review was performed based on the analysis of papers available on PubMed. The most important and relevant studies regarding the regulation of the HUA are presented in this article. The vascular smooth muscle is a highly specialized structure, whose main function is to regulate the vascular tonus...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719722/an-aggravated-return-to-work-case-of-organic-solvent-induced-chronic-toxic-encephalopathy
#19
Sangyun Seo, Jungwon Kim
Background: Organic solvent-induced chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) is known as a non-progressive disorder that does not progress after diagnosis. The authors present a case those symptoms worsened after continued exposure to organic solvent after returning to work. Because such a case has not been reported in South Korea to the best of our knowledge, we intend to report this case along with literature review. Case presentation: A 59-year-old man, who performed painting job at a large shipyard for 20 years, was receiving hospital treatment mainly for depression...
2018: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686821/acute-effect-of-different-concentrations-of-cayenne-pepper-cataplasm-on-sensory-motor-functions-and-serum-levels-of-inflammation-related-biomarkers-in-healthy-subjects
#20
Nejc Sarabon, Stefan Löfler, Jan Cvecka, Wolfgang Hübl, Sandra Zampieri
Physical medicine therapies are often used in treating widespread musculoskeletal disorders, such as neck and low back pain. Herbal cataplasms containing rubefacient substances, such as Cayenne pepper, or galenic preparations like Munari cataplasm are commonly used as natural medications to treat painful areas. In this paper we show the effects of a 20-min application of Cayenne pepper and kaolin powder cataplasm (CPC) on healthy subjects. Treatment effects were evaluated by cold/hot feeling on visual analogue scale, blood pressure, body temperature, skin light touch sensations, two-point discrimination, and pain threshold to a mechanical stimulus, before and immediately after, 15 min after and 30 min after different concentration of Cayenne pepper in CPC preparation on healthy subjects...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Translational Myology
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