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nth dna glycosylase

Arturo Papaluca, J Richard Wagner, H Uri Saragovi, Dindial Ramotar
In Caenorhabditis elegans, two DNA glycosylases, UNG-1 and NTH-1, and two AP endonucleases, APN-1 and EXO-3, have been characterized from the base-excision repair (BER) pathway that repairs oxidatively modified DNA bases. UNG-1 removes uracil, while NTH-1 can remove 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5-hmU), an oxidation product of thymine, as well as other lesions. Both APN-1 and EXO-3 can incise AP sites and remove 3'-blocking lesions at DNA single strand breaks, and only APN-1 possesses 3'- to 5'-exonulease and nucleotide incision repair activities...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Olga A Kladova, Lev N Krasnoperov, Nikita A Kuznetsov, Olga S Fedorova
Endonuclease III (Endo III or Nth) is one of the key enzymes responsible for initiating the base excision repair of oxidized or reduced pyrimidine bases in DNA. In this study, a thermodynamic analysis of structural rearrangements of the specific and nonspecific DNA-duplexes during their interaction with Endo III is performed based on stopped-flow kinetic data. 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine (tCO ), a fluorescent analog of the natural nucleobase cytosine, is used to record multistep DNA binding and lesion recognition within a temperature range (5-37 °C)...
March 30, 2018: Genes
Katarzyna Mokra, Katarzyna Woźniak, Bożena Bukowska, Paulina Sicińska, Jaromir Michałowicz
Because bisphenol A (BPA) and some of its analogs have been supposed to influence development of cancer, we have assessed the effect of BPA, bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on DNA bases oxidation, which is a key process in cancer initiation. The analysis was conducted on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which are very useful model to assess genotoxic potential of various toxicants in different cell types. In order to determine oxidative damage to DNA pyrimidines and purines, alkaline version of the comet assay with DNA glycosylases, i...
June 2018: Chemosphere
Henok Kassahun, Tanima SenGupta, Alfonso Schiavi, Silvia Maglioni, Hanne K Skjeldam, Katarzyna Arczewska, Nicole L Brockway, Suzanne Estes, Lars Eide, Natascia Ventura, Hilde Nilsen
Oxidation of DNA bases, an inevitable consequence of oxidative stress, requires the base excision repair (BER) pathway for repair. Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-established model to study phenotypic consequences and cellular responses to oxidative stress. To better understand how BER affects phenotypes associated with oxidative stress, we characterised the C. elegans nth-1 mutant, which lack the only DNA glycosylase dedicated to repair of oxidative DNA base damage, the NTH-1 DNA glycosylase. We show that nth-1 mutants have mitochondrial dysfunction characterised by lower mitochondrial DNA copy number, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species...
January 2018: DNA Repair
Fabiola Kautzmann, Josef Altenbuchner
Base Excision Repair (BER) is considered as the most active DNA repair pathway in vivo, which is initiated by recognition of the nucleotide lesions and excision of the damaged DNA base. The genome of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 contains various DNA glycosylases encoding genes (ung, fpg/mutM, tagI, alkA, mutY), two AP-endonuclease encoding genes (nei and nth) and an exonuclease encoding gene xth. To investigate the role of these genes during DNA repair in C. glutamicum, mutants with deletions of one or more genes in BER pathway were created...
September 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Andrea J Lee, Susan S Wallace
The Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway removes the vast majority of damages produced by ionizing radiation, including the plethora of radiation-damaged purines and pyrimidines. The first enzymes in the BER pathway are DNA glycosylases, which are responsible for finding and removing the damaged base. Although much is known about the biochemistry of DNA glycosylases, how these enzymes locate their specific damage substrates among an excess of undamaged bases has long remained a mystery. Here we describe the use of single molecule fluorescence to observe the bacterial DNA glycosylases, Nth, Fpg and Nei, scanning along undamaged and damaged DNA...
November 2016: Radiation Physics and Chemistry
Omar R Alshykhly, Aaron M Fleming, Cynthia J Burrows
Guanine (G) is a target for oxidation by reactive oxygen species in DNA, RNA, and the nucleotide pool. Damage to DNA yields products with alternative properties toward DNA processing enzymes compared to those of the parent nucleotide. A new lesion, 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantoin (2Ih), bearing a stereocenter in the base was recently identified from the oxidation of G. DNA polymerase and base excision repair processing of this new lesion has now been evaluated. Single nucleotide insertion opposite (S)-2Ih and (R)-2Ih in the template strand catalyzed by the DNA polymerases Klenow fragment exo(-), DPO4, and Hemo KlenTaq demonstrates these lesions to cause point mutations...
September 21, 2015: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Farzanah Hassim, Andrea O Papadopoulos, Bavesh D Kana, Bhavna G Gordhan
Hydroxyl radical (OH) among reactive oxygen species cause damage to nucleobases with thymine being the most susceptible, whilst in contrast, the singlet oxygen ((1)02) targets only guanine bases. The high GC content of mycobacterial genomes predisposes these organisms to oxidative damage of guanine. The exposure of cellular DNA to OH and one-electron oxidants results in the formation of two main degradation products, the pro-mutagenic 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua) and the cytotoxic 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyGua)...
September 2015: Mutation Research
Ibtissam Talhaoui, Vladimir Shafirovich, Zhi Liu, Christine Saint-Pierre, Zhiger Akishev, Bakhyt T Matkarimov, Didier Gasparutto, Nicholas E Geacintov, Murat Saparbaev
Oxidatively generated guanine radical cations in DNA can undergo various nucleophilic reactions including the formation of C8-guanine cross-links with adjacent or nearby N3-thymines in DNA in the presence of O2. The G*[C8-N3]T* lesions have been identified in the DNA of human cells exposed to oxidative stress, and are most likely genotoxic if not removed by cellular defense mechanisms. It has been shown that the G*[C8-N3]T* lesions are substrates of nucleotide excision repair in human cell extracts. Cleavage at the sites of the lesions was also observed but not further investigated (Ding et al...
June 5, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nikita A Kuznetsov, Olga A Kladova, Alexandra A Kuznetsova, Alexander A Ishchenko, Murat K Saparbaev, Dmitry O Zharkov, Olga S Fedorova
Escherichia coli endonuclease III (Endo III or Nth) is a DNA glycosylase with a broad substrate specificity for oxidized or reduced pyrimidine bases. Endo III possesses two types of activities: N-glycosylase (hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond) and AP lyase (elimination of the 3'-phosphate of the AP-site). We report a pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of structural rearrangements of the DNA substrates and uncleavable ligands during their interaction with Endo III. Oligonucleotide duplexes containing 5,6-dihydrouracil, a natural abasic site, its tetrahydrofuran analog, and undamaged duplexes carried fluorescent DNA base analogs 2-aminopurine and 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine as environment-sensitive reporter groups...
June 5, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yuichi Kato, Takahito Moriwaki, Masafumi Funakoshi, Qiu-Mei Zhang-Akiyama
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are the major DNA damage generated continuously even under normal conditions, and inhibit DNA replication/transcription. AP endonucleases are ubiquitous enzymes required for the repair of AP sites and 3' blocking ends, but their physiological roles in multicellular organisms are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated how an AP endonuclease functions in a multicellular organism (Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans)). EXO-3 is one of the AP endonucleases in C. elegans...
February 2015: Mutation Research
Shane R Nelson, Andrew R Dunn, Scott D Kathe, David M Warshaw, Susan S Wallace
DNA glycosylases are enzymes that perform the initial steps of base excision repair, the principal repair mechanism that identifies and removes endogenous damages that occur in an organism's DNA. We characterized the motion of single molecules of three bacterial glycosylases that recognize oxidized bases, Fpg, Nei, and Nth, as they scan for damages on tightropes of λ DNA. We find that all three enzymes use a key "wedge residue" to scan for damage because mutation of this residue to an alanine results in faster diffusion...
May 20, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ryohei Yamamoto, Yukari Ohshiro, Tatsuhiko Shimotani, Mizuki Yamamoto, Satoshi Matsuyama, Hiroshi Ide, Kihei Kubo
Oxidative base damage occurs spontaneously due to reactive oxygen species generated as byproducts of respiration and other pathological processes in mammalian cells. Many oxidized bases are mutagenic and/or toxic, and most are repaired through the base excision repair pathway. Human endonuclease VIII-like protein 1 (hNEIL1) is thought to play an important role during the S phase of the cell cycle by removing oxidized bases in DNA replication fork-like (bubble) structures, and the protein level of hNEIL1 is increased in S phase...
July 2014: Journal of Radiation Research
S De Summa, R Pinto, B Pilato, D Sambiasi, L Porcelli, G Guida, E Mattioli, A Paradiso, G Merla, L Micale, P De Nittis, S Tommasi
Understanding of BRCA1/2 interaction with the base excision repair (BER) pathway could improve therapy based on 'synthetic lethality', whose effectiveness is based on homologous recombination deficiency in cells lacking functional BRCA genes. However, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors failed in some patients and for this reason we explored BER key enzyme expression. In this study, the expression of BER enzymes (redox factor 1/apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (REF1/APEX1), NTH endonuclease III-like 1 (NTHL1), 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), PARP1) and of the scaffold protein XRCC1 (X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 1) were investigated in familial (BRCA-related and not) and sporadic breast cancer cases...
February 20, 2014: Cell Death & Disease
Kouass Sahbani Saloua, Girouard Sonia, Cloutier Pierre, Sanche Léon, Hunting J Darel
The majority of studies on lethal radiobiological damage have focused on double-strand breaks (DSBs), a type of clustered DNA damage and the evaluation of their toxicity, while other types of clustered DNA damage have received much less attention. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the contribution of different lesions induced by ionizing radiation to the loss of plasmid DNA functionality. We employed a simple model system comprising E. coli transformed with an irradiated plasmid [pGEM-3Zf (-)] to determine the effect of DSBs and other lesions including base damage and clustered lesions on the functionality ("viability") of the plasmid...
January 2014: Radiation Research
Nivedita Chatterjee, Hyun Jeong Eom, Jinhee Choi
The large-scale use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has raised concerns over potential impacts on the environment and human health. We previously reported that AgNP exposure causes an increase in reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, and induction of p38 MAPK and PMK-1 in Jurkat T cells and in Caenorhabditis elegans. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of AgNP toxicity, here we evaluate the effects of AgNPs on oxidative DNA damage-repair (in human and C. elegans DNA glycosylases hOGG1, hNTH1, NTH-1, and 8-oxo-GTPases-hMTH1, NDX-4) and explore the role of p38 MAPK and PMK-1 in this process...
March 2014: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Nabiela Moolla, Vivianne J Goosens, Bavesh D Kana, Bhavna G Gordhan
The increased prevalence of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) indicates that significant mutagenesis occurs during tuberculosis disease in humans. DNA damage by host-derived reactive oxygen/nitrogen species is hypothesized to be critical for the mutagenic process in Mtb thus, highlighting an important role for DNA repair enzymes in maintenance of genome fidelity. Formamidopyrimidine (Fpg/MutM/Fapy) and EndonucleaseVIII (Nei) constitute the Fpg/Nei family of DNA glycosylases and together with EndonucleaseIII (Nth) are central to the base excision repair pathway in bacteria...
January 2014: DNA Repair
Aishwarya Prakash, Brian E Eckenroth, April M Averill, Kayo Imamura, Susan S Wallace, Sylvie Doublié
Assault to DNA that leads to oxidative base damage is repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway with specialized enzymes called DNA glycosylases catalyzing the first step of this pathway. These glycosylases can be categorized into two families: the HhH superfamily, which includes endonuclease III (or Nth), and the Fpg/Nei family, which comprises formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (or Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (or Nei). In humans there are three Nei-like (NEIL) glycosylases: NEIL1, 2, and 3. Here we present the first crystal structure of a viral ortholog of the human NEIL2/NEIL3 proteins, Mimivirus Nei2 (MvNei2), determined at 2...
December 2013: DNA Repair
Andrew R Collins
BACKGROUND: Single cell gel electrophoresis, or the comet assay, was devised as a sensitive method for detecting DNA strand breaks, at the level of individual cells. A simple modification, incorporating a digestion of DNA with a lesion-specific endonuclease, makes it possible to measure oxidised bases. SCOPE OF REVIEW: With the inclusion of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase to recognise oxidised purines, or Nth (endonuclease III) to detect oxidised pyrimidines, the comet assay has been used extensively in human biomonitoring to monitor oxidative stress, usually in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
February 2014: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Karolina Przybylowska, Jacek Kabzinski, Andrzej Sygut, Lukasz Dziki, Adam Dziki, Ireneusz Majsterek
Oxidative damage has been implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The base excision repair (BER) pathway is the major DNA repair pathway for oxidative DNA damage and genetic variation associated with impaired BER might thus increase a risk of CRC. In this work, we evaluated associations between the repair efficiency of oxidative DNA lesions and single-nucleotide polymorphisms of BER genes: the 194Trp/Arg and the 399Arg/Gln XRCC1, the 326Ser/Cys OGG1 and the 324Gln/His MUTYH and CRC occurrence in a Polish population...
May 2013: Mutation Research
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