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nth dna glycosylase

Omar R Alshykhly, Aaron M Fleming, Cynthia J Burrows
Guanine (G) is a target for oxidation by reactive oxygen species in DNA, RNA, and the nucleotide pool. Damage to DNA yields products with alternative properties toward DNA processing enzymes compared to those of the parent nucleotide. A new lesion, 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantoin (2Ih), bearing a stereocenter in the base was recently identified from the oxidation of G. DNA polymerase and base excision repair processing of this new lesion has now been evaluated. Single nucleotide insertion opposite (S)-2Ih and (R)-2Ih in the template strand catalyzed by the DNA polymerases Klenow fragment exo(-), DPO4, and Hemo KlenTaq demonstrates these lesions to cause point mutations...
September 21, 2015: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Farzanah Hassim, Andrea O Papadopoulos, Bavesh D Kana, Bhavna G Gordhan
Hydroxyl radical (OH) among reactive oxygen species cause damage to nucleobases with thymine being the most susceptible, whilst in contrast, the singlet oxygen ((1)02) targets only guanine bases. The high GC content of mycobacterial genomes predisposes these organisms to oxidative damage of guanine. The exposure of cellular DNA to OH and one-electron oxidants results in the formation of two main degradation products, the pro-mutagenic 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua) and the cytotoxic 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyGua)...
September 2015: Mutation Research
Ibtissam Talhaoui, Vladimir Shafirovich, Zhi Liu, Christine Saint-Pierre, Zhiger Akishev, Bakhyt T Matkarimov, Didier Gasparutto, Nicholas E Geacintov, Murat Saparbaev
Oxidatively generated guanine radical cations in DNA can undergo various nucleophilic reactions including the formation of C8-guanine cross-links with adjacent or nearby N3-thymines in DNA in the presence of O2. The G*[C8-N3]T* lesions have been identified in the DNA of human cells exposed to oxidative stress, and are most likely genotoxic if not removed by cellular defense mechanisms. It has been shown that the G*[C8-N3]T* lesions are substrates of nucleotide excision repair in human cell extracts. Cleavage at the sites of the lesions was also observed but not further investigated (Ding et al...
June 5, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nikita A Kuznetsov, Olga A Kladova, Alexandra A Kuznetsova, Alexander A Ishchenko, Murat K Saparbaev, Dmitry O Zharkov, Olga S Fedorova
Escherichia coli endonuclease III (Endo III or Nth) is a DNA glycosylase with a broad substrate specificity for oxidized or reduced pyrimidine bases. Endo III possesses two types of activities: N-glycosylase (hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond) and AP lyase (elimination of the 3'-phosphate of the AP-site). We report a pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of structural rearrangements of the DNA substrates and uncleavable ligands during their interaction with Endo III. Oligonucleotide duplexes containing 5,6-dihydrouracil, a natural abasic site, its tetrahydrofuran analog, and undamaged duplexes carried fluorescent DNA base analogs 2-aminopurine and 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine as environment-sensitive reporter groups...
June 5, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yuichi Kato, Takahito Moriwaki, Masafumi Funakoshi, Qiu-Mei Zhang-Akiyama
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are the major DNA damage generated continuously even under normal conditions, and inhibit DNA replication/transcription. AP endonucleases are ubiquitous enzymes required for the repair of AP sites and 3' blocking ends, but their physiological roles in multicellular organisms are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated how an AP endonuclease functions in a multicellular organism (Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans)). EXO-3 is one of the AP endonucleases in C. elegans...
February 2015: Mutation Research
Shane R Nelson, Andrew R Dunn, Scott D Kathe, David M Warshaw, Susan S Wallace
DNA glycosylases are enzymes that perform the initial steps of base excision repair, the principal repair mechanism that identifies and removes endogenous damages that occur in an organism's DNA. We characterized the motion of single molecules of three bacterial glycosylases that recognize oxidized bases, Fpg, Nei, and Nth, as they scan for damages on tightropes of λ DNA. We find that all three enzymes use a key "wedge residue" to scan for damage because mutation of this residue to an alanine results in faster diffusion...
May 20, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ryohei Yamamoto, Yukari Ohshiro, Tatsuhiko Shimotani, Mizuki Yamamoto, Satoshi Matsuyama, Hiroshi Ide, Kihei Kubo
Oxidative base damage occurs spontaneously due to reactive oxygen species generated as byproducts of respiration and other pathological processes in mammalian cells. Many oxidized bases are mutagenic and/or toxic, and most are repaired through the base excision repair pathway. Human endonuclease VIII-like protein 1 (hNEIL1) is thought to play an important role during the S phase of the cell cycle by removing oxidized bases in DNA replication fork-like (bubble) structures, and the protein level of hNEIL1 is increased in S phase...
July 2014: Journal of Radiation Research
S De Summa, R Pinto, B Pilato, D Sambiasi, L Porcelli, G Guida, E Mattioli, A Paradiso, G Merla, L Micale, P De Nittis, S Tommasi
Understanding of BRCA1/2 interaction with the base excision repair (BER) pathway could improve therapy based on 'synthetic lethality', whose effectiveness is based on homologous recombination deficiency in cells lacking functional BRCA genes. However, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors failed in some patients and for this reason we explored BER key enzyme expression. In this study, the expression of BER enzymes (redox factor 1/apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (REF1/APEX1), NTH endonuclease III-like 1 (NTHL1), 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), PARP1) and of the scaffold protein XRCC1 (X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 1) were investigated in familial (BRCA-related and not) and sporadic breast cancer cases...
2014: Cell Death & Disease
Kouass Sahbani Saloua, Girouard Sonia, Cloutier Pierre, Sanche Léon, Hunting J Darel
The majority of studies on lethal radiobiological damage have focused on double-strand breaks (DSBs), a type of clustered DNA damage and the evaluation of their toxicity, while other types of clustered DNA damage have received much less attention. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the contribution of different lesions induced by ionizing radiation to the loss of plasmid DNA functionality. We employed a simple model system comprising E. coli transformed with an irradiated plasmid [pGEM-3Zf (-)] to determine the effect of DSBs and other lesions including base damage and clustered lesions on the functionality ("viability") of the plasmid...
January 2014: Radiation Research
Nivedita Chatterjee, Hyun Jeong Eom, Jinhee Choi
The large-scale use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has raised concerns over potential impacts on the environment and human health. We previously reported that AgNP exposure causes an increase in reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, and induction of p38 MAPK and PMK-1 in Jurkat T cells and in Caenorhabditis elegans. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of AgNP toxicity, here we evaluate the effects of AgNPs on oxidative DNA damage-repair (in human and C. elegans DNA glycosylases hOGG1, hNTH1, NTH-1, and 8-oxo-GTPases-hMTH1, NDX-4) and explore the role of p38 MAPK and PMK-1 in this process...
March 2014: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Nabiela Moolla, Vivianne J Goosens, Bavesh D Kana, Bhavna G Gordhan
The increased prevalence of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) indicates that significant mutagenesis occurs during tuberculosis disease in humans. DNA damage by host-derived reactive oxygen/nitrogen species is hypothesized to be critical for the mutagenic process in Mtb thus, highlighting an important role for DNA repair enzymes in maintenance of genome fidelity. Formamidopyrimidine (Fpg/MutM/Fapy) and EndonucleaseVIII (Nei) constitute the Fpg/Nei family of DNA glycosylases and together with EndonucleaseIII (Nth) are central to the base excision repair pathway in bacteria...
January 2014: DNA Repair
Aishwarya Prakash, Brian E Eckenroth, April M Averill, Kayo Imamura, Susan S Wallace, Sylvie Doublié
Assault to DNA that leads to oxidative base damage is repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway with specialized enzymes called DNA glycosylases catalyzing the first step of this pathway. These glycosylases can be categorized into two families: the HhH superfamily, which includes endonuclease III (or Nth), and the Fpg/Nei family, which comprises formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (or Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (or Nei). In humans there are three Nei-like (NEIL) glycosylases: NEIL1, 2, and 3. Here we present the first crystal structure of a viral ortholog of the human NEIL2/NEIL3 proteins, Mimivirus Nei2 (MvNei2), determined at 2...
December 2013: DNA Repair
Andrew R Collins
BACKGROUND: Single cell gel electrophoresis, or the comet assay, was devised as a sensitive method for detecting DNA strand breaks, at the level of individual cells. A simple modification, incorporating a digestion of DNA with a lesion-specific endonuclease, makes it possible to measure oxidised bases. SCOPE OF REVIEW: With the inclusion of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase to recognise oxidised purines, or Nth (endonuclease III) to detect oxidised pyrimidines, the comet assay has been used extensively in human biomonitoring to monitor oxidative stress, usually in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
February 2014: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Karolina Przybylowska, Jacek Kabzinski, Andrzej Sygut, Lukasz Dziki, Adam Dziki, Ireneusz Majsterek
Oxidative damage has been implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The base excision repair (BER) pathway is the major DNA repair pathway for oxidative DNA damage and genetic variation associated with impaired BER might thus increase a risk of CRC. In this work, we evaluated associations between the repair efficiency of oxidative DNA lesions and single-nucleotide polymorphisms of BER genes: the 194Trp/Arg and the 399Arg/Gln XRCC1, the 326Ser/Cys OGG1 and the 324Gln/His MUTYH and CRC occurrence in a Polish population...
May 2013: Mutation Research
Katarzyna D Arczewska, Gisele G Tomazella, Jessica M Lindvall, Henok Kassahun, Silvia Maglioni, Alessandro Torgovnick, Johan Henriksson, Olli Matilainen, Bryce J Marquis, Bryant C Nelson, Pawel Jaruga, Eshrat Babaie, Carina I Holmberg, Thomas R Bürglin, Natascia Ventura, Bernd Thiede, Hilde Nilsen
Transcription-blocking oxidative DNA damage is believed to contribute to aging and to underlie activation of oxidative stress responses and down-regulation of insulin-like signaling (ILS) in Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) deficient mice. Here, we present the first quantitative proteomic description of the Caenorhabditis elegans NER-defective xpa-1 mutant and compare the proteome and transcriptome signatures. Both methods indicated activation of oxidative stress responses, which was substantiated biochemically by a bioenergetic shift involving increased steady-state reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels...
May 1, 2013: Nucleic Acids Research
Senyene E Hunter, Margaret A Gustafson, Kathleen M Margillo, Sean A Lee, Ian T Ryde, Joel N Meyer
Base excision repair (BER) is an evolutionarily conserved DNA repair pathway that is critical for repair of many of the most common types of DNA damage generated both by endogenous metabolic pathways and exposure to exogenous stressors such as pollutants. Caenorhabditis elegans is an increasingly important model organism for the study of DNA damage-related processes including DNA repair, genotoxicity, and apoptosis, but BER is not well understood in this organism, and has not previously been measured in vivo...
November 1, 2012: DNA Repair
Seiji Kato, Kazunari Hashiguchi, Kento Igarashi, Takahito Moriwaki, Shin-Ichiro Yonekura, Qiu-Mei Zhang-Akiyama
Oxidatively damaged bases in DNA can cause cell death, mutation and/or cancer induction. To overcome such deleterious effects of DNA base oxidation, cells are equipped with base excision repair (BER) initiated by DNA glycosylases. Endonuclease III (Nth), a major DNA glycosylase, mainly excises oxidatively damaged pyrimidines from DNA. The aims of this study were to obtain an overview of the repair mechanism of oxidatively damaged bases and to elucidate the function of BER in maintaining genome stability during embryogenesis and development...
2012: Genes & Genetic Systems
Aishwarya Prakash, Sylvie Doublié, Susan S Wallace
During the initial stages of the base excision DNA repair pathway, DNA glycosylases are responsible for locating and removing the majority of endogenous oxidative base lesions. The bifunctional formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease VIII (Nei) are members of the Fpg/Nei family, one of the two families of glycosylases that recognize oxidized DNA bases, the other being the HhH/GPD (or Nth) superfamily. Structural and biochemical developments over the past decades have led to novel insights into the mechanism of damage recognition by the Fpg/Nei family of enzymes...
2012: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Katsuhito Kino, Masashi Takao, Hiroshi Miyazawa, Fumio Hanaoka
The nucleobase derivative, 2,2,4-triamino-5(2H)-oxazolone (Oz), is an oxidation product of guanine or of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine that causes G-to-C transversions in DNA. Human NEIL1 (hNEIL1) and NTH1 (hNTH1) are homologues of two prokaryotic base excision repair enzymes, FPG/NEI and NTH, respectively. Here, we demonstrated that hNEIL1 and hNTH1 cleave Oz sites as efficiently as 5-hydroxyuracil sites. Thus, hNEIL1 and hNTH1 can repair Oz lesions. Furthermore, the nicking activities of these enzymes are largely independent of nucleobases opposite Oz; this finding indicates that removing Oz from Oz:G and Oz:A base pairs might cause an increase in the rate of point mutations in human cells...
June 1, 2012: Mutation Research
Krzysztofa Nagorska, Jan Silhan, Yanwen Li, Vladimir Pelicic, Paul S Freemont, Geoff S Baldwin, Christoph M Tang
Although oxidative stress is a key aspect of innate immunity, little is known about how host-restricted pathogens successfully repair DNA damage. Base excision repair is responsible for correcting nucleobases damaged by oxidative stress, and is essential for bloodstream infection caused by the human pathogen, Neisseria meningitidis. We have characterized meningococcal base excision repair enzymes involved in the recognition and removal of damaged nucleobases, and incision of the DNA backbone. We demonstrate that the bi-functional glycosylase/lyases Nth and MutM share several overlapping activities and functional redundancy...
March 2012: Molecular Microbiology
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