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Social activism

Emma S Spiro, Andrés Monroy-Hernández
In this paper we examine two protests characterized by substantial social media presence and distributed participation frameworks via two core questions: what roles did organizations and individuals play, and how did participants' social interactions change over the course of the protests? To answer these questions, we analyzed a large Twitter activity dataset for the #YoSoy132 student uprising in Mexico and Brazil's "bus rebellion." Results indicate that individuals initially took prominence at the protests but faded in importance as the movements dwindled and organizations took over...
2016: PloS One
Brian E Lacy, Michael D Crowell, Carole Mathis, David Bauer, Leslie J Heinberg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gastroparesis (GP) patients suffer from recurrent symptoms of nausea, vomiting, early satiety, and abdominal pain. The impact of GP on quality of life (QoL), health care utilization and daily activities is not well understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Part 1: 398 adult patients (≥18 y) with documented GP (symptoms >6 mo) were surveyed to assess QoL and pain using the Short Form 36 and McGill pain questionnaires. Part 2: 491 adult GP patients were surveyed to evaluate employment status, work and daily activities, medication use, physician visits, diagnostic testing, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations related to their GP symptoms...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Lisa Groshong, Sonja A Wilhelm Stanis, Andrew T Kaczynski, J Aaron Hipp, Gina M Besenvi
BACKGROUND: Public parks hold promise for promoting population-level PA, but studies show a significant portion of park use is sedentary. Past research has documented the effectiveness of message-based strategies for influencing diverse behaviors in park settings and for increasing PA in non-park contexts. Therefore, to inform message-based interventions (e.g., point-of-decision prompts) to increase park-based PA, the purpose of this study was to elicit insights about key attitudes, perceived norms, and personal agency that affect park use and park-based PA in low-income urban neighborhoods...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
K Nicole Jones, Melanie E Brewster
In recent history, heterosexual allies have played an integral role in promoting change for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations in the United States; however, questions have been raised as to what drives heterosexual allies to promote change via activism. To delineate factors important in engagement in activism, 207 self-identified heterosexual allies completed an online survey measuring components associated with LGBT activism using Bandura's (1986) model of triadic reciprocal determinism: personal factors (ally identity, social justice self-efficacy and outcome expectations, empathetic perspective taking, and gender) and environmental factors (social justice related supports and barriers, positive marginality, and education level) to predict behaviors (LGBT activism)...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
T Jean M Arseneau-Robar, Eliane Müller, Anouk L Taucher, Carel P van Schaik, Erik P Willems
Males in a number of group-living species fight in intergroup conflicts to defend access to food resources, a seemingly paradoxical behaviour, given that this resource does not usually limit male fitness directly. We investigated the mechanism(s) driving apparent male food defence in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops pygerythrus) by testing the effect that female resource access, and female audience size and activity had on the response of focal males during simulated intergroup encounters. Males do not appear to defend food to increase the reproductive success of female group members because their response was not influenced by the presence of provisioning boxes that only females could access...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Enrico Ubaldi, Nicola Perra, Márton Karsai, Alessandro Vezzani, Raffaella Burioni, Alessandro Vespignani
The dynamic of social networks is driven by the interplay between diverse mechanisms that still challenge our theoretical and modelling efforts. Amongst them, two are known to play a central role in shaping the networks evolution, namely the heterogeneous propensity of individuals to i) be socially active and ii) establish a new social relationships with their alters. Here, we empirically characterise these two mechanisms in seven real networks describing temporal human interactions in three different settings: scientific collaborations, Twitter mentions, and mobile phone calls...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Y S Choi, E J Lee
: WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Panic disorder patients display various panic-related physical symptoms and catastrophic misinterpretation of bodily sensations, which lower their quality of life by interfering with daily activities. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a useful strategy for panic disorder patients to manage symptoms associated with inaccurate cognitive interpretation of situations resulting from the patient's cognitive vulnerability. In South Korea, however, despite the increasing prevalence of panic disorder, CBT is not a common element of nursing care plans for panic disorder patients...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Jeffrey L Crabtree, David Ohm, Jarrod M Wall, Joseph Ray
This pilot study explored the strengths and weaknesses of an informal education program and identified elements of the program valued by participants. Participants were men living in a minimum security prison who had been incarcerated for ten or more years. The outside researcher was joined by three former program participants as co-researchers. Together, they interviewed 27 residents who completed the informal education program. Interviews were transcribed and de-identified. Researchers used the summative content analysis approach to analyze the data...
October 24, 2016: Occupational Therapy International
Donald Glowinski, Fabrizio Bracco, Carlo Chiorri, Didier Grandjean
The present contribution provides readers from diverse fields of psychology with a new and comprehensive model for the understanding of the characteristics of music ensembles. The model is based on a novel heuristic approach whose key construct is resilience, intended here as the ability of a system to adapt to external perturbations and anticipate future events. The paper clarifies the specificity of music ensemble as an original social and creative activity, and how some mechanisms, at an individual (cognitive) and group (coordination) level, are enacted in a particular way that endows these groups with exceptional capacity for resilience...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Preeti Raghavan, Daniel Geller, Nina Guerrero, Viswanath Aluru, Joseph P Eimicke, Jeanne A Teresi, Gbenga Ogedegbe, Anna Palumbo, Alan Turry
: Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. It leads to a sudden and overwhelming disruption in one's physical body, and alters the stroke survivors' sense of self. Long-term recovery requires that bodily perception, social participation and sense of self are restored; this is challenging to achieve, particularly with a single intervention. However, rhythmic synchronization of movement to external stimuli facilitates sensorimotor coupling for movement recovery, enhances emotional engagement and has positive effects on interpersonal relationships...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Luisa N Borrell, Lisa Graham, Sharon P Joseph
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of neighborhood safety and support with overweight and obesity and whether these associations vary with age, sex, and race/ethnicity among children and adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: United States. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Childhood overweight and obesity. METHODS: We used data from the 2011-12 National Survey of Children's Health, a representative sample of US children and adolescents, for the analyses (N=40,730)...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
Mana Doi-Kanno, Hiroki Fukahori
AIM: This study identified the factors associated with depression in patients diagnosed with myocardial infarction (MI) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: We searched the literature using PubMed and CINAHL from their inception in 1946 to December 2014. The search terms were "myocardial infarction," "depression," and "percutaneous coronary intervention." Studies which investigated factors associated with depression in patients diagnosed with MI who underwent typical medical procedures were searched...
2016: Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences
J Aaron Hipp, Alyssa Bird, Margaret van Bakergem, Elizabeth Yarnall
Popularity of Open Streets, temporarily opening streets to communities and closing streets to vehicles, in the US has recently surged. As of January 2016, 122 cities have hosted an Open Streets program. Even with this great expansion, the sustainability of Open Streets remains a challenge in many cities and overall Open Streets in the US differ from their successful counterparts in Central and South America. Between summer 2015 and winter 2016, we reviewed the websites and social media of the 122 identified programs and interviewed 32 unique Open Streets programs...
October 20, 2016: Preventive Medicine
S MacBride-Stewart, Y Gong, J Antell
OBJECTIVES: Public health has recognized that nature is good for health but there are calls for a review of its gendered aspects. This review attempts to develop and explore a broad analytical theme - the differing interconnections between gender, health and nature. The paper summarizes the interconnections that have been subject to extensive academic enquiry between gender and health, health and space, and gender and space. METHODS: A combination of key terms including place; gender; health; outdoor space; green space; natural environment; national parks; femininity; masculinity; recreation; physical activity; sustainability; ecofeminism; feminism; environmental degradation; and environmental justice were used to search the electronic databases Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science and Scopus to identify relevant articles...
October 20, 2016: Public Health
Petter Sandstedt, Sverker Johansson, Charlotte Ytterberg, Caroline Ingre, Lotta Widén Holmqvist, Marie Kierkegaard
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of factors influencing health-related quality of life (HRQL) in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is important because some factors might be amenable to intervention. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe and explore the effects of disease severity, fatigue, anxiety, depression, frequency of social and lifestyle activities, coping capacity and mechanical ventilator use on HRQL in people with ALS. METHODS: Sixty people with ALS were enrolled in this cross-sectional study...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Bruce J Ellis, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Esther Nederhof
The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is a theory of developmental programing focusing on calibration of stress response systems and associated life history strategies to local environmental conditions. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a longitudinal study of Dutch adolescent males (11-16 years old; N = 351). Measures of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and adrenocortical activation, reactivity to, and recovery from social-evaluative stress validated the four-pattern taxonomy of the ACM via latent profile analysis, though with some deviations from expected patterns...
October 24, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Pedro Guilherme Lemes, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão, Simon A Lawson
The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) was the first non-governmental organization composed of multi-stakeholders to ensure the social, environmental, and economic sustainability of forest resources. FSC prohibits certain chemicals and active ingredients in certified forest plantations. A company seeking certification must discontinue use of products so listed and many face problems to comply with these constraints. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of certification on pest management from the perspective of Brazilian private forestry sector...
October 22, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Racquel E Kohler, Jared Tomlinson, Tiyamike Eletima Chilunjika, Sven Young, Mina Hosseinipour, Clara N Lee
PURPOSE: Low- and middle-income countries face a disproportionate burden of death and disability from injuries, many of which are due to road traffic accidents or falls. Lower extremity injuries in particular have implications not only for physical disabilities affecting work and school performance, but also for quality of life (QOL) of the individual. This qualitative study explores the psychosocial impact and QOL changes due to lower extremity injuries among trauma patients in central Malawi...
October 22, 2016: Quality of Life Research
Thai H Ho, Rafael Nunez-Nateras, Yue-Xian Hou, Alan H Bryce, Donald W Northfelt, Amylou C Dueck, Bryan Wong, Melissa L Stanton, Richard W Joseph, Erik P Castle
BACKGROUND: Prostate tissue expresses 2 estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms, ER-α and ER-β, and estrogen-based therapies have shown activity in preclinical studies. Raloxifene, a selective ER modulator, has inhibited the growth of prostate cancer xenograft models and was tested in a phase II trial of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), with some patients achieving stable disease. However, no studies have examined the safety of the combination of bicalutamide plus raloxifene for CRPC...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Alexandre Pedro Tavares da Fonseca Magalhães, Maria de Fátima Rodrigues Pereira de Pina, Elisabete da Conceição Pereira Ramos
PURPOSE: Adolescence may be a period particularly relevant for acquisition of lifelong habits of physical activity (PA). We investigated the tracking of leisure-time PA from 13 to 17 years old and the influence of urban environment and other determinants. METHODS: As part of the EPITeen cohort (Portugal), we evaluated 969 adolescents living in the city of Porto. Participants were assembled in public and private schools at 13 years and reevaluated at 17 years. Leisure-time PA was evaluated by self-reported questionnaires...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
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