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Elia Psouni, Raquel Perez Vicente, Lars B Dahlin, Juan Merlo
Chronic handicap in early life may have a long-term impact on children's psychosocial well-being. Here, we investigated whether Brachialis Plexus Birth Injury (BPBI)-an unpredictable injury at birth-is associated with worse mental health later on, as indicated by prescription and use of psychotropic drugs in adolescence. We explored further whether this association is different depending on socioeconomic characteristics of the child's family, as well as sex. Of the 641 151 children born to native parents in Sweden 1987-1993 (alive and still living in Sweden at the end of 2008), identified in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, 1587 had suffered a BPBI...
2018: PloS One
Marta Concheiro, Marilyn A Huestis
Drug use during pregnancy constitutes a major preventable worldwide public health issue. Birth defects, growth retardation and neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with tobacco, alcohol or drugs of abuse exposure during pregnancy. Besides these adverse health effects, drug use during pregnancy also raises legal and social concerns. Identification and quantification of drug markers in maternal and newborn biological samples offers objective evidence of exposure and complements maternal questionnaires...
March 21, 2018: Bioanalysis
Loïck Locatelli, Alain Golay
Psychotropic drugs can induce weight gain and a metabolic syndrome, reducing the quality of life and the life expectancy of patients. Weight gain is also responsible for poor adherence to treatment and therefore relapses of mental illness. This weight gain and the metabolic syndrome are insufficiently treated for obese patients with mental disorders. Recommendations exist.
March 21, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Wanchao Yin, X Edward Zhou, Dehua Yang, Parker W de Waal, Meitian Wang, Antao Dai, Xiaoqing Cai, Chia-Ying Huang, Ping Liu, Xiaoxi Wang, Yanting Yin, Bo Liu, Yu Zhou, Jiang Wang, Hong Liu, Martin Caffrey, Karsten Melcher, Yechun Xu, Ming-Wei Wang, H Eric Xu, Yi Jiang
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, also known as serotonin) regulates many physiological processes through the 5-HT receptor family. Here we report the crystal structure of 5-HT1B subtype receptor (5-HT1B R) bound to the psychotropic serotonin receptor inverse agonist methiothepin (MT). Crystallization was facilitated by replacing ICL3 with a novel optimized variant of BRIL (OB1) that enhances the formation of intermolecular polar interactions, making OB1 a potential useful tool for structural studies of membrane proteins...
2018: Cell Discovery
Karine Danno, Gérard Duru, Jean Marie Vetel
BACKGROUND:  The increasing use of psychotropic drugs to treat anxiety and depressive disorders (ADDs) is concerning. According to the study, 'Etude Pharmacoépidémiologique de l'Impact de Santé Publique des modes de prise en charge pour 3 groupes de pathologies' (EPI3)-LASER, adult ADD patients who consult a general practitioner prescribing homeopathic medicines (GP-Ho) report less psychotropic drug use and are marginally more likely to experience clinical improvement than those receiving conventional care...
March 20, 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
Gordana Nikolić, Nikola M Stojanović, Pavle J Randjelović, Snežana Manojlović, Niko S Radulović
Utilization of herbal products (HPs) is a common practice in the traditional medicine of people from southeastern Serbia. In this study, we focused on the usage of HPs as a self-medication practice among patients diagnosed with a mental illness, by aiming to ascertain the usage prevalence, the identity of the main plant taxa utilized, their formulations and target symptoms. This was accomplished through a cross-sectional study of psychiatric outpatients, conducted in the Clinic for Mental Health Protection in Niš, and which included a questionnaire on HP utilization and a non-structured psychiatric interview...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Ewa Bromek, Marta Rysz, Anna Haduch, Jacek Wojcikowski, Władysława Anna Daniel
Our recent work suggested a negative effect for the serotonergic innervation of the paraventricular nuclei (PVN) of the hypothalamus on growth hormone secretion and growth hormone-dependent expression of cytochrome P450 2C11 (CYP2C11). The aim of our present research was to determine the effect of the activation of the 5-HT1 or 5-HT2 receptors in the PVN on the expression and activity of cytochrome P450 in male rat liver. The serotonergic agonists 5-CT (5-carboxyamidotryptamine, a 5-HT1 receptor-type agonist), 8-OH-DPAT (8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propyloamino)-tetralin, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist), sumatriptan (a 5-HT1B/D receptor agonist) and DOI (2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine, a 5-HT2A/C receptor agonist) were individually injected into the PVN...
March 19, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Jooyeon Lee, Joe Hong, Norma Dunn, Richard Gersh, Ronnie Swift
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Yi-Feng Carol Lan, Diane C Zelman, Wen-Tao Chao
Bipolar disorder (BD) affects a significant proportion of Taiwanese individuals (Weissman et al., 1996; Yang, Yeh, & Hwu, 2012). Psychotropic medications are typically the mainstay of treatment for BD, and there is an abundance of international research on biological etiology and medication options. However, there is comparatively little research on psychosocial aspects of BD, including how it is understood and managed within families. As culture provides the context in which psychiatric disease is managed, there is a need to identify distinct Chinese psychosocial perspectives that might shed light on intervention options...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Donovan T Maust, H Myra Kim, Claire Chiang, Helen C Kales
Importance: The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' National Partnership to Improve Dementia Care in Nursing Homes (hereafter referred to as the partnership) was established to improve the quality of care for patients with dementia, measured by the rate of antipsychotic prescribing. Objective: To determine the association of the partnership with trends in prescribing of antipsychotic and other psychotropic medication among older adults in long-term care...
March 17, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Armando Silva Almodovar, Swatee Surve, David Rhys Axon, David Cooper, Milap C Nahata
BACKGROUND: Inadequacies in mental health care coverage remain an enormous problem in the United States. Barriers include scarcity of accessible mental health care professionals. Use of a mental health mobile app incorporating social cognitive theory may help improve confidence in coping skills and improve anxiety and depression. Sinasprite is a mobile app that recruited users via self-referral and clinician referral. Users completed questionnaires to obtain demographic and medical histories...
March 16, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Arash Nayeri, Eric Rafla-Yuan, Srikanth Krishnan, Boback Ziaeian, Martin Cadeiras, John A McPherson, Quinn S Wells
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC), also known as stress-induced cardiomyopathy, has been increasingly described in relation to psychiatric illness. METHODS: We performed a literature review to identify the key findings related to psychiatric illness in TC that may be relevant to the practice of mental health and other health care providers. RESULTS: The association of psychiatric illness with TC in addition to the spectrum of psychiatric illness found in TC, the role of exacerbation or treatment of psychiatric illness in triggering TC, different modes of presentation, prognostic implications, and long-term management of psychiatric illness in TC are discussed...
February 2, 2018: Psychosomatics
Benjamin Wu, Eric J Bruns, Ming-Hui Tai, Bethany R Lee, Ramesh Raghavan, Susan dosReis
OBJECTIVE: The study examined differences in psychotropic polypharmacy among youths with serious emotional and behavioral disorders who received coordinated care services (CCS) that used a wraparound model and a matched sample of youths who received traditional services. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design compared psychotropic polypharmacy one year before and one year after discharge from CCS. The cohort was youths with serious emotional and behavioral disorders who were enrolled in CCS from December 2009 through May 2014...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Natalie Colaneri, Mark Sheldon, Andrew Adesman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the pervasiveness of psychotropic medication in the youth population and an increasingly competitive culture regarding educational performance, children, teenagers, and/or their parents may increasingly seek psychotropic substances in an effort to enhance a student's cognitive abilities and/or academic performance. Physicians must become aware of this very important and clinically relevant issue and work to ensure that medications remain in the hands of patients seeking wellness and not enhancement...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Sharon Ashong, Irene A Kretchy, Barima Afrane, Ama de-Graft Aikins
Background: Patients with schizophrenia are managed with antipsychotics and other psychotropic medications. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the commonly prescribed psychotropic medications for patients with schizophrenia, explore the types of therapeutic monitoring that were performed, and find out whether the side effects experienced by the patients played any role in their adherence behaviour. Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study enrolled 259 patients with schizophrenia from Accra Psychiatric Hospital and Pantang Psychiatric Hospital...
2018: Psychiatry Journal
Rikinkumar S Patel, Priya Patel, Kaushal Shah, Mandeep Kaur, Zeeshan Mansuri, Ramkrishna Makani
Objective To determine the impact of cannabis use disorder (CUD) on the inpatient outcomes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents Background Previous studies have evaluated the impact of CUD on the health-related quality of life in ADHD patients. Methods We used the nationwide inpatient sample (NIS) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) from years 2010--2014. We identified ADHD and cannabis use (CU) as the primary and the other diagnosis, respectively, using validated International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, and Clinical Modification (ICD-9--CM) codes...
January 7, 2018: Curēus
Isabelle Dibu Mulango, Julius Atashili, Bradley N Gaynes, Tsi Njim
BACKGROUND: Mental health and mental illness are often overlooked in the management of patients in our health services. Depression is a common mental disorder worldwide. Recognising and managing mental illnesses such as depression by primary health care providers (PHCPs) is crucial. This study describes the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of PHCPs regarding depression in Fako Division. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among PHCPs (general practitioners, nurses, pharmacy attendants and social workers) in public-owned health facilities in the four health districts in Fako Division...
March 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Loretta Theresa Ford, Jonathan David Berg
Novel psychotropic substances (NPS) also known as legal highs are a major concern in UK prisons, fuelling violence and putting a strain on resources for inmates requiring medical treatment for adverse effects. We provide a clinical toxicology service including routine screening for NPS. In 2015 we were approached by Her Majesty Prison Service (HMPS) search dog training team to advise on which NPS to target, and again in 2016 to further provide analytical support to test five letters which the dogs positively identified for NPS during routine searches of prison mail rooms...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Małgorzata Mizielińska, Urszula Kowalska, Michał Jarosz, Patrycja Sumińska
Portions of fresh Baltic cod fillets were packed into cellulose boxes (control samples), which were covered with Methyl Hydroxypropyl Celluloses (MHPC) coating with 2% polylysine. The cellulose boxes had square PE films and were enclosed in MHPC coating containing ZnO nanoparticles. The cod fillets were stored at 5 °C and examined after 72 h and 144 h storage times. Results obtained in this study showed that the textural parameters of the cod fillets increased, with both Springiness and Cohesiveness found greater after 144 h of storage for all analysed packaging materials...
March 12, 2018: Nanomaterials
Takashi Azuma, Kana Otomo, Mari Kunitou, Mai Shimizu, Kaori Hosomaru, Shiori Mikata, Yoshiki Mino, Tetsuya Hayashi
The fate of pharmaceuticals after discharged from hospital into wastewater was clarified experimentally by using a new lab-scale conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment reactor. The 43 target compounds belong to nine therapeutic classes (antivirals, antibacterials, anticancer drugs, psychotropics, antihypertensives, analgesic-antipyretics, contrast media, herbal medicines, and phytoestrogens) were selected with inclusion of 16 newly estimated compounds. The efficiency of the present reactor was estimated by comparing the reaction rate constant of the solid-water partition coefficients (log Kd ) between liquid and solid samples and half-life during 48-h experiment obtained by using hospital effluents with those obtained by using STP wastewater...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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