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Tara Nietzold, Bradley M West, Michael Stuckelberger, Barry Lai, Stefan Vogt, Mariana I Bertoni
The quantification of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy maps by fitting the raw spectra to a known standard is crucial for evaluating chemical composition and elemental distribution within a material. Synchrotron-based XRF has become an integral characterization technique for a variety of research topics, particularly due to its non-destructive nature and its high sensitivity. Today, synchrotrons can acquire fluorescence data at spatial resolutions well below a micron, allowing for the evaluation of compositional variations at the nanoscale...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chiara Assunta Pilato, Ilaria Stadiotti, Angela Serena Maione, Valentina Saverio, Valentina Catto, Fabrizio Tundo, Antonio Dello Russo, Claudio Tondo, Giulio Pompilio, Michela Casella, Elena Sommariva
A normal adult heart is composed of several different cell types, among which cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells represent an abundant population. The isolation of these cells offers the possibility of studying their involvement in cardiac diseases, and, in addition, provides a useful primary cell model to investigate biological mechanisms. Here, the method for the isolation of C-MSC from arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy patients' bioptic samples is described. The endomyocardial biopsy sampling is guided in the right ventricular areas adjacent to the scar visualized by electro-anatomical mapping...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Renee Wei-Yan Chow, Paola Lamperti, Emily Steed, Francesco Boselli, Julien Vermot
During embryogenesis, cells undergo dynamic changes in cell behavior, and deciphering the cellular logic behind these changes is a fundamental goal in the field of developmental biology. The discovery and development of photoconvertible proteins have greatly aided our understanding of these dynamic changes by providing a method to optically highlight cells and tissues. However, while photoconversion, time-lapse microscopy, and subsequent image analysis have proven to be very successful in uncovering cellular dynamics in organs such as the brain or the eye, this approach is generally not used in the developing heart due to challenges posed by the rapid movement of the heart during the cardiac cycle...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kensuke Ihara, Koji Sugiyama, Kentaro Takahashi, Masahiro Yamazoe, Tetsuo Sasano, Tetsushi Furukawa
Recent genome-wide association studies targeting atrial fibrillation (AF) have indicated a strong association between the genotype and electrophysiological phenotype in the atria. That encourages us to utilize a genetically-engineered mouse model to elucidate the mechanism of AF. However, it is difficult to evaluate the electrophysiological properties in murine atria due to their small size. This protocol describes the electrophysiological evaluation of atria using an optical mapping system with a high temporal and spatial resolution in Langendorff perfused murine hearts...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Alessandro Pepe, Loredana Addimando, Jamal Dagdouke, Shaher Yagi, Guido Veronese
BACKGROUND: Subjective wellbeing can be defined in terms of good mental state, including positive and negative evaluations that people make of their affect and lives. The aim of this study was to identify specific domains of wellbeing that are salient to Palestinian teachers living in three different contexts (West Bank, Gaza Strip, and Israel) and to map how components of subjective wellbeing vary between the three cohorts. METHODS: Data were gathered from interviews of teachers participating in 16 focus groups and from 36 key informants (including psychologists, counsellors, school principals, lawyers)...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Suzan Mitwalli, Yoke Rabaia, Hanna Kienzler
BACKGROUND: Since 2013, the community-based rehabilitation programme in the north of the West Bank has established nineteen support groups for mothers following a Multi-Family Approach (MFA), with technical support from the Institute of Community and Public Health (Birzeit University) and the War Trauma Foundation (Netherlands). The main aims of the programme are to improve the wellbeing of mothers who have children with a handicap, to build support networks between vulnerable families, and to counter problems associated with social isolation and stigma...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Imad M Najm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Lancet Neurology
Milena L Pachowsky, Arnd Kleyer, Lisa Wagner, Andreas Langenbach, David Simon, Rolf Janka, Matthias May, Goetz H Welsch
Objective A minimally invasive treatment of osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic thoracic and lumbar spine fractures is cement augmentation (kyphoplasty). Little is known about the impact on adjacent intervertebral discs. A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach in addition to morphological MRI is desirable to evaluate changes in the intervertebral disc. Our study aims to evaluate the feasibility of T2 mapping for the detection of subtle changes in the intervertebral discs in spines after kyphoplasty...
March 1, 2018: Cartilage
Aida Niñerola-Baizán, Judith Gallego, Albert Cot, Pablo Aguiar, Francisco Lomeña, Javier Pavía, Domenec Ros
The aim of this work was to obtain a set of parameters to be applied in [123I]FP-CIT SPECT reconstruction in order to minimize the error between standardized and true values of the Specific Uptake Ratio (SUR) in dopaminergic neurotransmission SPECT studies. To this end, Monte Carlo simulation was used to generate a database of 1,380 projection data-sets from 23 subjects, including normal cases and a variety of pathologies. Studies were reconstructed using Filtered Back Projection (FBP) with attenuation correction and Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) with correction for different degradations (attenuation, scatter and PSF)...
March 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Kai-Lun Liang, Ping Fang, Qiu-Qiu Shi, Jie Su, Bo Li, Su-Hong Chen, Gui-Yuan Lv
This study aimed to investigate the antihypertensive effect and possible mechanism of Dendrobium officinale flos on hypertensive rats induced by high glucose and high fat compound alcohol. The hypertensive models were successfully made by high-glucose and high-fat diet, with gradient drinking for 4 weeks, and then divided into model control group, valsartan (5.7 mg·kg⁻¹) positive control group and D. officinale flos groups (3,1 g·kg⁻¹). After 6 weeks of treatment, the blood pressure of rats was measured regularly...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Jianying Shen, Jian Zhou, Yong Lin, Zhen Liu, Ping Chen, Xianchun Wang
Plasma membrane (PM) and mitochondrial membrane (MM) proteins of rat hippocampal neurons were identified and comparatively characterized on the basis of a sequential digestion-centered combinative strategy for sample treatment. A total of 478 membrane proteins were identified, of which 240 had PM localization, 170 had MM localization, and 33 had both of the two subcellular localizations. Compared with the PM proteome, the MM proteome not only was smaller, more basic, and more hydrophobic, but also had a narrower protein molecular mass distribution range and a higher proportion of transmembrane proteins...
March 19, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Ellen Grober, Amy E Veroff, Richard B Lipton
Introduction: Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) performance identifies patients with preclinical disease at elevated risk for developing Alzheimer's dementia, predicting diagnosis better than other memory tests. Methods: Based on literature mapping FCSRT performance to clinical outcomes and biological markers, and on longitudinal preclinical data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, we developed the Stages of Objective Memory Impairment (SOMI) model...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Timm Oberwahrenbrock, Ghislaine L Traber, Sebastian Lukas, Iñigo Gabilondo, Rachel Nolan, Christopher Songster, Lisanne Balk, Axel Petzold, Friedemann Paul, Pablo Villoslada, Alexander U Brandt, Ari J Green, Sven Schippling
Objective: To evaluate the inter-rater reliability of semiautomated segmentation of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) macular volume scans. Methods: Macular OCT volume scans of left eyes from 17 subjects (8 patients with MS and 9 healthy controls) were automatically segmented by Heidelberg Eye Explorer (v1.9.3.0) beta-software (Spectralis Viewing Module v6.0.0.7), followed by manual correction by 5 experienced operators from 5 different academic centers...
May 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Amandine Bastide, Jonathan W Yewdell, Alexandre David
While isotopic labeling of amino acids remains the reference method in the field for quantifying translation rate, it does not provide any information on spatial localization of translation sites. The rationale behind developing the ribopuromycylation method (RPM) was primarily to map translation sites at the sub-cellular level while avoiding detection of newly synthesized proteins released from ribosomes. RPM visualizes actively translating ribosomes in cells via standard immunofluorescence microscopy in fixed and permeabilized cells using a puromycin-specific monoclonal antibody to detect puromycylated nascent chains trapped on ribosomes treated with a chain elongation inhibitor...
January 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
Luisa Flohr, Shaylene Beaudry, K Taneille Johnson, Nicholas West, Catherine M Burns, J Mark Ansermino, Guy A Dumont, David Wensley, Peter Skippen, Matthias Gorges
The pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) is a complex environment, in which a multidisciplinary team of clinicians (registered nurses, respiratory therapists, and physicians) continually observe and evaluate patient information. Data are provided by multiple, and often physically separated sources, cognitive workload is high, and team communication can be challenging. Our aim is to combine information from multiple monitoring and therapeutic devices in a mobile application, the VitalPAD , to improve the efficiency of clinical decision-making, communication, and thereby patient safety...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Jaidip Jagtap, Gayatri Sharma, Abdul K Parchur, Venkateswara Gogineni, Carmen Bergom, Sarah White, Michael J Flister, Amit Joshi
Vascular supply is a critical component of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, yet the endogenous genetic modifiers that impact vascular function in the TME are largely unknown. To identify the host TME modifiers of tumor vascular function, we combined a novel genetic mapping strategy [Consomic Xenograft Model] with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging and multiparametric analysis of pharmacokinetic modeling. To detect vascular flow, an intensified cooled camera based dynamic NIR imaging system with 785 nm laser diode based excitation was used to image the whole-body fluorescence emission of intravenously injected indocyanine green dye...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Laurin Ginner, Tilman Schmoll, Abhishek Kumar, Matthias Salas, Nastassia Pricoupenko, Lara M Wurster, Rainer A Leitgeb
We demonstrate a high-resolution line field en-face time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system using an off-axis holography configuration. Line field en-face OCT produces high speed en-face images at rates of up to 100 Hz. The high frame rate favors good phase stability across the lateral field-of-view which is indispensable for digital adaptive optics (DAO). Human retinal structures are acquired in-vivo with a broadband light source at 840 nm, and line rates of 10 kHz to 100 kHz. Structures of different retinal layers, such as photoreceptors, capillaries, and nerve fibers are visualized with high resolution of 2...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Bing Wu, Yi Yang, Shuai Zhou, Wei Wang, Zizhen Wang, Gang Hu, Jianghong He, Xinhuai Wu
Purpose: Diagnostic error is common among patients with vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS). The purpose of this article is to use three-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pcASL) to compare cerebral blood flow (CBF) patterns in patients in MCS with those in VS. Methods: Patients meeting MCS and VS criteria were identified. Two post-labeling delay (PLD) time pcASL on 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner system were performed with patients in the resting awake state...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Quanying Liu, Marco Ganzetti, Nicole Wenderoth, Dante Mantini
Resting state networks (RSNs) in the human brain were recently detected using high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG). This was done by using an advanced analysis workflow to estimate neural signals in the cortex and to assess functional connectivity (FC) between distant cortical regions. FC analyses were conducted either using temporal (tICA) or spatial independent component analysis (sICA). Notably, EEG-RSNs obtained with sICA were very similar to RSNs retrieved with sICA from functional magnetic resonance imaging data...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Xiao Chen, Chun-Jie Hu
Digital images are now widely used in modern clinic diagnosis. The diagnostic images with confidential information related to patients' privacy are stored and transmitted via public networks. Secured schemes to guarantee confidentiality of patients' privacy are becoming more and more vital. This paper proposes an adaptive medical image encryption algorithm based on improved chaotic mapping in order to overcome the defects of the existing chaotic image encryption algorithm. First, the algorithm used Logistic-sine chaos mapping to scramble the plain image...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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