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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406173/emergence-of-a-coherent-and-cohesive-swarm-based-on-mutual-anticipation
#1
Hisashi Murakami, Takayuki Niizato, Yukio-Pegio Gunji
Collective behavior emerging out of self-organization is one of the most striking properties of an animal group. Typically, it is hypothesized that each individual in an animal group tends to align its direction of motion with those of its neighbors. Most previous models for collective behavior assume an explicit alignment rule, by which an agent matches its velocity with that of neighbors in a certain neighborhood, to reproduce a collective order pattern by simple interactions. Recent empirical studies, however, suggest that there is no evidence for explicit matching of velocity, and that collective polarization arises from interactions other than those that follow the explicit alignment rule...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397392/higher-body-mass-index-is-associated-with-reduced-posterior-default-mode-connectivity-in-older-adults
#2
Frauke Beyer, Sharzhad Kharabian Masouleh, Julia M Huntenburg, Leonie Lampe, Tobias Luck, Steffi G Riedel-Heller, Markus Loeffler, Matthias L Schroeter, Michael Stumvoll, Arno Villringer, A Veronica Witte
Obesity is a complex neurobehavioral disorder that has been linked to changes in brain structure and function. However, the impact of obesity on functional connectivity and cognition in aging humans is largely unknown. Therefore, the association of body mass index (BMI), resting-state network connectivity, and cognitive performance in 712 healthy, well-characterized older adults of the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) cohort (60-80 years old, mean BMI 27.6 kg/m(2)  ± 4.2 SD, main sample: n = 521, replication sample: n = 191) was determined...
April 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387689/multisensory-control-of-a-straight-locomotor-trajectory
#3
Maxim Hanna, Joyce Fung, Anouk Lamontagne
Locomotor steering is contingent upon orienting oneself spatially in the environment. When the head is turned while walking, the optic flow projected onto the retina is a complex pattern comprising of a translational and a rotational component. We have created a unique paradigm to simulate different optic flows in a virtual environment. We hypothesized that non-visual (vestibular and somatosensory) cues are required for proper control of a straight trajectory while walking. This research study included 9 healthy young subjects walking in a large physical space (40×25m2) while the virtual environment is viewed in a helmet-mounted display...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371783/monocular-vision-and-imu-based-system-for-prosthesis-pose-estimation-during-total-hip-replacement-surgery
#4
Shaojie Su, Yixin Zhou, Zhihua Wang, Hong Chen
The average age of population increases worldwide, so does the number of total hip replacement surgeries. Total hip replacement, however, often involves a risk of dislocation and prosthetic impingement. To minimize the risk after surgery, we propose an instrumented hip prosthesis that estimates the relative pose between prostheses intraoperatively and ensures the placement of prostheses within a safe zone. We create a model of the hip prosthesis as a ball and socket joint, which has four degrees of freedom (DOFs), including 3-DOF rotation and 1-DOF translation...
March 30, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326406/histologic-evaluation-of-the-bone-ceramic-interface-of-an-alumina-ceramic-cup-arthroplasty-retrieved-after-25-years-in%C3%A2-vivo
#5
Fuminori Higuchi, Shigeo Fukunishi, Shoji Nishio, Tomokazu Fukui, Yuki Fujihara, Shohei Okahisa, Yu Takeda, Shinichi Yoshiya
A 47-year-old man underwent ceramic cup arthroplasty when he was 22 years old. Revision total hip arthroplasty was performed 25 years later because of limited range of motion without implant loosening. Histologic examination revealed that the femoral head and ceramic implant were well fixed through a thin fibrous membrane. The energy-dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that calcium and phosphorus were detected in the same peak pattern as cancellous bone in the bone-ceramic interface.
September 2016: Arthroplasty Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314869/-operative-treatment-of-terrible-triad-injury-of-the-elbow-open-reduction-and-internal-fixation
#6
R Babst, C Schraner, F J P Beeres
AIM OF SURGERY: Reconstruction of the most important ligamentous and osseus structures of the elbow after terrible triad injury via the radial head to the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCL) and if necessary beginning at the coronoid process. The aim is a stable concentrically guided elbow with early functional follow-up treatment. The approach depends on the intraoperatively tested stability. INDICATIONS: Osteoligamentous terrible triad injury pattern with or without subluxation position following reduction and temporary immobilization...
March 17, 2017: Operative Orthopädie und Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276914/biomechanics-of-judo-backward-breakfall-for-different-throwing-techniques-in-novice-judokas
#7
Sentaro Koshida, Takanori Ishii, Tadamitsu Matsuda, Toshihiko Hashimoto
It is generally accepted that proper learning of the breakfall technique during early judo training is essential for attenuating the risk of judo-related head injury. Therefore, it is critical to understand the kinematics and head injury risks of breakfall motion to design a more safe and effective judo teaching paradigm that results in reduction of injury risk. We aimed to investigate the biomechanics of judo backward breakfalls by comparing osoto-gari and ouchi-gari in novice judokas. Twelve male novice judokas (age: 21...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271408/moving-or-being-moved-that-makes-a-difference
#8
Hans Straka, Boris P Chagnaud
During head/body movements, gaze stability is ensured by transformation of motion-related sensory signals into respective motor commands. Passively induced motion in all vertebrates including amphibians evokes a robust vestibulo-ocular reflex, suggesting an equally important role of this motor reaction during actively induced motion. However, during self-induced movements including locomotion, motor efference copies offer a convenient additional substrate for counteracting retinal image displacements. During such locomotor activity in Xenopus laevis tadpoles, spinal central pattern generator-derived efference copies elicit spatio-temporally specific eye movements, which are functionally appropriate to offset swimming-related retinal image displacements...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263251/influence-of-cueing-and-an-attentional-strategy-on-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-disease-during-turning
#9
Joke Spildooren, Sarah Vercruysse, Elke Heremans, Brook Galna, Geert Verheyden, Griet Vervoort, Alice Nieuwboer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Individuals with Parkinson disease exhibit decreased axial head-pelvis rotation. Consequently, they turn more en bloc than healthy controls, which may contribute to freezing during turning. We wanted to understand the influence of auditory cueing and an attentional strategy on turning and how this related to freezing of gait (FOG). METHODS: Fifteen participants with Parkinson disease and FOG were asked to turn 180° during baseline condition, unilateral cueing, and an attentional strategy prompting to start the turn with head rotation first...
April 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261066/ring-attractor-dynamics-emerge-from-a-spiking-model-of-the-entire-protocerebral-bridge
#10
Kyobi S Kakaria, Benjamin L de Bivort
Animal navigation is accomplished by a combination of landmark-following and dead reckoning based on estimates of self motion. Both of these approaches require the encoding of heading information, which can be represented as an allocentric or egocentric azimuthal angle. Recently, Ca(2+) correlates of landmark position and heading direction, in egocentric coordinates, were observed in the ellipsoid body (EB), a ring-shaped processing unit in the fly central complex (CX; Seelig and Jayaraman, 2015). These correlates displayed key dynamics of so-called ring attractors, namely: (1) responsiveness to the position of external stimuli; (2) persistence in the absence of external stimuli; (3) locking onto a single external stimulus when presented with two competitors; (4) stochastically switching between competitors with low probability; and (5) sliding or jumping between positions when an external stimulus moves...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242315/individual-differences-and-time-varying-features-of-modular-brain-architecture
#11
Xuhong Liao, Miao Cao, Mingrui Xia, Yong He
Recent studies have suggested that human brain functional networks are topologically organized into functionally specialized but inter-connected modules to facilitate efficient information processing and highly flexible cognitive function. However, these studies have mainly focused on group-level network modularity analyses using "static" functional connectivity approaches. How these extraordinary modular brain structures vary across individuals and spontaneously reconfigure over time remain largely unknown...
February 24, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240275/simple-platform-for-chronic-imaging-of-hippocampal-activity-during-spontaneous-behaviour-in-an-awake-mouse
#12
Vincent Villette, Mathieu Levesque, Amine Miled, Benoit Gosselin, Lisa Topolnik
Chronic electrophysiological recordings of neuronal activity combined with two-photon Ca(2+) imaging give access to high resolution and cellular specificity. In addition, awake drug-free experimentation is required for investigating the physiological mechanisms that operate in the brain. Here, we developed a simple head fixation platform, which allows simultaneous chronic imaging and electrophysiological recordings to be obtained from the hippocampus of awake mice. We performed quantitative analyses of spontaneous animal behaviour, the associated network states and the cellular activities in the dorsal hippocampus as well as estimated the brain stability limits to image dendritic processes and individual axonal boutons...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223034/children-s-head-motion-during-fmri-tasks-is-heritable-and-stable-over-time
#13
Laura E Engelhardt, Mary Abbe Roe, Jenifer Juranek, Dana DeMaster, K Paige Harden, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Jessica A Church
Head motion during fMRI scans negatively impacts data quality, and as post-acquisition techniques for addressing motion become increasingly stringent, data retention decreases. Studies conducted with adult participants suggest that movement acts as a relatively stable, heritable phenotype that serves as a marker for other genetically influenced phenotypes. Whether these patterns extend downward to childhood has critical implications for the interpretation and generalizability of fMRI data acquired from children...
February 1, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216320/coordination-of-orofacial-motor-actions-into-exploratory-behavior-by-rat
#14
Anastasia Kurnikova, Jeffrey D Moore, Song-Mao Liao, Martin Deschênes, David Kleinfeld
The delineation of sensorimotor circuits that guide exploration begins with an understanding of the pattern of motor outputs [1]. These motor patterns provide a clue to the form of the underlying circuits [2-4] (but see [5]). We focus on the behaviors that rodents use to explore their peripersonal space through goal-directed positioning of their nose, head, and vibrissae. Rodents sniff in response to novel odors, reward expectation, and as part of social interactions [6-12]. Sniffing serves olfaction [13, 14], while whisking synchronized to sniffing serves vibrissa-based touch [6, 15, 16]...
March 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208466/motion-of-a-colloidal-particle-in-a-nonuniform-director-field-of-a-nematic-liquid-crystal
#15
Beom-Kyu Lee, Sung-Jo Kim, Bohdan Lev, Jong-Hyun Kim
We investigate the dynamics of a single spherical particle immersed in a nematic liquid crystal. A nonuniform director field is imposed on the substrate by a stripe alignment pattern with splay deformation. The particle of homeotropic anchoring at the surface is accompanied by hyperbolic hedgehog or Saturn-ring defects. The particle motion is dependent on the defect structure. We study the two types of motions theoretically and confirm the obtained results experimentally. The particle accompanied by a hyperbolic hedgehog defect is pulled to a deformed region to relax the elastic deformation energy...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134966/coordinated-control-of-three-dimensional-components-of-smooth-pursuit-to-rotating-and-translating-textures
#16
Janick Edinger, Dinesh K Pai, Miriam Spering
Purpose: The neural control of pursuit eye movements to visual textures that simultaneously translate and rotate has largely been neglected. Here we propose that pursuit of such targets-texture pursuit-is a fully three-dimensional task that utilizes all three degrees of freedom of the eye, including torsion. Methods: Head-fixed healthy human adults (n = 8) tracked a translating and rotating random dot pattern, shown on a computer monitor, with their eyes. Horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye positions were recorded with a head-mounted eye tracker...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120283/surgical-management-of-complex-proximal-humeral-fractures-pinning-locked-plate-and-arthroplasty-clinical-results-and-functional-outcome-on-retrospective-series-of-patients
#17
I Repetto, M Alessio-Mazzola, P Cerruti, F Sanguineti, M Formica, L Felli
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to compare the clinical results and related complications of four different surgical treatments of complex proximal humeral fractures according to their classification and features of patients. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2011, 92 consecutive patients with diagnosis of three-four-part displaced fractures, fractures with head dislocation and head-splitting fractures were evaluated postoperatively with Constant-Murley score, disability of arm, shoulder and hand score and simple shoulder test...
January 24, 2017: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114478/dynamic-perspective-cues-enhance-depth-perception-from-motion-parallax
#18
Athena Buckthought, Ahmad Yoonessi, Curtis L Baker
Motion parallax, the perception of depth resulting from an observer's self-movement, has almost always been studied with random dot textures in simplified orthographic rendering. Here we examine depth from motion parallax in more naturalistic conditions using textures with an overall 1/f spectrum and dynamic perspective rendering. We compared depth perception for orthographic and perspective rendering, using textures composed of two types of elements: random dots and Gabor micropatterns. Relative texture motion (shearing) with square wave corrugation patterns was synchronized to horizontal head movement...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076435/walking-ahead-the-headed-social-force-model
#19
Francesco Farina, Daniele Fontanelli, Andrea Garulli, Antonio Giannitrapani, Domenico Prattichizzo
Human motion models are finding an increasing number of novel applications in many different fields, such as building design, computer graphics and robot motion planning. The Social Force Model is one of the most popular alternatives to describe the motion of pedestrians. By resorting to a physical analogy, individuals are assimilated to point-wise particles subject to social forces which drive their dynamics. Such a model implicitly assumes that humans move isotropically. On the contrary, empirical evidence shows that people do have a preferred direction of motion, walking forward most of the time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072803/neural-correlates-of-maladaptive-pain-behavior-in-chronic-neck-pain-a-single-case-control-fmri-study
#20
Konstantin Beinert, Audrey Mouthon, Martin Keller, Michael Mouthon, Jean-Marie Annoni, Wolfgang Taube
Chronic neck pain patients display functional impairments like decreased range of motion, decreased strength, and reduced sensorimotor function. In patients without structural damage, the reason for the persistence of pain is not well understood. Therefore, it is assumed that in chronic pain states, memory processes play an important role. We have now detected and tested a patient that might help us to better understand the neural correlates of maladaptive pain expectation/memory. This patient displays chronic neck pain and restricted unilateral motion of the cervical spine to the left...
January 2017: Pain Physician
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