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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121059/effects-of-decades-of-physical-driving-on-body-movement-and-motion-sickness-during-virtual-driving
#1
Thomas A Stoffregen, Chih-Hui Chang, Fu-Chen Chen, Wei-Jhong Zeng
We investigated relations between experience driving physical automobiles and motion sickness during the driving of virtual automobiles. Middle-aged individuals drove a virtual automobile in a driving video game. Drivers were individuals who had possessed a driver's license for approximately 30 years, and who drove regularly, while non-drivers were individuals who had never held a driver's license, or who had not driven for more than 15 years. During virtual driving, we monitored movement of the head and torso...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114772/development-of-a-single-degree-of-freedom-mechanical-model-for-predicting-strain-based-brain-injury-responses
#2
Lee F Gabler, Hamed Joodaki, Jeff R Crandall, Matthew B Panzer
Linking head impact kinematics to injury risk has been the focus of numerous brain injury criteria. Although many early forms were developed using mechanics principles, recent criteria have been developed using empirical methods based on subsets of head impact data. In this study, a single-degree-of-freedom (sDOF) mechanical analogue was developed to study the link between rotational head kinematics and brain deformation. Model efficacy was assessed by comparing its dynamic response to strain-based brain injury predictors from finite element (FE) human head models...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104944/psychotropic-medication-use-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-may-affect-functional-brain-connectivity
#3
Annika C Linke, Lindsay Olson, Yangfeifei Gao, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
Background: Prescription of psychotropic medications is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), either off-label or to treat comorbid conditions such as ADHD or depression. Psychotropic medications are intended to alter brain function. Yet, studies investigating the functional brain organization in ASDs rarely take medication usage into account. This could explain some of the inconsistent findings of atypical brain network connectivity reported in the autism literature. Methods: The current study tested whether functional connectivity patterns, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), differed in a cohort of 49 children and adolescents with ASDs based on psychotropic medication status, and in comparison with 50 matched typically developing (TD) participants...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095888/origin-of-directionally-tuned-responses-in-lower-limb-muscles-to-unpredictable-upper-limb-disturbances
#4
Ali Forghani, Theodore E Milner
Unpredictable forces which perturb balance are frequently applied to the body through interaction between the upper limb and the environment. Lower limb muscles respond rapidly to these postural disturbances in a highly specific manner. We have shown that the muscle activation patterns of lower limb muscles are organized in a direction specific manner which changes with lower limb stability. Ankle muscles change their activity within 80 ms of the onset of a force perturbation applied to the hand which is earlier than the onset of changes in ground reaction force, ankle angle or head motion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090314/biological-motion-cues-aid-identification-of-self-motion-from-optic-flow-but-not-heading-detection
#5
Hugh Riddell, Markus Lappe
When we move through the world, a pattern of expanding optic flow is generated on the retina. In completely rigid environments, this pattern signals one's direction of heading and is an important source of information for navigation. When we walk towards an oncoming person, the optic environment is not rigid, as the motion vectors generated by the other person represent a composite of that person's movement, his or her limb motion, and the observer's self-motion. Though this biological motion obfuscates the optic flow pattern, it also provides cues about the movement of other actors in the environment...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060803/analysis-of-muscle-activation-in-lower-extremity-for-static-balance
#6
Kingshuk Chakravarty, Debatri Chatterjee, Rajat Kumar Das, Soumya Ranjan Tripathy, Aniruddha Sinha
Balance plays an important role for human bipedal locomotion. Degeneration of balance control is prominent in stroke patients, elderly adults and even for majority of obese people. Design of personalized balance training program, in order to strengthen muscles, requires the analysis of muscle activation during an activity. In this paper we have proposed an affordable and portable approach to analyze the relationship between the static balance strategy and activation of various lower extremity muscles. To do that we have considered Microsoft Kinect XBox 360 as a motion sensing device and Wii balance board for measuring external force information...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046173/effects-of-physical-driving-experience-on-body-movement-and-motion-sickness-during-virtual-driving
#7
Chih-Hui Chang, Fu-Chen Chen, Wei-Ching Kung, Thomas A Stoffregen
BACKGROUND: In previous research on motion sickness in simulated and virtual vehicles, subjects' experience controlling the corresponding physical vehicles has been confounded with their age. During driving of virtual automobiles in a video game, we separated chronological age from experience driving physical automobiles. METHODS: Subjects drove a virtual automobile in a driving video game. Drivers were young adults with several years of experience driving physical automobiles, while nondrivers were individuals in the same age group who did not have a driver's license and had never driven an automobile...
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038740/reverse-fosbury-flop-tear-of-the-rotator-cuff
#8
Jérôme Tirefort, Gregory Cunningham, Alexandre Lädermann
INTRODUCTION: "Fosbury flop" tear is an avulsion of the posterosuperior rotator cuff from the bone with reversal healing on its medial bursal-side. This case report describes a unique variant of Fosbury flop tear with a lesion of the musculotendinous junction that healed, for its tendon part, on the anterior humerus and coracoid process. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old man developed a posttraumatic painful shoulder with active loss of range of motion. Magnetic resonance arthrography demonstrated a lesion of the musculotendinous junction of the supraspinatus with healing of the tendon on the above-mentioned structures (reverse Fosbury flop)...
2017: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988233/sensing-external-and-self-motion-with-hair-cells-a-comparison-of-the-lateral-line-and-vestibular-systems-from-a-developmental-and-evolutionary-perspective
#9
Boris P Chagnaud, Jacob Engelmann, Bernd Fritzsch, Joel C Glover, Hans Straka
Detection of motion is a feature essential to any living animal. In vertebrates, mechanosensory hair cells organized into the lateral line and vestibular systems are used to detect external water or head/body motion, respectively. While the neuronal components to detect these physical attributes are similar between the two sensory systems, the organizational pattern of the receptors in the periphery and the distribution of hindbrain afferent and efferent projections are adapted to the specific functions of the respective system...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987866/kinematic-patterns-in-normal-and-degenerative-shoulders-part-ii-review-of-3-d-scapular-kinematic-patterns-in-patients-with-shoulder-pain-and-clinical-implications
#10
REVIEW
Marie-Martine Lefèvre-Colau, Christelle Nguyen, Clemence Palazzo, Frederic Srour, Guillaume Paris, Valerie Vuillemin, Serge Poiraudeau, Agnes Roby-Brami, Alexandra Roren
BACKGROUND: The global range of motion of the arm is the result of a coordinated motion of the shoulder complex including glenohumeral (GH), scapulothoracic, sternoclavicular and acromioclavicular joints. METHODS: This study is a non-systematic review of kinematic patterns in degenerated shoulders. It is a based on our own research on the kinematics of the shoulder complex and clinical experience. RESULTS: For patients with subacromial impingement syndrome without rotator-cuff tears, most kinematic studies showed a small superior humeral translation relative to the glenoid and decreased scapular lateral rotation and posterior tilt...
October 5, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968473/fracture-severity-based-on-classification-does-not-predict-outcome-following-proximal-humerus-fracture
#11
Nina D Fisher, James M Barger, Adam S Driesman, Rebekah Belayneh, Sanjit R Konda, Kenneth A Egol
This study was conducted to determine whether proximal humerus fracture patterns as defined by the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (AO/OTA) classification and the Neer 4-part system predicted functional outcomes for patients treated with open reduction and internal fixation with locked plates and, if so, which system correlated better with outcomes. During a 12-year period, 213 patients with a displaced proximal humerus fracture who underwent surgical treatment with a locking plate at 1 academic institution were prospectively followed...
October 2, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967445/the-adult-monteggia-fracture-patterns-and-incidence-of-annular-ligament-incarceration-among-121-cases-at-a-single-institution-over-19-years
#12
Max Hamaker, Amy Zheng, W Andrew Eglseder, Raymond A Pensy
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to identify the relative frequency of Monteggia fracture patterns and to investigate the required frequency of open reduction of the proximal radiocapitellar joint. METHODS: We identified 121 Monteggia fractures at a Level I trauma center from 1996 to 2015 and included 119 in this study. These fractures were identified using a database search for the appropriate International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and Current Procedural Terminology codes as well as individual surgeons' logs...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960219/a-bioenergetic-mechanism-for-amoeboid-like-cell-motility-profiles-tested-in-a-microfluidic-electrotaxis-assay
#13
Hagit Peretz-Soroka, Reuven Tirosh, Jolly Hipolito, Erwin Huebner, Murray Alexander, Jason Fiege, Francis Lin
The amoeboid-like cell motility is known to be driven by the acidic enzymatic hydrolysis of ATP in the actin-myosin system. However, the electro-mechano-chemical coupling, whereby the free energy of ATP hydrolysis is transformed into the power of electrically polarized cell movement, is poorly understood. Previous experimental studies showed that actin filaments motion, cytoplasmic streaming, and muscle contraction can be reconstituted under actin-activated ATP hydrolysis by soluble non-filamentous myosin fragments...
November 13, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957645/real-time-correction-of-motion-and-imager-instability-artifacts-during-3d-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-edited-mr-spectroscopic-imaging
#14
Eva Heckova, Michal Považan, Bernhard Strasser, Patrik Krumpolec, Petra Hnilicová, Gilbert J Hangel, Philipp A Moser, Ovidiu C Andronesi, Andre J van der Kouwe, Peter Valkovic, Barbara Ukropcova, Siegfried Trattnig, Wolfgang Bogner
Purpose To compare the involuntary head motion, frequency and B0 shim changes, and effects on data quality during real-time-corrected three-dimensional γ-aminobutyric acid-edited magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and young and older healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, MR spectroscopic imaging datasets were acquired at 3 T after written informed consent was obtained. Translational and rotational head movement, frequency, and B0 shim were determined with an integrated volumetric navigator...
September 28, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892715/upper-body-accelerations-during-walking-are-altered-in-adults-with-acl-reconstruction
#15
C N Armitano, S Morrison, D M Russell
This study was designed to assess and compare the pattern of acceleration from the lower trunk, neck and head regions for individuals with reconstructed ACL compared to healthy controls during walking. Participants with unilateral ACL reconstruction and matched control persons participated in the study. Accelerations were collected using three triaxial accelerometers attached to the head, neck, and lower trunk. Measures of amplitude and signal regularity of the acceleration data were performed. Similarities were seen between both groups with regards to the general acceleration patterns in all three axes...
October 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859201/characterization-of-head-trunk-coordination-deficits-after-unilateral-vestibular-hypofunction-using-wearable-sensors
#16
Serene S Paul, Leland E Dibble, Raymond G Walther, Clough Shelton, Richard Klaus Gurgel, Mark E Lester
Importance: Individuals with vestibular hypofunction acutely restrict head motion to reduce symptoms of dizziness and nausea. This restriction results in abnormal decoupling of head motion from trunk motion, but the character, magnitude, and persistence of these deficits are unclear. Objective: To use wearable inertial sensors to quantify the extent of head and trunk kinematic abnormalities in the subacute stage after resection of vestibular schwannoma (VS) and the particular areas of deficit in head-trunk motion...
October 1, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855323/rib-kinematics-during-lung-ventilation-in-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis-an-xromm-analysis
#17
Robert J Brocklehurst, Sabine Moritz, Jonathan Codd, William I Sellers, Elizabeth L Brainerd
The current hypothesis regarding the mechanics of breathing in crocodylians is that the double-headed ribs, with both a capitulum and tuberculum, rotate about a constrained axis passing through the two articulations; moreover, this axis shifts in the caudal thoracic ribs, as the vertebral parapophysis moves from the centrum to the transverse process. Additionally, the ventral ribcage in crocodylians is thought to possess additional degrees of freedom through mobile intermediate ribs. In this study, X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM) was used to quantify rib rotation during breathing in American alligators...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821443/the-effect-of-pelvic-motion-on-spino-pelvic-parameters
#18
Andrew M Hayden, Ann M Hayes, Jennifer L Brechbuhler, Heidi Israel, Howard M Place
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: To date, many studies have examined how pelvic position affects the spinal curvature and spino-pelvic parameters. However, these studies focus on a static relationship, comparing pelvis and spine in a relaxed or baseline position only. Indeed, the spino-pelvic connection is dynamic, as a subject can easily be taught to rotate their pelvis anteriorly or posteriorly on the femoral head, all while maintaining an erect posture. Therefore, for a true understanding of pelvic influence on the spinal column, it is necessary to examine spino-pelvic parameters in multiple pelvic positions within the same subject...
August 15, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777287/comparison-of-clinical-findings-of-congenital-muscular-torticollis-between-patients-with-and-without-sternocleidomastoid-lesions-as-determined-by-ultrasonography
#19
Mi-Hyang Han, Jin Young Kang, Hyun Jung Do, Hyun Suk Park, Hyun Jin Noh, Yun-Hwa Cho, Dae-Hyun Jang
AIM: To compare clinical findings for patients with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) between those with and without a sternocleidomastoid (SCM) lesion. METHODS: Medical records of 182 patients with CMT were retrospectively reviewed and the patients were divided into SCM lesion and nonlesion groups by ultrasonographic results. Intrauterine position, age, duration of therapy, rotation/tilting side, and the passive range of motion and angle of the neck were compared...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771373/biomechanical-evaluation-of-glenoid-reconstruction-with-an-implant-free-j-bone-graft-for-anterior-glenoid-bone-loss
#20
Leo Pauzenberger, Felix Dyrna, Elifho Obopilwe, Philipp R Heuberer, Robert A Arciero, Werner Anderl, Augustus D Mazzocca
BACKGROUND: The anatomic restoration of glenoid morphology with an implant-free J-shaped iliac crest bone graft offers an alternative to currently widely used glenoid reconstruction techniques. No biomechanical data on the J-bone grafting technique are currently available. PURPOSE: To evaluate (1) glenohumeral contact patterns, (2) graft fixation under cyclic loading, and (3) the initial stabilizing effect of anatomic glenoid reconstruction with the implant-free J-bone grafting technique...
October 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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