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Edna M S Oliveira, Francisco R Silva, Crislânia C O Morais, Thiago Mielle B F Oliveira, Carlos A Martínez-Huitle, Artur J Motheo, Cynthia C Albuquerque, Suely S L Castro
This study investigated the anodic oxidation of phenolic wastewater generated by cashew-nut processing industry (CNPI) using active (Ti/RuO2 -TiO2 ) and inactive (boron doped diamond, BDD) anodes. During electrochemical treatment, various operating parameters were investigated, such as current density, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phenols, O2 production, temperature, pH, as well as current efficiency and energy consumption. After electrolysis under optimized working conditions, samples were evaluated by chromatography and toxicological tests against L...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Fengxia Deng, Hugo Olvera-Vargas, Orlando Garcia-Rodriguez, Shan Qiu, Jixian Yang, Olivier Lefebvre
A composite nickel-iron-foam (Ni-Fe-F) electrode was used as a cathode in the electro-Fenton (EF) process at circum-neutral pH in the presence of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as supporting electrolyte. It was found that phenol degradation was dramatically improved by the synergistic effect of Ni-Fe-F and TPP, reaching 100% removal in 40 min, with kapp  = (8.90 ± 0.12) × 10-2 min-1 , which was about 18 times higher than that of Ni-Fe-F with sulfate as conventional electrolyte at pH 3.00 (kapp  = (5...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Tianhua Yang, Jian Wang, Bingshuo Li, Xingping Kai, Wanli Xing, Rundong Li
This study extended previous work investigating two-step liquefaction by supercritical ethanol of rice straw under CO2 atmosphere at temperatures of 270-345 °C. Subcritical CO2 -subcritical ethanol (SubCO2 -SubEtOH) pretreatment decreased the content of lignin in the rice stalk from 22.94 to 21.43 wt%. The results showed that although oxygen-transfer reaction, transesterification, carbonylation, and other reactions may occur with the supercritical CO2 -supercritical ethanol (ScCO2 -ScEtOH) liquefaction reactions, transesterification was the main reaction...
February 23, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Priti Sengupta, Aniruddha Ganguly, Adity Bose
The crucial role of chemosensor for the immediate recognition of environment pollutant motivates the researchers to develop variety of sensing protocols. Of various chemosensory protocols, the colour change observed by the naked eye is considered to be a conceivable and on-site way to indicate the presence of an analyte. We herein report a colourimetric and commercially available absorption probe, sinapic acid (SA) that is completely ready to use for "on-site" visual determination of copper ions. The molecule, SA is well-known phenolic acid, often utilized for its antibacterial activity...
March 3, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Peng-Xiang Pei, Jing-Han Hu, Chen Long, Peng-Wei Ni
A novel chemosensor 2-((Z)-(((E)-quinolin-2-ylmethylene)hydrazono)methyl)phenol PX has been successfully designed and synthesized, which showed both colorimetric and "turn-on" fluorescence responses for CN- in DMSO/H2 O (3:2, v/v; pH=7.20) solution. The sensor could respond effectively to the stimulation of CN- ions via deprotonation and sensing mechanism of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). Moreover, the sensor PX was successfully utilized to detect CN- in bitter almond, and the detection limit on fluorescence response of PX towards CN- was down to 4...
March 10, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Carrie J Butts-Wilmsmeyer, Rita H Mumm, Kent Rausch, Gurshagan Kandhola, Nicole Yana, Mary Happ, Alexandra Ostezan, Matthew Wasmund, Martin O Bohn
The notion that many nutrients and beneficial phytochemicals in maize are lost due to food product processing is common, but this has not been studied in detail for the phenolic acids. Information regarding changes in phenolic acid content throughout processing is highly valuable because some phenolic acids are chemopreventive agents of aging-related diseases. It is unknown when and why these changes in phenolic acid content might occur during processing, whether some maize genotypes might be more resistant to processing induced changes in phenolic acid content than other genotypes, or if processing affects the bioavailability of phenolic acids in maize-based food products...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Debasis Banerjee, Xianyin Chen, Sergey Lobanov, Anna M Plonka, Xiaojun Chan, John Daly, Taejin Kim, Praveen K Thallapally, John Parise
Used nuclear fuel reprocessing represents a unique challenge when dealing with radionuclides such as isotopes of85 Kr and129 I2 due to their volatility and long half-life. Efficient capture of129 I2 (t1/2 = 15.7 ×106 million years) from the nuclear waste stream can help reduce the risk of releasing I2 radionuclide into the environment and/or potential incorporation into the human thyroid. Metal organic frameworks have the reported potential to be I2 adsorbents but the effect of water vapor, generally present in the reprocessing off-gas stream, is rarely taken into account...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Varinder Singh, Pawan Krishan, Richa Shri
Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke. Strategies using antioxidants to improve neurological functions after stroke have, thus, gained significant attention. Ocimum basilicum L. is used traditionally to treat CNS disorders. Its antioxidant capacity is well established. Our laboratory has reported protective effects of pre-treatment with O. basilicum in experimental stroke, but its curative (post-treatment) effects in ischemic stroke have not been documented. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of O...
March 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Daviel Gómez, L Ázaro Hernández, Lourdes Yabor, Gerrit T S Beemster, Christoph C Tebbe, Jutta Papenbrock, José Carlos Lorenzo
Plant scientists usually record several indicators in their abiotic factor experiments. The common statistical management involves univariate analyses. Such analyses generally create a split picture of the effects of experimental treatments since each indicator is addressed independently. The Euclidean distance combined with the information of the control treatment could have potential as an integrating indicator. The Euclidean distance has demonstrated its usefulness in many scientific fields but, as far as we know, it has not yet been employed for plant experimental analyses...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Atul Kabra, Rohit Sharma, Shivali Singla, Ruchika Kabra, Uttam Singh Baghel
BACKGROUND: Myrica esculenta (Family: Myricaceae) commonly known as Kaiphala or Katphala is a widely used medicinal plant in Ayurveda. In spite of its numerous medicinal attributes, no published work is available till date on pharmacognostical characterization and HPTLC analysis of its leaves. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the pharmacognostical, physicochemical, and HPTLC profiles of M. esculenta leaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The measures taken for pharmacognostical characterization were organoleptic study, macroscopy, microscopy, powder microscopy, leaf constant, fluorescence analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening and HPTLC spectra profile...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Wei Li, Navaneethakrishnan Polachi, Xiangyang Wang, Yang Chu, Yuan Wang, Meng Tian, Dekun Li, Dazheng Zhou, Shuiping Zhou, Aichun Ju, Yubo Li, Yanjun Zhang, Min Chen, Luqi Huang, Changxiao Liu
BACKGROUND: The quality of Chinese medicine (CM) has being an active and challenging research area for CM. Prof. Chang-Xiao Liu et al first proposed the concept of quality marker (Q-Marker) for the quality evaluation and control on CM. This article describe the exploratory studies of Q-Marker in salvianolic acids for injection (SAI) based on this new concept. PURPOSE: This study was designed to screen Q-Marker of SAI and establish its quality control method based on the concept of CM Q-Marker...
February 10, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Pan Wang, Jin-Hai Yu, Kongkai Zhu, Yinyin Wang, Zhi-Qiang Cheng, Cheng-Shi Jiang, Jun-Gui Dai, Jun Wu, Hua Zhang
Seven new phenolic bisabolane sesquiterpenoids, (7R,10S)-7,10-epoxysydonic acid (1), (7S,10S)-7,10-epoxysydonic acid (2), (7R,11S)-7,12-epoxysydonic acid (3), (7S,11S)-7,12-epoxysydonic acid (4), 7-deoxy-7,14-didehydro-12-hydroxysydonic acid (5), (Z)-7-deoxy-7,8-didehydro-12-hydroxysydonic acid (6), and (E)-7-deoxy-7,8-didehydro-12-hydroxysydonic acid (7), along with five known analogues (8-12), were obtained from the culture of an endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. xy02 isolated from the leaves of a Thai mangrove Xylocarpus moluccensis...
March 12, 2018: Fitoterapia
Siyabulela S B N Ntuli, Wentzel C A Gelderblom, David R Katerere
BACKGROUND: Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br is endemic to Southern Africa where it has been traditionally used for cancer and diabetes. In recent times it has been marketed for its reputed (but not proven) anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-HIV properties. Little is known about the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential of extracts and common marker compounds of Sutherlandia frutescens. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the putative efficacy and possible long-term adverse effects of using this herb...
March 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Yun Tang, Zhen-Yuan Zhu, Li-Chao Pan, Huiqing Sun, Qiao-Ying Song, Yongmin Zhang
A polysaccharide was obtained from Lepidium meyenii Walp by hot water extraction and purification by Millipore (100 kD) and Sephadex G-200. The content of polysaccharide was examined to be 89.9% with phenol-sulfuric acid method. Its average molecular weight was estimated to be 2.213 × 106  Da by High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HPGPC). Monosaccharide analysis showed that the polysaccharide was composed of arabinose, mannose, glucose and galactose with the molar ratio of 2.134: 1: 2.78: 2...
March 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
Saisi Xue, A Daniel Jones, Leonardo Sousa, Jeff Piotrowski, Mingjie Jin, Cory Sarks, Bruce E Dale, Venkatesh Balan
Biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels requires pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass to produce fermentable sugars. Degradation products produced during thermochemical pretreatment, however, inhibit the microbes with regard to both ethanol yield and cell growth. In this work, we used synthetic hydrolysates (SynH) to study the inhibition of yeast fermentation by water-soluble components (WSC) isolated from lignin streams obtained after extractive ammonia pretreatment (EA)...
2018: PloS One
Anna Baldisserotto, Piergiacomo Buso, Matteo Radice, Valeria Dissette, Ilaria Lampronti, Roberto Gambari, Stefano Manfredini, Silvia Vertuani
Moringa oleifera has gained increasing popularity as a food supplement but not in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic area. The aim of this study was the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of extracts from the leaves of Moringa oleifera as a herbal sun care phytocomplex. Three different extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves, from Senegal, have been prepared and chemically characterized in the phenolic fraction by HPLC-DAD and Folin-Ciocalteu test. To explore photoprotective properties, an extensive evaluation of UV filtering, antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, ORAC, PCL), and anti-hyperproliferative (human melanoma Colo38 cells) capacities have been conducted...
March 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chao Yang, Yan Qi, Jiayi Zheng, X U Fan, Peixin Liang, Cunjiang Song
Uncontrolled bacterial growth and metabolic activities are responsible for the short shelf life of raw pork. Culture-independent analysis by 16S ribosome cDNA could reveal viable bacteria in raw pork. This study investigated microbial growth and volatile organic compounds of raw pork supplemented with various preservatives. Vacuum-packaged raw pork was stored at 4°C, after soaking in solutions of potassium sorbate, ε-poly-l-lysine, kojic acid (KA), or sodium diacetate, individually. Spoilage of raw pork was monitored by determining pH and total volatile basic nitrogen, whereas bacterial growth was determined by culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Jiaqi Zhang, Zipeng Xing, Jiayi Cui, Zhenzi Li, Siyu Tan, Junwei Yin, Jinlong Zou, Qi Zhu, Wei Zhou
Herein, C,N co-doped porous TiO2 hollow sphere visible light photocatalysts were fabricated using biocompatible N-lauroyl-l-glutamic acid as a doped precursor and soft-template by a mild and facile self-assembly soft-template method, followed by calcination at 550 °C in air. The structure, morphology, and surface elemental composition were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy...
March 15, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Andrew M Harned
The iodine(iii)-mediated oxidative dearomatization of phenols has proven to be a general method for the preparation of cyclohexadienones. While this is a widely used reaction, there is still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the mechanistic pathway followed by these reactions. In part, this is due to the highly unstable nature of many of the key intermediates, which makes their direct detection extremely difficult. In order to gain some insight into these mechanistic questions, DFT calculations [M06-2X/6-31+G(d) for C, H, and O and LANL2DZdp for iodine] were used to evaluate the two most commonly proposed reaction mechanisms...
March 15, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Zhen Fang, Mark S Meier
There have been numerous reports on methods for the oxidative cleavage of β-O-4 linkages in lignin model compounds, but relatively few reports of how those methods affect other linkages that are present in lignin. We have investigated the effect of several of these oxidation methods on the β-1 and the β-5 lignin linkages, using four β-1 and β-5 model compounds. We observed that direct oxidative cleavage of C-C bonds occurs in metal-catalyzed TEMPO oxidation systems and with iron porphyrin oxidations, neither of which had we observed in similar oxidations on β-O-4 models...
March 15, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
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