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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913892/early-harvest-effects-on-hydrophilic-phenolic-components-of-extra-virgin-olive-oils-cvs-ayval%C3%A4-k-memecik-and-topaka%C3%A5-%C3%A4
#1
Fatma Yıldırım, Adnan Nurhan Yıldırım, Gülcan Özkan, Bekir Şan, Mehmet Polat, Hatice Aşık, Yaşar Karakurt, Sezai Ercişli
The study was conducted to determine the effects of cultivar, harvest period, and their interaction on the hydrophilic phenolic components extra virgin olive oils of the cultivars 'Ayvalık,' 'Memecik,' and 'Topakaşı.' Olives were collected at three different harvesting periods: (1) early harvest period-1 (Beginning of spotting), (2) early harvest period-2 (End of spotting), and (3) optimum harvest period. Oils were extracted using the Abencor system. HPLC (High-performance liquid chromatograph) technique was used to quantify the phenolic compounds including tyrosol (p-HPEA), hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA), luteolin, rutin, quercetin, catechin, sinapinic acid, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, vanillin, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and gallic acid...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913852/differential-effect-of-early-antibiotic-intervention-on-bacterial-fermentation-patterns-and-mucosal-gene-expression-in-the-colon-of-pigs-under-diets-with-different-protein-levels
#2
Chuanjian Zhang, Miao Yu, Yuxiang Yang, Chunlong Mu, Yong Su, Weiyun Zhu
The study aimed to evaluate the effects of early antibiotic intervention (EAI) on bacterial fermentation patterns and mucosal immune markers in the colon of pigs with different protein level diets. Eighteen litters of piglets at day (d) 7 were fed creep feed without or with growth promoting antibiotics until d 42. At d 42, pigs within each group were further randomly assigned to a normal- or low-crude protein (CP) diet. At d 77 and d 120, five pigs per group were slaughtered for analyzing colonic bacteria, metabolites, and mucosal gene expressions...
December 3, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913169/liquid-nitrogen-pretreatment-of-eucalyptus-sawdust-and-rice-hull-for-enhanced-enzymatic-saccharification
#3
Rafael Castoldi, Vanesa G Correa, Gutierrez Rodrigues de Morais, Cristina G M de Souza, Adelar Bracht, Rosely A Peralta, Regina F Peralta-Muniz Moreira, Rosane M Peralta
In this work, liquid nitrogen was used for the first time in the pretreatment of plant biomasses for purposes of enzymatic saccharification. After treatment (cryocrushing), the initial rates of the enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus sawdust and rice hull were increased more than ten-fold. Cryocrushing did not modify significantly the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in both eucalyptus sawdust and rice hulls. However, substantial disorganization of the lignocellulosic materials in consequence of the pretreatment could be observed by electron microscopy...
November 25, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912886/medicinal-plants-and-natural-molecules-with-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-against-rotavirus-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Paula Gurgel Barreto, Bruno Dos Santos Lima, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Lucindo Jose Quintans-Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses can cause life-threatening health disorders, such as severe dehydrating gastroenteritis and diarrhea in children. Vaccination is the main preventive strategy to reduce rotavirus diarrhea and the severity of episodes, but vaccines are not fully effective and new episodes may occur, even in vaccinated children. The WHO recommends oral rehydration therapy and zinc supplementation for rotavirus-induced diarrhea management. There is little preclinical evidence to support the use of phytotherapeutics in the management of rotaviral infections...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912189/genotoxicity-assessment-of-pulp-and-paper-mill-effluent-before-and-after-bacterial-degradation-using-allium-cepa-test
#5
Izharul Haq, Sharad Kumar, Abhay Raj, Mohtashim Lohani, G N V Satyanarayana
A lignin peroxidases-producing Serratia liquefaciens was used for bioremediation of pulp and paper (P&P) mill effluent. The treatment led to reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour, lignin and phenolic content by 84%, 72%, 61% and 95%, respectively. The effluent detoxification was studied by genotoxicity assays using Allium cepa L. (onion) root tip cells. Genotoxicity studies included measuring mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in root tip cells following treatment with 25, 50, 75 and 100% (v/v) of effluent...
November 29, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912113/titanium-dioxide-and-cadmium-sulfide-co-sensitized-graphitic-carbon-nitride-nanosheets-composite-photocatalysts-with-superior-performance-in-phenol-degradation-under-visible-light-irradiation
#6
Jinhua Yao, Huan Chen, Fang Jiang, Zhongyi Jiao, Mingchang Jin
In this work, TiO2-CdS-gCNNSs heterojunction photocatalysts were successfully synthesized. CdS was deposited on the surface of gCNNSs via electrostatic attraction; TiOC, TiOCO and TiON bonds were produced in TiO2-CdS-gCNNSs, strengthening the interaction between TiO2 and gCNNSs. The TiO2-CdS-gCNNSs photocatalyst showed excellent photocatalytic activity for phenol degradation under visible-light irradiation, which was higher than that of CdS-gCNNSs, CdS-TiO2 and TiO2-gCNNSs. The improved photocatalytic performance of TiO2-CdS-gCNNSs was ascribed to more adsorption sites, enhanced light harvesting ability and effective separation rate of electron-hole pairs...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912011/reduced-snow-cover-alters-root-microbe-interactions-and-decreases-nitrification-rates-in-a-northern-hardwood-forest
#7
Patrick O Sorensen, Pamela H Templer, Lynn Christenson, Jorge Duran, Timothy Fahey, Melany C Fisk, Peter M Groffman, Jennifer L Morse, Adrien C Finzi
Snow cover is projected to decline during the next century in many ecosystems that currently experience a seasonal snowpack. Because snow insulates soils from frigid winter air temperatures, soils are expected to become colder and experience more winter soil freeze-thaw cycles as snow cover continues to decline. Tree roots are adversely affected by snowpack reduction, but whether loss of snow will affect root-microbe interactions remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to distinguish and attribute direct (e...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911781/structure-and-mechanism-of-nov1-a-resveratrol-cleaving-dioxygenase
#8
Ryan P McAndrew, Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, Michael M Mbughuni, Richard A Heins, Jose H Pereira, Anthe George, Kenneth L Sale, Brian G Fox, Blake A Simmons, Paul D Adams
Stilbenes are diphenyl ethene compounds produced naturally in a wide variety of plant species and some bacteria. Stilbenes are also derived from lignin during kraft pulping. Stilbene cleavage oxygenases (SCOs) cleave the central double bond of stilbenes, forming two phenolic aldehydes. Here, we report the structure of an SCO. The X-ray structure of NOV1 from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans was determined in complex with its substrate resveratrol (1.89 Å), its product vanillin (1.75 Å), and without any bound ligand (1...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910770/addition-of-zeolites-to-improve-the-functional-characteristics-of-the-hen-of-the-wood-or-maitake-medicinal-mushroom-grifola-frondosa-agaricomycetes
#9
Jovana Vunduk, Anita Klaus, Maja Kozarski, Radovan Dordevic, Zoran Miladinovic, Ljubinko Jovanovic, Miomir Niksic, Leonardus Johannes Lambertus Donatus Van Griensven
Kaolinite and the modified natural zeolite minazel plus (M+) were used as supplements in substrate used for the production of the medicinal mushroom Grifola frondosa. Growth stimulation, expressed as yield and biological efficiency, was observed when M+ (1%) was added. The production cycle was shortened by half as a result of the zeolites' ion-exchange ability, stimulation of enzyme activity, and water retain capacity. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry of fruiting bodies showed the absence of heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, and lead), whereas the concentration of calcium increased greatly and the concentrations of iron, magnesium, and zinc increased moderately under the influence of M+...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910769/anti-inflammatory-activity-of-biomass-extracts-of-the-bay-mushroom-imleria-badia-agaricomycetes-in-raw-264-7-cells
#10
Agata Grzywacz, Joanna Gdula Argasinska, Katarzyna Kala, Wlodzimierz Opoka, Bozena Muszynska
The popular edible bay mushroom, Imleria badia, is rich in phenolic and indole compounds, unsaturated fatty acids, and elements that have anti-inflammatory activity, including zinc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pro- or anti-inflammatory impact of I. badia biomass extracts on RAW 264.7 cells. We analyzed the influence of I. badia extracts and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cotreatment on the fatty acid profile of cell membranes. We also analyzed cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E synthase, glutathione S transferase Mul, and nuclear factor (NF)-κB p50 and p65 protein expression, as well as the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and NF-κB transcription factors...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910755/comparison-of-the-composition-and-antioxidant-activities-of-phenolics-from-the-fruiting-bodies-of-cultivated-asian-culinary-medicinal-mushrooms
#11
Shaoling Lin, Lai Tsz Ching, Xinxin Ke, Peter Chi Keung Cheung
The composition profile and the antioxidant properties of phenolics in water extracts obtained from the fresh fruiting bodies of 4 common cultivated Asian edible mushrooms-Agrocybe aegerita, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and Pholiota nameko were compared. The water extract from A. aegerita (AaE) had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) at 54.18 ± 0.27 gallic acid equivalents (μmol/L)/mg extract (P < 0.05), as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and consisted of the largest number (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid) and total amounts of phenolic acids identified by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910256/simultaneous-upgrading-of-furanics-and-phenolics-via-hydroxyalkylation-aldol-condensation-reactions
#12
Tuong V Bui, Tawan Sooknoi, Daniel E Resasco
The simultaneous conversion of cyclopentanone and m-cresol has been investigated on a series of solid acid catalysts. Both compounds are representative of biomass-derived streams. Cyclopentanone can be readily obtained from sugar-derived furfurals via Piancatelli rearrangement under reducing conditions. Cresol represents the family of phenolics, typically obtained from the depolymerization of lignin. In the first biomass conversion strategy proposed here, furfural is converted in high yields and selectivity to cyclopentanone (CPO) over metal catalysts such as Pd-Fe/SiO2 catalyst at 600 psia H2 and 150oC...
December 1, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910164/hplc-uv-and-lc-ms-analyses-of-acylquinic-acids-in-geigeria-alata-dc-oliv-hiern-and-their-contribution-to-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-capacity
#13
Dimitrina Zheleva-Dimitrova, Reneta Gevrenova, Maya M Zaharieva, Hristo Najdenski, Silviya Ruseva, Valentin Lozanov, Vessela Balabanova, Sakina Yagi, Georgi Momekov, Vanio Mitev
INTRODUCTION: Geigeria alata is a traditional plant used in Sudanese folk medicine for treatment of diabetes, cough, epilepsy and intestinal complaints. OBJECTIVE: To analyze phenolic acids in Geigeria alata roots and leaves and to evaluate their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. METHODOLOGY: Phenolic acids in the aqueous-methanol extracts were identified by LC-MS. Major compounds were isolated using low-pressure liquid chromatography...
December 1, 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909921/high-valent-copper-in-biomimetic-and-biological-oxidations
#14
REVIEW
William Keown, J Brannon Gary, T Daniel P Stack
A long-standing debate in the Cu-O2 field has revolved around the relevance of the Cu(III) oxidation state in biological redox processes. The proposal of Cu(III) in biology is generally challenged as no spectroscopic or structural evidence exists currently for its presence. The reaction of synthetic Cu(I) complexes with O2 at low temperature in aprotic solvents provides the opportunity to investigate and define the chemical landscape of Cu-O2 species at a small-molecule level of detail; eight different types are characterized structurally, three of which contain at least one Cu(III) center...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908261/n-chlorosuccinimide-mediated-oxidative-chlorination-of-thiols-to-n%C3%AE-protected-amino-alkyl-sulfonyl-azides-and-their-utility-in-the-synthesis-of-sulfonyl-triazole-acids
#15
K M Sharnabai, M Krishnamurthy, N R Sagar, L Santhosh, Sureshbabu V Vommina
An efficient oxidative chlorination of thiols to Nα-protected amino alkyl sulfonyl azides is delineated. The reaction involves in situ generation of sulfonyl chloride employing N-chlorosuccinimide and tetrabutylammonium chloride-water in acetonitrile, followed by the reaction with sodium azide. The protocol is simple, straight forward, mild and high yielding. Amino acids with simple as well as bifunctional side chains were used to obtain Nα-protected amino alkyl sulfonyl azides. Further, sulfonyl azides were utilized to synthesize unnatural amino acids via Cu(OAc)2...
November 30, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907867/adsorption-characteristics-of-adsorbent-resins-and-antioxidant-capacity-for-enrichment-of-phenolics-from-two-phase-olive-waste
#16
Zhihong Wang, Chengzhang Wang, Jiaojiao Yuan, Changwei Zhang
In this study, the adsorption properties of nine resins including polyamide resin (30-60), polyamide resin (60-100) AB-8, S-8, D-101, NKA-9, NKA-II, XDA-1 and XDA-4 for enrichment phenolics of the olive waste were investigated. XDA-1 and NKA-II were chosen for further study due to their outstanding adsorption and desorption capacity. XDA-1 and NKA-II had similar adsorption and desorption behaviors for phenolics of olive waste. The adsorption mechanism could be better explained by pseudo second-order kinetics model and Freundlich isotherm model, and the adsorption processes were spontaneously and exothermic...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907185/antioxidant-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxic-properties-as-well-as-the-phenolic-content-of-the-extract-from-hancornia-speciosa-gomes
#17
Uilson P Santos, Jaqueline F Campos, Heron Fernandes V Torquato, Edgar Julian Paredes-Gamero, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Leticia M Estevinho, Kely de Picoli Souza, Edson Lucas Dos Santos
Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) is a fruit tree, popularly known as mangabeira, and it is widely distributed throughout Brazil. Several parts of the plant are used in folk medicine, and the leaf and bark extracts have anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Hancornia speciosa leaves (EEHS) and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities as well as the mechanisms involved in cell death...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907081/how-to-plant-apple-trees-to-reduce-replant-disease-in-apple-orchard-a-study-on-the-phenolic-acid-of-the-replanted-apple-orchard
#18
Chengmiao Yin, Li Xiang, Gongshuai Wang, Yanfang Wang, Xiang Shen, Xuesen Chen, Zhiquan Mao
Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important problem in the production of apple. The phenolic acid is one of the causes of ARD. How phenolic acid affects the ARD was not well known. In this study, we analyzed the type, concentration and annual dynamic variation of phenolic acid in soil from three replanted apple orchards using an accelerated solvent extraction system with high performance liquid chromatography (ASE-HPLC). We found that the type and concentration of phenolic acid were significantly differed among different seasons, different sampling positions and different soil layers...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906147/biogenic-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-from-cassia-fistula-linn-in-vitro-assessment-of-their-antioxidant-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxic-activities
#19
Yugal Kishore Mohanta, Sujogya Kumar Panda, Kunal Biswas, Abiral Tamang, Jaya Bandyopadhyay, Debashis De, Dambarudhar Mohanta, Akshaya Kumar Bastia
The present study reports on biogenic-synthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) derived by treating Ag ions with an extract of Cassia fistula leaf, a popular Indian medicinal plant found in natural habitation. The progress of biogenic synthesis was monitored time to time using a ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The effect of phytochemicals present in C. fistula including flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds and alkaloids on the homogeneous growth of AgNPs was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906141/green-synthesis-of-zno-nanoparticles-by-olive-olea-europaea
#20
Shahla Hashemi, Zahra Asrar, Shahram Pourseyedi, Nazi Nadernejad
Green synthesis of nanoparticles is superior to physical and chemical methods as it is environment-friendly and cost-effective. The present study was carried out for inducing nanoparticles synthesis by zinc nitrate in the leaves extracts of olive. Further leaves extracts were evaluated for antiradical scavenging activity by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay. Morphological and structural properties of the synthesised ZnO nanoparticles have been characterised using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, TEM, XRD and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
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