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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647840/interaction-of-ferulic-acid-with-glutathione-s-transferase-and-carboxylesterase-genes-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#1
Jun Yang, Xiao-Qin Sun, Shu-Ying Yan, Wen-Jun Pan, Mao-Xin Zhang, Qing-Nian Cai
Plant phenolics are crucial defense phytochemicals against herbivores and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and carboxylesterase (CarE) in herbivorous insects are well-known detoxification enzymes for such xenobiotics. To understand relationship between a plant phenolic and herbivore GST or CarE genes, we evaluated the relationship between a rice phenolic ferulic acid and resistance to brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens), and investigated the interaction of ferulic acid with GST or CarE genes in BPH. The results indicate that ferulic acid content in tested rice varieties was highly associated with resistance to BPH...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647178/traditional-usage-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-of-croton-sylvaticus-hochst-ex-c-krauss
#2
REVIEW
Alfred Maroyi
Croton sylvaticus (C. sylvaticus) is widely used as herbal medicine by the indigenous people of tropical Africa. The potential of C. sylvaticus as herbal medicine, the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of its parts used as herbal medicines are reviewed. The extensive literature survey revealed that C. sylvaticus is traditionally used to treat or manage at least 24 human and animal diseases and ailments. The species is used as herbal medicine for diseases and ailments such as abdominal pains, boils, fever, inflammation, malaria, rheumatism, swellings and tuberculosis and as ethnoveterinary medicine...
May 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646518/comparative-proteomics-and-protein-profile-related-to-phenolic-compounds-and-antioxidant-activity-in-germinated-oryza-sativa-kdml105-and-thai-brown-rice-mali-dang-for-better-nutritional-value
#3
Sarunyaporn Maksup, Sarintip Pongpakpian, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Suriyan Cha-Um, Kanyaratt Supaibulwatana
BACKGROUND: Brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) are considered as a prime source of carbohydrate and bioactive compounds for more than half of the world's populations. Several studies have reported on the proteomics of BR and GBR; however, the proteomic profiles related to the synthesis of bioactive compounds are less well documented. In this study, BR and GBR were used in a comparative analysis of the proteomic and bioactive compound profiles for two famous Thai rice varieties, Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML) and Mali Dang (MD)...
June 24, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646380/isolation-selection-and-biological-characterization-research-of-highly-effective-electricigens-from-mfcs-for-phenol-degradation
#4
Guo Wei, Du Xia, Wang Li-Li, Yan Hong
The microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are recognized to be highly effective for the biodegradation of phenol. For isolating the phenol-degrading bacteria, the sample containing 500 mg/L phenol was collected from the MFCs. The strain (WL027) was identified basing on the 16S rRNA gene analysis and phylogenetic analysis as Bacillus cereus. The effects of pH, temperature, concentrations of phenol, heavy metal ions, and salt on the growth of strain as well as the degradation of phenol have been carefully studied. The WL027-strain exhibited favorable tolerance for the metal cations including Cr(2+), Co(2+), Pb(2+), and Cu(2+) with the concentration of 0...
June 23, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645882/cardiopreventive-effect-of-ethanolic-extract-of-date-palm-pollen-against-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-infarction-in-rats-through-the-inhibition-of-the-angiotensin-converting-enzyme
#5
Amal Daoud, Fedia Ben Mefteh, Kais Mnafgui, Mouna Turki, Salwa Jmal, Rawdha Ben Amar, Fatma Ayadi, Abdelfattah ElFeki, Leila Abid, Mostafa E Rateb, Lassaad Belbahri, Adel Kadri, Neji Gharsallah
The present study aimed to examine the putative preventive effect of the ethanolic extract Date Palm Pollen (DPP, Phoenix dactylifera L., family Arecaceae) on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Twenty four rats were randomly divided into four groups including control. They were treated with DPP extract (400mg/kg) and clopidogrel (0.2mg/kg) for 7days followed by myocardial injury induction using subcutaneous isoproterenol (100mg/kg) with an interval of 24h for two days (6th and 7th day)...
June 20, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644981/chemical-profiling-and-antioxidant-evaluation-of-yangxinshi-tablet-by-hplc-esi-q-tof-ms-ms-combined-with-dpph-assay
#6
Junfeng Zhu, Xiaojiao Yi, Jinghui Zhang, Shuqing Chen, Yongjiang Wu
Yangxinshi Tablet (YXST) is a Chinese patent medicine commonly used to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, its detailed chemical basis and mechanisms of action have not been clarified. In this study, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) was applied for comprehensive analysis of the chemical constituents in YXST. A total of 127 compounds, including 19 phenolic acids, 12 alkaloids, 51 flavanoids, 32 triterpenoids, 2 lignans, 2 phenylethanoid glycosides, 2 anthraquinones, 1 coumarin, and 6 other compounds, were identified or tentatively deduced by comparing their retention times and MS spectra with those of authentic standards or literature data...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644504/a-structural-mechanism-of-flavonoids-in-inhibiting-serine-proteases
#7
Guangpu Xue, Lihu Gong, Cai Yuan, Mingming Xu, Xu Wang, Longguang Jiang, Mingdong Huang
Quercetin is a member of the flavonoids and was previously demonstrated to inhibit trypsin-like serine proteases at micromolar potencies. Different molecular models were proposed to explain such inhibition. However, controversies remain on the molecular details of inhibition. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of quercetin in a complex with the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), an archetypical serine protease. The structure showed that quercetin binds to the specific substrate binding pocket (S1 pocket) of uPA mainly through its two neighboring phenolic hydroxyl groups...
June 23, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644470/rapid-heteroatom-transfer-to-arylmetals-utilizing-multifunctional-reagent-scaffolds
#8
Hongyin Gao, Zhe Zhou, Doo-Hyun Kwon, James Coombs, Steven Jones, Nicole Erin Behnke, Daniel H Ess, László Kürti
Arylmetals are highly valuable carbon nucleophiles that are readily and inexpensively prepared from aryl halides or arenes and widely used on both laboratory and industrial scales to react directly with a wide range of electrophiles. Although C-C bond formation has been a staple of organic synthesis, the direct transfer of primary amino (-NH2) and hydroxyl (-OH) groups to arylmetals in a scalable and environmentally friendly fashion remains a formidable synthetic challenge because of the absence of suitable heteroatom-transfer reagents...
July 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644383/use-of-ultrasonication-technology-for-the-increased-production-of-plant-secondary-metabolites
#9
REVIEW
Md Mohidul Hasan, Tufail Bashir, Hanhong Bae
Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) provide taste, color, odor, and resistance to plants, and they are also used to treat cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Synthesis of PSMs in plants is stimulated in response to different forms of external stress. Use of ultrasonication (US) to clean or decontaminate fruits and vegetables leads to physical stress that finally results in the accumulation of PSMs. US can stimulate accumulation of taxol, ginsenoside saponins, shikonin, and resveratrol, e.g., up to 319-fold increase of resveratrol synthesis has been observed in grape due to US...
June 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643853/qualitative-analysis-of-polyphenols-in-macroporous-resin-pretreated-pomegranate-husk-extract-by-hplc-qtof-ms
#10
Rahima Abdulla, Sanawar Mansur, Haizhong Lai, Ablikim Ubul, Guangying Sun, Guozheng Huang, Haji Akber Aisa
INTRODUCTION: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) husk is a traditional herbal medicine abundant in phenolic compounds and plays some roles in the treatment of oxidative stress, bacterial and viral infection, diabetes mellitus, and acute and chronic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: Identification and determination of polyphenols in macroporous resin pretreated pomegranate husk extract by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF-MS)...
June 23, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643086/gallic-and-ellagic-acids-two-natural-immunomodulator-compounds-solve-infection-of-macrophages-by-leishmania-major
#11
Michel Muálem de Moraes Alves, Lucas Moreira Brito, Adriana Cunha Souza, Bárbara Cristina Silva Holanda Queiroz, Thaynara Parente de Carvalho, Joilson Ferreira Batista, Jéssica Sara de Sousa Macêdo Oliveira, Ivete Lopes de Mendonça, Silvéria Regina de Sousa Lira, Mariana Helena Chaves, Juan Carlos Ramos Gonçalves, Sabrina Maria Portela Carneiro, Daniel Dias Rufino Arcanjo, Fernando Aécio de Amorim Carvalho
Leishmaniasis is a complex of parasitic protozoan diseases caused by more than 20 different species of parasites from Leishmania genus. Conventional treatments are high costly, and promote a sort of side effects. Besides, protozoan resistance to treatments has been reported. Natural products have been investigated as a source of new therapeutic alternatives, not only acting directly against the parasite but also being able to synergistically act on the host immune system in order to control parasitemia. Gallic acid (GA) and ellagic acid (EA) are plant-derived phenolic compounds which are able to induce antiinflammatory, gastroprotective, and anticarcinogenic activities...
June 22, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643085/exogenous-application-of-nitric-oxide-modulates-osmolyte-metabolism-antioxidants-enzymes-of-ascorbate-glutathione-cycle-and-promotes-growth-under-cadmium-stress-in-tomato
#12
Parvaiz Ahmad, Mohammed Abass Ahanger, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Leonard Wijaya, Pravej Alam
Experiments were carried out to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in ameliorating the negative effects of cadmium stress in tomato seedlings. Plants treated with cadmium (CdCl2, 150 μM) showed reduced growth, biomass yield, pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and gas exchange parameters. Exogenous application of NO donor (sodium nitroprusside) with nutrient solution protected chlorophyll pigments, restored chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange parameters, and caused significant enhancements in growth and biomass yield...
June 22, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642708/myricitrin-protects-cardiomyocytes-from-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-involvement-of-heat-shock-protein-90
#13
Min Wang, Gui-Bo Sun, Yu-Yang Du, Yu Tian, Ping Liao, Xue-Song Liu, Jing-Xue Ye, Xiao-Bo Sun
Modulation of oxidative stress is therapeutically effective in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Myricitrin, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, is a potent antioxidant. However, little is known about its effect on I/R injury to cardiac myocytes. The present study was performed to investigate the potential protective effect of myricitrin against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced H9c2 cardiomyocyte injury and its underlying mechanisms. Myricitrin pretreatment improved cardiomyocyte viability, inhibited ROS generation, maintained the mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced apoptotic cardiomyocytes, decreased the caspase-3 activity, upregulated antiapoptotic proteins and downregulated proapoptotic proteins during H/R injury...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642094/investigation-of-the-component-in-artemisia-annua-l-leading-to-enhanced-antiplasmodial-potency-of-artemisinin-via-regulation-of-its-metabolism
#14
Tian-Yu Cai, Yun-Rui Zhang, Jian-Bo Ji, Jie Xing
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The chemical matrix of the herb Artemisia annua L. (A. annua), from which artemisinin (QHS) is isolated, can enhance both the bioavailability and efficacy of QHS. However, the exact mechanism of this synergism remains unknown. The biotransformation of QHS and potential "enzyme inhibitors" in plant matrix could be of great importance in understanding the improved efficacy of QHS in A. annua, which has been limited to the synergism with flavonoid components...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641405/biotransformation-of-ferulic-acid-to-protocatechuic-acid-by-corynebacterium-glutamicum-atcc-21420-engineered-to-express-vanillate-o-demethylase
#15
Naoko Okai, Takaya Masuda, Yasunobu Takeshima, Kosei Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Masanori Miyamoto, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo
Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, FA) is a lignin-derived phenolic compound abundant in plant biomass. The utilization of FA and its conversion to valuable compounds is desired. Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, PCA) is a precursor of polymers and plastics and a constituent of food. A microbial conversion system to produce PCA from FA was developed in this study using a PCA-producing strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum F (ATCC 21420). C. glutamicum strain F grown at 30 °C for 48 h utilized 2 mM each of FA and vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, VA) to produce PCA, which was secreted into the medium...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641232/on-the-aquatic-toxicity-of-substituted-phenols-to-chlorella-vulgaris-qstr-with-an-extended-novel-data-set-and-interspecies-models
#16
Gulcin Tugcu, M Doğa Ertürk, Melek Türker Saçan
This study provides for the first time the 96-h toxicity of 16 nitro- and methyl- substituted phenols to Chlorella vulgaris. Enabling the circulation of new ecotoxicity data has expanded the previously reported toxicity data set of 30 phenols to C. vulgaris by our laboratory. In this respect, high quality, single source algal toxicity data, generated in the same laboratory according to a REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of CHemicals) compatible endpoint, provided a sound basis to explore quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR), which can be used for regulatory purposes...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641205/muscilage-characterization-biochemical-and-enzymatic-activities-of-laser-irradiated-lagenaria-siceraria-seedlings
#17
Mazhar Abbas, Muhammad Arshad, Numrah Nisar, Jan Nisar, Abdul Ghaffar, Arif Nazir, M Asif Tahir, Munawar Iqbal
Laser stimulation effect on L. siceraria seed mucilage, biochemicals and enzymatic activities during early growth stages were investigated. The laser density power of 1mW/cm(2) for 3 and 5min treatments were performed and various responses i.e., seedlings mucilage, biochemical and enzymatic activities were studied. Laser treatment of L. siceraria seeds enhanced the biochemical as well as the enzymatic activities. TPC (total phenolic contents),TFC (total flavonoids contents), TSS (total soluble sugar), reducing sugar, proline contents, total soluble protein and nitrogen contents were recorded higher in laser treated groups versus control...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641195/biotransformation-in-the-zebrafish-embryo-temporal-gene-transcription-changes-of-cytochrome-p450-enzymes-and-internal-exposure-dynamics-of-the-ahr-binding-xenobiotic-benz-a-anthracene
#18
Agnes Kühnert, Carolina Vogs, Bettina Seiwert, Silke Aulhorn, Rolf Altenburger, Henner Hollert, Eberhard Küster, Wibke Busch
Not much is known about the biotransformation capability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. For understanding possible toxicity differences to adult fish, it might be crucial to understand the biotransformation of chemicals in zebrafish embryos i.e. as part of toxicokinetics. The biotransformation capabilities were analysed for two different stages of zebrafish embryos in conjunction with the internal concentrations of a xenobiotic. Zebrafish embryos of the late cleavage/early blastula period (2-26 hpf) and the early pharyngula period (26-50 hpf) were exposed for 24 h to the AhR binding compound benz[a]anthracene (BaA)...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641186/composition-of-dissolved-organic-matter-dom-from-periodically-submerged-soils-in-the-three-gorges-reservoir-areas-as-determined-by-elemental-and-optical-analysis-infrared-spectroscopy-pyrolysis-gc-ms-and-thermally-assisted-hydrolysis-and-methylation
#19
Tao Jiang, Joeri Kaal, Jian Liang, Yaoling Zhang, Shiqiang Wei, Dingyong Wang, Nelson W Green
Soil-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) has a major influence in biogeochemical processes related to contaminant dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions, due to its reactivity and its bridging role between the soil and aquatic systems. Within the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, China) area, an extensive water-fluctuation zone periodically submerges the surrounding soils. Here we report a characterization study of soil-derived DOM across the TGR areas, using elemental and optical analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), pyrolysis-GC-MS (Py-GC-MS) and thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-GC-MS)...
June 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640934/substrate-specificity-and-safener-inducibility-of-the-plant-udp-glucose-dependent-family-1-glycosyltransferases-super-family
#20
Melissa Brazier-Hicks, Markus Gershater, David Dixon, Robert Edwards
Plants contain large numbers of family 1 UDP-glucose dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs), including members that conjugate xenobiotics. Arabidopsis contains 107 UGT genes with 99 family members successfully expressed as glutathione transferase (GST)-fusion proteins in E.coli. A high-throughput catalytic screen was developed based on quantification of the fusion by measuring GST activity. UGT activity using UDP-glucose as donor was then determined using 11 synthetic acceptors bearing hydroxyl, amino and thiol groups that had been shown to undergo conjugation in plant extracts...
June 22, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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