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disseminated neonatal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453157/-the-spanish-society-of-paediatric-infectious-diseases-guidelines-on-the-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-neonatal-herpes-simplex-infections
#1
(no author information available yet)
Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are rare, but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most newborns acquire herpes simplex virus infection in the peripartum period. For peripartum transmission to occur, women must be shedding the virus in their genital tracts symptomatically or asymptomatically around the time of delivery. There are evidence-based interventions in pregnancy to prevent the transmission to the newborn. Caesarean section should be performed in the presence of herpetic lesions, and antiviral prophylaxis in the last weeks of pregnancy is recommended to suppress genital tract herpes simplex virus at the time of delivery...
February 13, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371283/clinical-features-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-and-genomics-of-bacteria-causing-neonatal-sepsis-in-a-children-s-hospital-in-vietnam-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-study
#2
Nguyen Duc Toan, Thomas C Darton, Christine J Boinett, James I Campbell, Abhilasha Karkey, Evelyne Kestelyn, Le Quoc Thinh, Nguyen Kien Mau, Pham Thi Thanh Tam, Le Nguyen Thanh Nhan, Ngo Ngoc Quang Minh, Cam Ngoc Phuong, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Ngo Minh Xuan, Tang Chi Thuong, Stephen Baker
INTRODUCTION: The clinical syndrome of neonatal sepsis, comprising signs of infection, septic shock and organ dysfunction in infants ≤4 weeks of age, is a frequent sequel to bloodstream infection and mandates urgent antimicrobial therapy. Bacterial characterisation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is vital for ensuring appropriate therapy, as high rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), especially in low-income and middle-income countries, may adversely affect outcome. Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam is a rapidly expanding city in Southeast Asia with a current population of almost 8 million...
January 24, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339415/genome-wide-identification-by-transposon-insertion-sequencing-of-escherichia-coli-k1-genes-essential-for-in-vitro-growth-gastrointestinal-colonizing-capacity-and-survival-in-serum
#3
Alex J McCarthy, Richard A Stabler, Peter W Taylor
Escherichia coli K1 strains are major causative agents of invasive disease of the new born. The age dependency of infection can be reproduced in the neonatal rat. Colonization of the small intestine following oral administration of K1 bacteria leads rapidly to invasion of the blood circulation; bacteria that avoid capture by the mesenteric lymphatic system and evade antibacterial mechanisms in the blood may disseminate to cause organ-specific infections such as meningitis. Some E. coli K1 surface constituents, in particular the polysialic acid capsule, are known to contribute to invasive potential but a comprehensive picture of the factors that determine the fully virulent phenotype has not so far emerged...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298827/herpes-simplex-virus-infection-in-infants-undergoing-meningitis-evaluation
#4
Andrea T Cruz, Stephen B Freedman, Dina M Kulik, Pamela J Okada, Alesia H Fleming, Rakesh D Mistry, Joanna E Thomson, David Schnadower, Joseph L Arms, Prashant Mahajan, Aris C Garro, Christopher M Pruitt, Fran Balamuth, Neil G Uspal, Paul L Aronson, Todd W Lyons, Amy D Thompson, Sarah J Curtis, Paul T Ishimine, Suzanne M Schmidt, Stuart A Bradin, Kendra L Grether-Jones, Aaron S Miller, Jeffrey Louie, Samir S Shah, Lise E Nigrovic
BACKGROUND: Although neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a potentially devastating infection requiring prompt evaluation and treatment, large-scale assessments of the frequency in potentially infected infants have not been performed. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of infants ≤60 days old who had cerebrospinal fluid culture testing performed in 1 of 23 participating North American emergency departments. HSV infection was defined by a positive HSV polymerase chain reaction or viral culture...
February 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250748/age-is-the-work-of-art-impact-of-neutrophil-and-organism-age-on-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation
#5
REVIEW
Weronika Ortmann, Elzbieta Kolaczkowska
Neutrophil extracellular traps or NETs are released by highly activated neutrophils in response to infectious agents, sterile inflammation, autoimmune stimuli and cancer. In the cells, the nuclear envelop disintegrates and decondensation of chromatin occurs that depends on peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and neutrophil elastase (NE). Subsequently, proteins from neutrophil granules (e.g., NE, lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase) and the nucleus (histones) bind to decondensed DNA and the whole structure is ejected from the cell...
December 18, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233168/a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-of-economic-evaluation-studies-conducted-on-neonatal-systemic-infections-in-south-asia
#6
Shruti Murthy, Denny John, Isadora Perpetual Godinho, Myron Anthony Godinho, Vasudeva Guddattu, N Sreekumaran Nair
BACKGROUND: Neonatal systemic infections and their consequent impairments give rise to long-lasting health, economic and social effects on the neonate, the family and the nation. Considering the dearth of consolidated economic evidence in this important area, this systematic review aims to critically appraise and consolidate the evidence on economic evaluations of management of neonatal systemic infections in South Asia. METHODS: Full and partial economic evaluations, published in English, associated with the management of neonatal systemic infections in South Asia will be included...
December 12, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201229/antimicrobial-resistance-and-prevalence-of-cvfb-sek-and-seq-genes-among-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-paediatric-patients-with-bloodstream-infections
#7
Bing-Shao Liang, Yan-Mei Huang, Yin-Shuang Chen, Hui Dong, Jia-Liang Mai, Yong-Qiang Xie, Hua-Min Zhong, Qiu-Lian Deng, Yan Long, Yi-Yu Yang, Si-Tang Gong, Zhen-Wen Zhou
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most frequently isolated pathogens in neonatal cases of early and late-onset sepsis. Drug resistance profiles and carriage of toxin genes may affect the treatment and outcome of an infection. The present study aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and frequencies of the toxin-associated genes conserved virulence factor B (CvfB), staphylococcal enterotoxin Q (SEQ) and staphylococcal enterotoxin K (SEK) among S. aureus isolates recovered from paediatric patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Guangzhou (China)...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185462/histopathological-immunohistochemical-and-ultrastructural-evidence-of-spontaneous-senecavirus-a-induced-lesions-at-the-choroid-plexus-of-newborn-piglets
#8
Thalita E S Oliveira, Mariana M Z Michelazzo, Thiago Fernandes, Admilton G de Oliveira, Raquel A Leme, Alice F Alfieri, Amauri A Alfieri, Selwyn A Headley
Epidemic Transient Neonatal Losses (ETNL) is a disease of piglets caused by Senecavirus A (SVA) in which the method of dissemination and associated lesions are not well-defined. This study investigated the possible SVA-induced lesions by examining spontaneous infections in newborn piglets. Histopathology revealed ballooning degeneration of transitional epithelium, nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, plexus choroiditis, and atrophic enteritis. RT-PCR identified SVA in all tissues evaluated and sequencing confirmed these results...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132771/-neonatal-herpes-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-management-guidelines-for-clinical-practice-from-the-french-college-of-gynecologists-and-obstetricians-cngof
#9
L Renesme
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of neonatal herpes and its risk factors, clinical and paraclinic manifestations, propose guidelines for a newborn at risk of neonatal herpes, describe treatment modalities, describe post-natal transmission and its prevention. METHODS: Bibliographic search from Medline, Cochrane Library databases and research of international clinical practice guidelines. RESULTS: Neonatal herpes is rare (about 20 cases per year in France) and mainly due to HSV 1 (level of evidence LE3)...
December 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107079/clonal-spread-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#10
Wirlaine Glauce Maciel, Kesia Esther da Silva, Julio Croda, Rodrigo Cayô, Ana Carolina Ramos, Romário Oliveira de Sales, Gleyce Hellen de Almeida de Souza, José Victor Bortolotto Bampi, Leticia Cristina Limiere, Junior César Casagrande, Ana Cristina Gales, Simone Simionatto
Acinetobacter baumannii has been frequently associated with colonization and/or infection in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). In this study, we describe a clonal spread of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) isolates in a NICU. A total of 21 CRAB isolates were collected from premature newborns. Only polymyxin B was active against such isolates. Nineteen CRAB isolates were clonally related (cluster C that belonged to worldwide-disseminated ST1). All newborns had peripheral access and previously received β-lactams therapy...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094482/maternal-peripartum-septic-shock-caused-by-intrauterine-infection-with-edwardsiella-tarda-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Yuki Miyazawa, Keisuke Murakami, Yuichiro Kizaki, Yukiko Itaya, Yasushi Takai, Hiroyuki Seki
Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) is a rare pathogen in humans, especially during the peripartum period. Only a few cases of fatal neonatal infection with E. tarda have been reported. Herein, we describe a case of maternal septicemia caused by E. tarda following peripartum chorioamnionitis. The mother developed septic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation and a post-cesarean wound hematoma with abscess. Her condition improved with multidisciplinary therapy including blood transfusion, antimicrobial agents, recombinant thrombomodulin and surgical debridement...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965099/risk-factors-and-barriers-to-case-management-of-neonatal-pneumonia-protocol-for-a-pan-india-qualitative-study-of-stakeholder-perceptions
#12
N Sreekumaran Nair, Leslie Edward Lewis, Theophilus Lakiang, Myron Anthony Godinho, Shruti Murthy, Bhumika T Venkatesh
INTRODUCTION: India accounted for more neonatal deaths (estimated at 696 000) than any other country, as of 2015. Of these , most neonatal deaths due to infections can be attributed to pneumonia which accounts for 16% of all neonatal mortalities (2010). Despite simple, inexpensive case management strategies being available, pneumonia continues to cause significant mortality and morbidity among neonates. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of stakeholders of neonatal care can help find solutions to barriers to care and design tailored strategies for controlling neonatal pneumonia...
September 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903312/gnp-gapdh1-22-nanovaccines-prevent-neonatal-listeriosis-by-blocking-microglial-apoptosis-and-bacterial-dissemination
#13
Ricardo Calderon-Gonzalez, Elisabet Frande-Cabanes, Hector Teran-Navarro, José María Marimon, Javier Freire, David Salcines-Cuevas, M Carmen Fariñas, Claudia Onzalez-Rico, Marco Marradi, Isabel Garcia, Mirian Alkorta-Gurrutxaga, Aida San Nicolas-Gomez, Ana Castañeda-Sampedro, Sonsoles Yañez-Diaz, Soledad Penades, Carmen Punzon, Javier Gomez-Roman, Fernando Rivera, Manuel Fresno, Carmen Alvarez-Dominguez
Clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis are associated with brain disease and fetal loss due to complications in early or late pregnancy, which suggests that microglial function is altered. This is believed to be the first study to link microglial apoptosis with neonatal listeriosis and listeriosis-associated brain disease, and to propose a new nanovaccine formulation that reverses all effects of listeriosis and confers Listeria monocytogenes (LM)-specific immunity. We examined clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis in 2013-2015 and defined two useful prognostic immune biomarkers to design listeriosis vaccines: high anti-GAPDH1-22 titres and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/interleukin (IL)-6 ratios...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895709/recombinant-tissue-plasminogen-activator-treatment-for-intracardiac-vegetation-in-a-very-low-birth-weight-infant
#14
Abdurrahman A Ozdemir
Developing treatment options have resulted in prolonged admission and increased bacterial and fungal nosocomial infections as well as improved survival in neonatal intensive care unit. Invasive fungal infections in newborns are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and can cause endorgan dissemination such as endocarditis, endophthalmitis, septic arthritis, obstructive nephropathy and meningitis. Endocarditis requires aggressive systemic antifungal therapy and sometimes surgical intervention in neonates...
October 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881515/-characteristics-of-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-gram-negative-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#15
L Dong, X Y Zhang, C C Li, Z Li, Y Q Xia
Objective: To study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in children, and to guide the choice of antimicrobials and the control of nosocomial infection. Method: Clinical data, bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results were collected retrospectively in hospitalized children who were diagnosed with gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January, 2010 to December, 2015...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753580/gnp-gapdh1-22-nanovaccines-prevent-neonatal-listeriosis-by-blocking-microglial-apoptosis-and-bacterial-dissemination
#16
Ricardo Calderon-Gonzalez, Elisabet Frande-Cabanes, Hector Teran-Navarro, José María Marimon, Javier Freire, David Salcines-Cuevas, M Carmen Fariñas, Claudia Gonzalez-Rico, Marco Marradi, Isabel Garcia, Mirian Alkorta-Gurrutxaga, Aida San Nicolas-Gomez, Ana Castañeda-San Pedro, Sonsoles Yañez-Diaz, Soledad Penades, Carmen Punzon, Javier Gomez-Roman, Fernando Rivera, Manuel Fresno, Carmen Alvarez-Dominguez
Clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis are associated with brain disease and fetal loss due to complications in early or late pregnancy, which suggests that microglial function is altered. This is believed to be the first study to link microglial apoptosis with neonatal listeriosis and listeriosis-associated brain disease, and to propose a new nanovaccine formulation that reverses all effects of listeriosis and confers Listeria monocytogenes (LM)-specific immunity. We examined clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis in 2013-2015 and defined two useful prognostic immune biomarkers to design listeriosis vaccines: high anti-GAPDH1-22 titres and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/interleukin (IL)-6 ratios...
July 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736976/living-donor-liver-transplantation-for-neonatal-fulminant-hepatitis-due-to-herpes-simplex-virus-infection
#17
Rodrigo Vincenzi, Eduardo A Fonseca, Karina M O Roda, Gilda Porta, Helry L Candido, Marcel R Benavides, Katia R M Leite, Rogerio C Afonso, Plinio Turine-Neto, Cristiane M F Ribeiro, Paulo Chapchap, João Seda-Neto
Although rare, ALF caused by disseminated HSV infection is associated with high mortality in the neonatal population. This condition is often diagnosed relatively late due to the absence of specific signs. We present a case involving a neonate with ALF submitted to living donor liver transplantation without a prior diagnosis. The patient had no skin or mucosal lesions, and IgM serology was negative for HSV-1 and HSV-2. Immunohistochemical staining of the liver explant was positive for herpes virus infection, and the patient subsequently received antiviral drug treatment, with a good outcome...
November 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713338/investigation-of-och1-in-the-virulence-of-candida-parapsilosis-using-a-new-neonatal-mouse-model
#18
Katalin Csonka, Máté Vadovics, Annamária Marton, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Erik Zajta, Adél Tóth, Renáta Tóth, Csaba Vizler, László Tiszlavicz, Héctor M Mora-Montes, Attila Gácser
Candida parapsilosis is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that poses a serious threat to low birth weight neonates, particularly at intensive care units. In premature infants, the distinct immune responses to Candida infections are not well understood. Although several in vivo models exist to study systemic candidiasis, only a few are available to investigate dissemination in newborns. In addition, the majority of related studies apply intraperitoneal infection rather than intravenous inoculation of murine infants that may be less efficient when studying systemic invasion...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702025/cellular-and-molecular-defects-underlying-invasive-fungal-infections-revelations-from-endemic-mycoses
#19
REVIEW
Pamela P Lee, Yu-Lung Lau
The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680463/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-herpes-simplex-1-virus-infection-in-pregnancy
#20
REVIEW
Rachel Lee, Manju Nair
A nulliparous woman presented at 21 weeks' gestation with a 72-h history of a rash on her left arm. Initially isolated to the forearm, it had quickly spread, becoming multiple itchy fluid-filled blisters. Blood tests showed mild neutrophilia and raised CRP. Skin swabs demonstrated the presence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) DNA. There was no history of previous HSV1 exposure. There is scant literature on uncomplicated cutaneous HSV1 since the majority is oral/genital. The incidence of transmission varies and is dependent on site of infection and immunological status...
June 2017: Obstetric Medicine
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