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disseminated neonatal infection

Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Jotam Pasipanodya, Eric Nuermberger, Soumya Swaminathan, Tawanda Gumbo
BACKGROUND:  When treated with the same antibiotic dose, children achieve different 0- to 24-hour area under the concentration-time curves (AUC0-24) because of maturation and between-child physiological variability on drug clearance. Children are also infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with different antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Thus, each child will achieve different AUC0-24/MIC ratios when treated with the same dose. METHODS:  We used 10 000-subject Monte Carlo experiments to identify the oral doses of linezolid, moxifloxacin, and faropenem that would achieve optimal target exposures associated with optimal efficacy in children with disseminated tuberculosis...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Elham Keshavarz, Andrea Poretti, Adriano N Hazin
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It is usually transmitted by mosquito bite. There have been no reports of severe symptoms caused by ZIKV infection up until the last few years. In October 2013 an outbreak was reported in French Polynesia with severe neurological complications in some affected cases. In November 2015, the Ministry of Health of Brazil attributed the increased number of neonatal microcephaly cases in northeastern Brazil to congenital ZIKV infection. The rapid spread of the virus convinced the World Health Organization to announce ZIKV infection as a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern" in February 2016...
October 6, 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Gurleen Wander, Francesa Neuberger, Mandish K Dhanjal, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, May Ching Soh
Most published cases of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy relate to congenital abnormalities in neonates infected in early pregnancy, while the mother remains asymptomatic. We describe a diagnostically challenging case of an immunosuppressed woman with scleroderma who developed deranged liver function tests attributed to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome but was ultimately found to have disseminated cytomegalovirus. Cytomegalovirus can present in a myriad of ways...
September 2016: Obstetric Medicine
Antonio Carlos Bandeira, Gubio Soares Campos, Silvia Ines Sardi, Veronica França Diniz Rocha, Guilherme Cesar Mendes Rocha
PURPOSE: To report the first case of Chikungunya encephalitis acquired in the perinatal period during the current outbreak in Brazil. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A male neonate with 3500 g developed macular erythematous rash, hypoactivity and fever progressing to generalized seizures. His mother had experienced a disseminated rash and fever before delivery. EEG showed diffuse slowing and cranial NMR was suggestive of encephalitis. Rt-PCR for Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was positive in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, urine and saliva...
2016: IDCases
Rotem Orbach, Dror Mandel, Ronit Lubetzky, Amit Ovental, Alon Haham, Ora Halutz, Galia Grisaru-Soen
BACKGROUND: Prematurity is an important risk factor for the fulminate form of neonatal enteroviral infection. Pulmonary hemorrhage is a morbid complication that should be anticipated and managed aggressively due to its fatal outcome. OBJECTIVE: To emphasize the significance of pulmonary hemorrhage as a complication of severe enterovirus infection in preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: This report is a description of the clinical history, medical management and clinical outcomes of two pairs of preterm twin newborns (30 weeks and 36 weeks) with fulminant infection due to Coxsackievirus B (CBV) infection...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
K Lehmberg, W A Hassenpflug, I Klaassen, G Hillebrand, F Oyen, U Budde, D Singer, R Schneppenheim
We report on 3 male neonates with hereditary ADAMTS13 deficiency (Upshaw Schulman syndrome, USS), the inherited form of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). 2 presented shortly after birth with thrombocytopenia followed by microangiopathic Coombs-negative haemolytic anaemia. Both initially received antibiotic treatment for suspected infection-associated thrombocytopenia. In one patient's brother, the first bout of incipient TTP did not occur before 6 months of age, despite the same genetic defect. ADAMTS13 activity was<5%, compound heterozygous mutations were found in all patients...
July 6, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
James J Dunn
Infections with enteroviruses and human parechoviruses are highly prevalent, particularly in neonates, where they may cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Individuals with B-cell-related immunodeficiencies are at risk for severe enteroviral infections, usually a chronic and fatal meningoencephalitis. In transplant recipients and patients with malignancy, enterovirus infections typically involve the respiratory tract, but cases of severe, disseminated infection have been described. The mainstay of diagnosis for enterovirus and human parechovirus infections involves the use of molecular diagnostic techniques...
June 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Keisuke Otsubo, Akiko Fukumura, Mariko Hirayama, Tsuyoshi Morimoto, Masahiko Kato, Hiroyuki Mochizuki
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a hyperinflammatory condition resulting from an uncontrolled and ineffective immune response. Here, we report a case of HLH caused by disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 infection. The patient was initially treated with prednisolone and high-dose acyclovir. Although liver enzymes, coagulation abnormalities, and inflammatory markers were remarkably improved, the platelet count remained low. Prednisolone was therefore switched to dexamethasone palmitate. Thereafter, the platelet count normalized...
April 14, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
T Murphy, J Bender, M Taub, R Tucker, A Laptook
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify, quantify and disseminate a novel set of safety indicators for monitoring the occurrence of preventable harm in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). STUDY DESIGN: Literature review and experiences in an academic, level IV NICU identified prevalent, preventable safety events: hospital-acquired infections (catheter-associated bloodstream infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia), unscheduled extubations, intravenous infiltrates requiring intervention, first week readmissions, serious adverse drug events and miscellaneous events (unanticipated harm or serious near misses)...
August 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Jeffrey J Cies, Wayne S Moore, Susan B Conley, Mindy J Dickerman, Christine Small, Dominick Carella, Paul Shea, Jason Parker, Arun Chopra
Pharmacokinetic parameters can be significantly altered for both extracorporeal life support (ECLS) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). This case report describes the pharmacokinetics of continuous-infusion meropenem in a patient on ECLS with concurrent CRRT. A 2.8-kg, 10-day-old, full-term neonate born via spontaneous vaginal delivery presented with hypothermia, lethargy, and a ~500-g weight loss from birth. She progressed to respiratory failure on hospital day 2 (HD 2) and developed sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and liver failure as a result of disseminated adenoviral infection...
January 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Alison L Curfman, Eric W Glissmeyer, Fahd A Ahmad, E Kent Korgenski, Anne J Blaschke, Carrie L Byington, Aaron S Miller
OBJECTIVE: To inform the decision to test and empirically treat for herpes simplex virus (HSV) by describing the initial clinical presentation and laboratory findings of infants with a confirmed diagnosis of neonatal HSV. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective case series performed at 2 pediatric tertiary care centers. Infants who developed symptoms prior to 42 days of age with laboratory confirmed HSV from 2002 through 2012 were included. We excluded infants <34 weeks gestation, those who developed illness before discharge from their birth hospital, and those who developed symptoms after 42 days of age...
May 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Rahim Barari-Savadkouhi, Azin Shour, Jila Masrour-Roudsari
BACKGROUND: BCG vaccination which is administered to prevent tuberculosis is sometimes associated with serious complications. This study aimed to determine the incidence of complications of BCG vaccination in Babol. METHODS: All infants who received BCG vaccination between 2011-2013 in health centers of Babol entered the study. Data regarding complications of vaccine were extracted according to the National Inventory of babies. All complicated cases were confirmed by the Academic Committee to review the adverse consequences of the vaccine...
2016: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Hajime Kanamori, David J Weber, William A Rutala
Hospital water may serve as a reservoir of healthcare-associated pathogens, and contaminated water can lead to outbreaks and severe infections. The clinical features of waterborne outbreaks and infections as well as prevention strategies and control measures are reviewed. The common waterborne pathogens were bacteria, including Legionella and other gram-negative bacteria, and nontuberculous mycobacteria, although fungi and viruses were occasionally described. These pathogens caused a variety of infections, including bacteremia and invasive and disseminated diseases, particularly among immunocompromised hosts and critically ill adults as well as neonates...
June 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Marco Buscetta, Arnaud Firon, Giampiero Pietrocola, Carmelo Biondo, Giuseppe Mancuso, Angelina Midiri, Letizia Romeo, Roberta Galbo, Mario Venza, Isabella Venza, Pierre-Alexandre Kaminski, Myriam Gominet, Giuseppe Teti, Pietro Speziale, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Concetta Beninati
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus or GBS) is a leading cause of invasive infections in neonates whose virulence is dependent on its ability to interact with cells and host components. We here characterized a surface protein with a critical function in GBS pathophysiology. This adhesin, designated PbsP, possesses two Streptococcal Surface Repeat domains, a methionine and lysine-rich region, and a LPXTG cell wall-anchoring motif. PbsP mediates plasminogen (Plg) binding both in vitro and in vivo and we showed that cell surface-bound Plg can be activated into plasmin by tissue plasminogen activator to increase the bacterial extracellular proteolytic activity...
July 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Marwan Al Aswad, Manika Suryadevara
Disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus infection usually presents with multi-organ involvement. Untreated, this disease has a mortality rate of approximately 80%. Here, we describe a well-appearing 3-week old infant with isolated compensated hepatic failure caused by HSV-2.
2014: IDCases
Martins A Adefisoye, Anthony I Okoh
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem impeding the effective prevention/treatment of an ever-growing array of infections caused by pathogens; a huge challenge threatening the achievements of modern medicine. In this paper, we report the occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Escherichia coli strains isolated from discharged final effluents of two wastewater treatment facilities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Standard disk diffusion method was employed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of 223 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed E...
February 2016: MicrobiologyOpen
Pooja Hebbal, Barbara K Russell, Tokunbo Akande, Masooma Niazi, Stefan H F Hagmann, Stefan F H Hagmann, Murli U Purswani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Fu-Kuei Huang, Hsiu-Lin Chen, Peng-Hong Yang, Hung-Chih Lin
Though the incidence of neonatal infection in term and near-term infants is relatively low, incidence of infection in preterm very low birth weight infants is as high as 20-30% and may result in neurodevelopmental impairment or mortality. Pediatricians should be familiar with recognition and emergency management of life-threatening neonatal infections, such as congenital pneumonia, early onset sepsis, late onset sepsis, bacterial and fungal meningitis, disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV), and HSV meningoencephalitis...
June 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Anna Dalton, Rosalie Grivell
Background. Disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the neonate is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines recommend caesarean in third-trimester maternal primary genital HSV outbreaks to prevent transmission from mother to fetus. In the premature fetus, however, expectant management is often necessary to reduce morbidity of prematurity. The benefit of performing caesarean after 6 hrs of rupture of membranes (ROM) to reduce maternal-fetal transmission is unclear. Case. A female patient with primary genital HSV type 1 outbreak coinciding with preterm, prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) at 30 + 3 weeks' gestation...
2015: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Douglas R Wilcox, William J Muller, Richard Longnecker
Newborns are significantly more susceptible to severe disease after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) compared with adults, with differences in the host response implicated as a major factor. To understand host response differences between these age groups, we investigated the shutoff of protein synthesis by the host and the retargeting of host phosphatase PP1α by the HSV-1 protein γ34.5 for reversal of translational arrest. In a murine newborn model of viral dissemination, infection with the HSV-1 mutant for PP1α binding resulted in complete absence of disease...
December 15, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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