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disseminated neonatal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610175/neonatal-adenovirus-infection-complicated-by-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-syndrome
#1
Nina Censoplano, Stephen Gorga, Kate Waldeck, Terri Stillwell, Raja Rabah-Hammad, Heidi Flori
Two infants with disseminated adenoviral infections are described. Both these infants had a similar clinical course and were also diagnosed with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Previous reports of immunocompromised adults with adenovirus-associated HLH are in the literature; however, this is the first report that we are aware of with this pathology occurring in infants. These cases are used to demonstrate the importance of thinking about HLH in patients who are diagnosed with adenovirus and exhibit prolonged fevers that are unresponsive to antimicrobial agents with hepatosplenomegaly and cytopenias...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588851/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-sequence-type-796-rapid-international-dissemination-of-a-new-epidemic-clone
#2
Andrew A Mahony, Andrew H Buultjens, Susan A Ballard, Elizabeth A Grabsch, Shirley Xie, Torsten Seemann, Rhonda L Stuart, Despina Kotsanas, Allen Cheng, Helen Heffernan, Sally A Roberts, Geoffrey W Coombs, Narin Bak, John K Ferguson, Glen C Carter, Benjamin P Howden, Timothy P Stinear, Paul D R Johnson
Background: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. New, presumably better-adapted strains of VRE appear unpredictably; it is uncertain how they spread despite improved infection control. We aimed to investigate the relatedness of a novel sequence type (ST) of vanB E. faecium - ST796 - very near its time of origin from hospitals in three Australian states and New Zealand. Methods: Following near-simultaneous outbreaks of ST796 in multiple institutions, we gathered then tested colonization and bloodstream infection isolates' antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypes, and phylogenomic relationships using whole genome sequencing (WGS)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540648/acute-kidney-injury-in-a-case-of-purpura-fulminans-developing-secondary-to-antithrombin-3-deficiency
#3
Gülsüm Özkan, Gaye Kübra Emeksiz, Reşit Volkan Atar, Samet Sedef, Pınar Sonat Kara, Meltem Öznur, Burhan Turgut
Purpura fulminans associated with antithrombin 3 (AT 3) deficiency is very rare in adults and neonates. It can be categorized into three principal forms - neonatal, idiopathic and acute infectious. Purpura fulminans has been reported to cause cardiac, pulmonary and renal damage in rare cases. We describe an adult case of purpura fulminans developing in association with AT 3 deficiency without infection following a surgical procedure, and acute kidney injury (AKI) developing secondary to rhabdomyolysis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496651/experiences-of-indian-health-workers-using-whatsapp-for-improving-aseptic-practices-with-newborns-exploratory-qualitative-study
#4
Parika Pahwa, Sarah Lunsford, Nigel Livesley
BACKGROUND: Quality improvement (QI) involves the following 4 steps: (1) forming a team to work on a specific aim, (2) analyzing the reasons for current underperformance, (3) developing changes that could improve care and testing these changes using plan-do-study-act cycles (PDSA), and (4) implementing successful interventions to sustain improvements. Teamwork and group discussion are key for effective QI, but convening in-person meetings with all staff can be challenging due to workload and shift changes...
March 1, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465747/antibiotics-for-treating-gonorrhoea-in-pregnancy
#5
REVIEW
Gabriella Comunián-Carrasco, Guiomar E Peña-Martí, Arturo J Martí-Carvajal
BACKGROUND: Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection that is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and is a major public health challenge today. N gonorrhoeae can be transmitted from the mother's genital tract to the newborn during birth, and can cause gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum as well as systemic neonatal infections. It can also cause endometritis and pelvic sepsis in the mother. This review updates and replaces an earlier Cochrane Review on antibiotics for treating this infectious condition...
February 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453157/-the-spanish-society-of-paediatric-infectious-diseases-guidelines-on-the-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-neonatal-herpes-simplex-infections
#6
(no author information available yet)
Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections are rare, but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Most newborns acquire herpes simplex virus infection in the peripartum period. For peripartum transmission to occur, women must be shedding the virus in their genital tracts symptomatically or asymptomatically around the time of delivery. There are evidence-based interventions in pregnancy to prevent the transmission to the newborn. Caesarean section should be performed in the presence of herpetic lesions, and antiviral prophylaxis in the last weeks of pregnancy is recommended to suppress genital tract herpes simplex virus at the time of delivery...
February 13, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371283/clinical-features-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-and-genomics-of-bacteria-causing-neonatal-sepsis-in-a-children-s-hospital-in-vietnam-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-study
#7
Nguyen Duc Toan, Thomas C Darton, Christine J Boinett, James I Campbell, Abhilasha Karkey, Evelyne Kestelyn, Le Quoc Thinh, Nguyen Kien Mau, Pham Thi Thanh Tam, Le Nguyen Thanh Nhan, Ngo Ngoc Quang Minh, Cam Ngoc Phuong, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Ngo Minh Xuan, Tang Chi Thuong, Stephen Baker
INTRODUCTION: The clinical syndrome of neonatal sepsis, comprising signs of infection, septic shock and organ dysfunction in infants ≤4 weeks of age, is a frequent sequel to bloodstream infection and mandates urgent antimicrobial therapy. Bacterial characterisation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is vital for ensuring appropriate therapy, as high rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), especially in low-income and middle-income countries, may adversely affect outcome. Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam is a rapidly expanding city in Southeast Asia with a current population of almost 8 million...
January 24, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339415/genome-wide-identification-by-transposon-insertion-sequencing-of-escherichia-coli-k1-genes-essential-for-in-vitro-growth-gastrointestinal-colonizing-capacity-and-survival-in-serum
#8
Alex J McCarthy, Richard A Stabler, Peter W Taylor
Escherichia coli K1 strains are major causative agents of invasive disease of newborn infants. The age dependency of infection can be reproduced in neonatal rats. Colonization of the small intestine following oral administration of K1 bacteria leads rapidly to invasion of the blood circulation; bacteria that avoid capture by the mesenteric lymphatic system and evade antibacterial mechanisms in the blood may disseminate to cause organ-specific infections such as meningitis. Some E. coli K1 surface constituents, in particular the polysialic acid capsule, are known to contribute to invasive potential, but a comprehensive picture of the factors that determine the fully virulent phenotype has not emerged so far...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298827/herpes-simplex-virus-infection-in-infants-undergoing-meningitis-evaluation
#9
Andrea T Cruz, Stephen B Freedman, Dina M Kulik, Pamela J Okada, Alesia H Fleming, Rakesh D Mistry, Joanna E Thomson, David Schnadower, Joseph L Arms, Prashant Mahajan, Aris C Garro, Christopher M Pruitt, Fran Balamuth, Neil G Uspal, Paul L Aronson, Todd W Lyons, Amy D Thompson, Sarah J Curtis, Paul T Ishimine, Suzanne M Schmidt, Stuart A Bradin, Kendra L Grether-Jones, Aaron S Miller, Jeffrey Louie, Samir S Shah, Lise E Nigrovic
BACKGROUND: Although neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a potentially devastating infection requiring prompt evaluation and treatment, large-scale assessments of the frequency in potentially infected infants have not been performed. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of infants ≤60 days old who had cerebrospinal fluid culture testing performed in 1 of 23 participating North American emergency departments. HSV infection was defined by a positive HSV polymerase chain reaction or viral culture...
February 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250748/age-is-the-work-of-art-impact-of-neutrophil-and-organism-age-on-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation
#10
REVIEW
Weronika Ortmann, Elzbieta Kolaczkowska
Neutrophil extracellular traps or NETs are released by highly activated neutrophils in response to infectious agents, sterile inflammation, autoimmune stimuli and cancer. In the cells, the nuclear envelop disintegrates and decondensation of chromatin occurs that depends on peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and neutrophil elastase (NE). Subsequently, proteins from neutrophil granules (e.g., NE, lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase) and the nucleus (histones) bind to decondensed DNA and the whole structure is ejected from the cell...
March 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233168/a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-of-economic-evaluation-studies-conducted-on-neonatal-systemic-infections-in-south-asia
#11
Shruti Murthy, Denny John, Isadora Perpetual Godinho, Myron Anthony Godinho, Vasudeva Guddattu, N Sreekumaran Nair
BACKGROUND: Neonatal systemic infections and their consequent impairments give rise to long-lasting health, economic and social effects on the neonate, the family and the nation. Considering the dearth of consolidated economic evidence in this important area, this systematic review aims to critically appraise and consolidate the evidence on economic evaluations of management of neonatal systemic infections in South Asia. METHODS: Full and partial economic evaluations, published in English, associated with the management of neonatal systemic infections in South Asia will be included...
December 12, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201229/antimicrobial-resistance-and-prevalence-of-cvfb-sek-and-seq-genes-among-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-paediatric-patients-with-bloodstream-infections
#12
Bing-Shao Liang, Yan-Mei Huang, Yin-Shuang Chen, Hui Dong, Jia-Liang Mai, Yong-Qiang Xie, Hua-Min Zhong, Qiu-Lian Deng, Yan Long, Yi-Yu Yang, Si-Tang Gong, Zhen-Wen Zhou
Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) is one of the most frequently isolated pathogens in neonatal cases of early and late-onset sepsis. Drug resistance profiles and carriage of toxin genes may affect the treatment and outcome of an infection. The present study aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and frequencies of the toxin-associated genes conserved virulence factor B (CvfB), staphylococcal enterotoxin Q (SEQ) and staphylococcal enterotoxin K (SEK) among S. aureus isolates recovered from paediatric patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Guangzhou (China)...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185462/histopathological-immunohistochemical-and-ultrastructural-evidence-of-spontaneous-senecavirus-a-induced-lesions-at-the-choroid-plexus-of-newborn-piglets
#13
Thalita E S Oliveira, Mariana M Z Michelazzo, Thiago Fernandes, Admilton G de Oliveira, Raquel A Leme, Alice F Alfieri, Amauri A Alfieri, Selwyn A Headley
Epidemic Transient Neonatal Losses (ETNL) is a disease of piglets caused by Senecavirus A (SVA) in which the method of dissemination and associated lesions are not well-defined. This study investigated the possible SVA-induced lesions by examining spontaneous infections in newborn piglets. Histopathology revealed ballooning degeneration of transitional epithelium, nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, plexus choroiditis, and atrophic enteritis. RT-PCR identified SVA in all tissues evaluated and sequencing confirmed these results...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132771/-neonatal-herpes-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-management-guidelines-for-clinical-practice-from-the-french-college-of-gynecologists-and-obstetricians-cngof
#14
L Renesme
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of neonatal herpes and its risk factors, clinical and paraclinic manifestations, propose guidelines for a newborn at risk of neonatal herpes, describe treatment modalities, describe post-natal transmission and its prevention. METHODS: Bibliographic search from Medline, Cochrane Library databases and research of international clinical practice guidelines. RESULTS: Neonatal herpes is rare (about 20 cases per year in France) and mainly due to HSV 1 (level of evidence LE3)...
December 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107079/clonal-spread-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#15
W G Maciel, K E da Silva, J Croda, R Cayô, A C Ramos, R O de Sales, G H de Almeida de Souza, J V B Bampi, L C Limiere, J C Casagrande, A C Gales, S Simionatto
Acinetobacter baumannii has often been associated with colonization and/or infection in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). This study describes a clonal spread of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) isolates in an NICU. In total, 21 CRAB isolates were collected from premature newborns. Only polymyxin B was active against such isolates. Nineteen CRAB isolates were clonally related (Cluster C, which belonged to worldwide-disseminated ST1). All newborns had peripheral access and had received β-lactam therapy previously...
March 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094482/maternal-peripartum-septic-shock-caused-by-intrauterine-infection-with-edwardsiella-tarda-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Yuki Miyazawa, Keisuke Murakami, Yuichiro Kizaki, Yukiko Itaya, Yasushi Takai, Hiroyuki Seki
Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) is a rare pathogen in humans, especially during the peripartum period. Only a few cases of fatal neonatal infection with E. tarda have been reported. Herein, we describe a case of maternal septicemia caused by E. tarda following peripartum chorioamnionitis. The mother developed septic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation and a post-cesarean wound hematoma with abscess. Her condition improved with multidisciplinary therapy including blood transfusion, antimicrobial agents, recombinant thrombomodulin and surgical debridement...
January 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965099/risk-factors-and-barriers-to-case-management-of-neonatal-pneumonia-protocol-for-a-pan-india-qualitative-study-of-stakeholder-perceptions
#17
N Sreekumaran Nair, Leslie Edward Lewis, Theophilus Lakiang, Myron Anthony Godinho, Shruti Murthy, Bhumika T Venkatesh
INTRODUCTION: India accounted for more neonatal deaths (estimated at 696 000) than any other country, as of 2015. Of these , most neonatal deaths due to infections can be attributed to pneumonia which accounts for 16% of all neonatal mortalities (2010). Despite simple, inexpensive case management strategies being available, pneumonia continues to cause significant mortality and morbidity among neonates. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of stakeholders of neonatal care can help find solutions to barriers to care and design tailored strategies for controlling neonatal pneumonia...
September 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903312/gnp-gapdh1-22-nanovaccines-prevent-neonatal-listeriosis-by-blocking-microglial-apoptosis-and-bacterial-dissemination
#18
Ricardo Calderon-Gonzalez, Elisabet Frande-Cabanes, Hector Teran-Navarro, José María Marimon, Javier Freire, David Salcines-Cuevas, M Carmen Fariñas, Claudia Onzalez-Rico, Marco Marradi, Isabel Garcia, Mirian Alkorta-Gurrutxaga, Aida San Nicolas-Gomez, Ana Castañeda-Sampedro, Sonsoles Yañez-Diaz, Soledad Penades, Carmen Punzon, Javier Gomez-Roman, Fernando Rivera, Manuel Fresno, Carmen Alvarez-Dominguez
Clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis are associated with brain disease and fetal loss due to complications in early or late pregnancy, which suggests that microglial function is altered. This is believed to be the first study to link microglial apoptosis with neonatal listeriosis and listeriosis-associated brain disease, and to propose a new nanovaccine formulation that reverses all effects of listeriosis and confers Listeria monocytogenes (LM)-specific immunity. We examined clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis in 2013-2015 and defined two useful prognostic immune biomarkers to design listeriosis vaccines: high anti-GAPDH1-22 titres and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/interleukin (IL)-6 ratios...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895709/recombinant-tissue-plasminogen-activator-treatment-for-intracardiac-vegetation-in-a-very-low-birth-weight-infant
#19
Abdurrahman A Ozdemir
Developing treatment options have resulted in prolonged admission and increased bacterial and fungal nosocomial infections as well as improved survival in neonatal intensive care unit. Invasive fungal infections in newborns are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and can cause endorgan dissemination such as endocarditis, endophthalmitis, septic arthritis, obstructive nephropathy and meningitis. Endocarditis requires aggressive systemic antifungal therapy and sometimes surgical intervention in neonates...
October 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881515/-characteristics-of-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-gram-negative-bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-children
#20
L Dong, X Y Zhang, C C Li, Z Li, Y Q Xia
Objective: To study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in children, and to guide the choice of antimicrobials and the control of nosocomial infection. Method: Clinical data, bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results were collected retrospectively in hospitalized children who were diagnosed with gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections in Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from January, 2010 to December, 2015...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
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