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disseminated neonatal infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524216/-update-on-congenital-and-neonatal-herpes-infections-infection-due-to-cytomegalovirus-and-herpes-simplex
#1
F Baquero-Artigao
Newborn infants are a population which is especially susceptible to viral infections that frequently affect the central nervous system. Herpes infections can be transmitted to the foetus and to the newborn infant, and give rise to severe clinical conditions with long-term sensory and cognitive deficits. Two thirds of newborn infants with encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus and half of the children with symptomatic congenital infection by cytomegalovirus develop sequelae, which results in high community health costs in the long term...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522324/non-invasive-three-dimensional-imaging-of-escherichia-coli-k1-infection-using-diffuse-light-imaging-tomography-combined-with-micro-computed-tomography
#2
REVIEW
Luci A Witcomb, Julie Czupryna, Kevin P Francis, Gad Frankel, Peter W Taylor
In contrast to two-dimensional bioluminescence imaging, three dimensional diffuse light imaging tomography with integrated micro-computed tomography (DLIT-μCT) has the potential to realise spatial variations in infection patterns when imaging experimental animals dosed with derivatives of virulent bacteria carrying bioluminescent reporter genes such as the lux operon from the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. The method provides an opportunity to precisely localise the bacterial infection sites within the animal and enables the generation of four-dimensional movies of the infection cycle...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510722/clinical-markers-and-outcomes-of-neonates-with-herpes-simplex-virus-deoxyribonucleic-acid-persistence-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-disseminated-and-central-nervous-system-infection
#3
William R Otto, Angela L Myers, Barrett LaRussa, David W Kimberlin, Mary Anne Jackson
We compared the clinical course of neonates with persistence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after 21 days of treatment with high-dose acyclovir to that of neonates with clearance of the CSF after 21 days of therapy. Neonates with persistence of HSV DNA had a more severe clinical course with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes.
May 16, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510692/disseminated-neonatal-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-after-a-water-birth
#4
Niazy Al-Assaf, Heather Moore, Kirk Leifso, Nadya Ben Fadel, Emanuela Ferretti
Neonatal herpes simplex virus (NHSV) infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Numerous factors influence the transmission of HSV infection to newborns; however, immersion in water during labor has received very little attention as a possible risk factor despite the increasing popularity of water births. We report a case of disseminated NHSV type 1 infection, possibly acquired during a water birth. The purpose of this report is to alert healthcare providers to this potential route of transmission and to highlight the importance of screening guidelines for HSV before a water birth...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491922/epidemiology-of-invasive-fungal-infections-at-two-tertiary-care-neonatal-intensive-care-units-over-a-12-year-period-2000-2011
#5
Roshani R Agarwal, Rajkumar L Agarwal, Xinguang Chen, Jorge L Lua, Jocelyn Y Ang
We conducted a retrospective review of 168 patients with invasive fungal infections from January 2000 to December 2011 in 2 neonatal intensive care units. Patients with Candida bloodstream infection (BSI, n = 152) were further analyzed. C albicans was the most common species overall (47%); however, there was an increase in non-albicans sp from 2006 to 2011. Candida BSI clearance rates were lower in extremely low birth weight infants (77% vs 93%, P = .01) and in patients with C albicans infections (77% vs 91%, P = ...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469532/neonatal-herpes-simplex-viral-infections-and-acyclovir-an-update
#6
REVIEW
John Brock Harris, Amy P Holmes
Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections have high morbidity and mortality rates. Optimization of treatment and prevention strategies are imperative to improve the care and outcomes of neonates infected with HSV. Management of HSV includes reducing neonatal transmission, treating acute infections, and limiting adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and future cutaneous outbreaks after acute infections. Transmission risk may be affected by route of delivery and maternal suppressive therapy. Neonatal HSV infections are divided into 3 categories: localized skin, eyes, or mouth; localized central nervous system; or disseminated infections...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421876/congenital-tuberculosis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Ching-Wen Chang, Patricia Wanping Wu, Chih-Hua Yeh, Kin-Sun Wong, Chao-Jan Wang, Chih-Chen Chang
Congenital tuberculosis is rare, even where tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. A 14-day-old girl presented with a 3-day history of fever and respiratory distress. Her mother was diagnosed with a disseminated TB infection immediately after the delivery which was confirmed by a positive TB-polymerase chain reaction (TB-PCR) and subsequent culture from ascites and sputum. The infant was separated from her mother at birth. Her chest radiograph showed bilateral miliary nodules. Congenital TB was strongly suspected because of the symptoms, signs and maternal TB history, and was confirmed by TB-PCR and culture from the gastric lavage...
April 19, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392553/effectiveness-of-early-antiviral-therapy-in-disseminated-neonatal-herpes-simplex-virus-2-hsv-2-with-fulminant-hepatic-failure
#8
Divya Mirchandani, Rafia Jawed, Nayaab Khawar, Pramod Narula, Minnie John
BACKGROUND Liver failure in the neonatal population is a life-threatening complication and has a wide array of etiologies, including infectious, immune-mediated, metabolic, or drug-induced. Although neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis only accounts for 1% of all acute liver failures, it has an extremely aggressive clinical course that carries a mortality rate of 85%. CASE REPORT We report a rare case of disseminated neonatal HSV-2 with late presentation associated with fulminant liver failure. The patient recovered without obvious neurologic deficits or need for liver transplant...
April 10, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383615/seroprevalence-of-hev-antibodies-in-a-sample-of-pregnant-women-in-the-city-of-messina
#9
V La Fauci, A Facciolà, R Riso, S Calimeri, D Lo Giudice, R Squeri
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is widespread in developing countries and the disease is also increasing in the developed ones. This infection in pregnancy can cause spontaneous abortion and neonatal death in 56% of newborns. STUDY DESIGN: The study was conducted on a sample of 352 pregnant women, 326 Italian and 26 foreign, in order to confirm the presence of HEV in our territory, to analyze wrong habits of the population and to suggest preventive actions against the risk to contract the infection during pregnancy...
May 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383532/the-immature-platelet-fraction-creating-neonatal-reference-intervals-and-using-these-to-categorize-neonatal-thrombocytopenias
#10
B C MacQueen, R D Christensen, E Henry, A M Romrell, T J Pysher, S T Bennett, M C Sola-Visner
OBJECTIVE: The immature platelet fraction (IPF) is a laboratory measurement analogous to the reticulocyte count, but reflecting the thrombopoietic state. Similar to a reticulocyte count, it can be expressed as a percent (IPF%=percent of platelets that are immature) or as an absolute number per μl blood; the immature platelet count (IPC=IPF% × platelets per μl of blood). STUDY DESIGN: Using a retrospective analysis of de-identified data from non-thrombocytopenic neonates, we created reference intervals for IPF% and IPC...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262688/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-supernatant-enhance-neonatal-resistance-to-systemic-escherichia-coli-k1-infection-by-accelerating-development-of-intestinal-defense
#11
Xiaolong He, Qing Zeng, Santhosh Puthiyakunnon, Zhijie Zeng, Weijun Yang, Jiawen Qiu, Lei Du, Swapna Boddu, Tongwei Wu, Danxian Cai, Sheng-He Huang, Hong Cao
The objective of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LCS) has a preventive effect against gut-derived systemic neonatal Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 infection. The preventive effects were evaluated in human colonic carcinoma cell line Caco-2 and neonatal rat models. Our in vitro results showed that LCS could block adhesion, invasion and translocation of E. coli K1 to Caco-2 monolayer via up-regulating mucin production and maintaining intestinal integrity. In vivo experiments revealed that pre-treatment with LCS significantly decrease susceptibility of neonatal rats to oral E...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217610/disseminated-tuberculosis-in-a-newborn-infant
#12
Tanu Sagar, Kavita Gupta, Mayuri Rani, Iqbal Rajinder Kaur
Tuberculosis (TB) remaining as one of the deadliest communicable diseases. Congenital infection by vertical transmission is rare but high neonatal mortality (up to 60%) and morbidity warrant early and accurate diagnosis of newborns suffering from TB. Intrauterine infection of tuberculosis is most commonly caused by haematogenous spread from the mother causing placental seedling. The organisms reach the fetus via the umbilical vein and the primary focus is often in the fetal liver in hematgenous spread. Another route of infection is by direct ingestion or aspiration of infected amniotic fluid if the placental caseous lesion ruptures directly into the amniotic cavity...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213808/genotyping-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-dipodascus-capitatus-isolated-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-of-a-sicilian-hospital
#13
Teresa Fasciana, Mario Giuffrè, Cinzia Calà, Ingrid Anne Mandy Schierz, Giuseppe Aquilina, Giuseppa Pinello, Giuseppina Capra, Dario Lipari, Giovanni Corsello, Anna Giammanco
In August 2015, Dipodascus capitatus was isolated from two patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Nosocomial acquisition of the fungus was suspected and epidemiological studies were undertaken. The patients were simultaneously hospitalized, and the comparison of the two isolates by two independent molecular typing methods have confirmed clonal dissemination of a single strain of D. capitatus. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was useful for identifying the appropriated antifungal therapy in micafungin...
February 18, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101751/fatal-disseminated-neonatal-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-infection-in-neonates-in-a-forensic-setting
#14
Jia Hao Wu, Sarah Parsons
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093274/a-direct-quantitative-pcr-based-measurement-of-herpes-simplex-virus-susceptibility-to-antiviral-drugs-and-neutralizing-antibodies
#15
Dezső P Virók, Ildikó Eszik, Tímea Mosolygó, Kamil Önder, Valéria Endrész, Katalin Burián
Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are common human pathogens that can cause painful but benign manifestations and recurrent complaints, but can also cause significant morbidity and mortality on infection of the eye or brain and with disseminated infection of an immunosuppressed patient or a neonate. HSV growth inhibition measurement by plaque or yield reduction is a key task in the development of novel antiviral compounds but the manual methods are very labour intensive. The sensitive and specific PCR technology could be an effective method for quantitation of HSV DNA related to virus replication; however the currently described PCR approaches have a major limitation, namely the requirement of purification of DNA from the infected cells...
April 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077516/early-onset-invasive-candidiasis-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants-perinatal-acquisition-predicts-poor-outcome
#16
Michelle Barton, Alex Shen, Karel O'Brien, Joan L Robinson, H Dele Davies, Kim Simpson, Elizabeth Asztalos, Joanne Langley, Nicole Le Saux, Reginald Sauve, Anne Synnes, Ben Tan, Louis de Repentigny, Earl Rubin, Chuck Hui, Lajos Kovacs, Yvonne C W Yau, Susan E Richardson
Background: Neonatal invasive candidiasis (IC) presenting in the first week of life is less common and less well described than later-onset IC. Risk factors, clinical features, and disease outcomes have not been studied in early-onset disease (EOD, ≤7 days) or compared to late-onset disease (LOD, >7 days). Methods: All extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) cases with IC and controls from a multicenter study of neonatal candidiasis enrolled from 2001 to 2003 were included in this study...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043486/tuberculosis-in-children
#17
Ali Akbar Velayati
Tuberculosis (TB) is the main cause of infection-related death in the world. Children make up ∼5-15% of all TB cases. Severe forms of disease such as meningitis and disseminated form are more common in children. Due to current estimates of World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015, one million children suffer from TB around the world; of these, it is estimated that more than 136,000 die a year. One study estimated 67million children with latent TB which develops to active form with the rate of ∼850,000 each year...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865262/soluble-forms-of-cd46-are-detected-in-bos-taurus-plasma-and-neutralize-bvdv-the-bovine-pestivirus
#18
Nidal Alzamel, Calixte Bayrou, Annabelle Decreux, Daniel Desmecht
The pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is known to bind to the CD46 molecule, which subsequently promotes entry of the virus. Mapping of the BVD-virion-binding site has shown that two peptides, 66EQIV69 and 82GQVLAL87, located on antiparallel beta sheets in the most distal complement control protein module (CCP1), provide the attachment platform. In the present study, we reveal new CD46-encoding transcripts that are predicted to encode CCP1-containing soluble forms. Further, we show that the serum of most adult cattle contains soluble CD46 (sCD46) and that a recombinant soluble isoform neutralizes BVDV infectivity in an in vitro assay...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742641/optimal-clinical-doses-of-faropenem-linezolid-and-moxifloxacin-in-children-with-disseminated-tuberculosis-goldilocks
#19
Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Jotam Pasipanodya, Eric Nuermberger, Soumya Swaminathan, Tawanda Gumbo
BACKGROUND:  When treated with the same antibiotic dose, children achieve different 0- to 24-hour area under the concentration-time curves (AUC0-24) because of maturation and between-child physiological variability on drug clearance. Children are also infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with different antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Thus, each child will achieve different AUC0-24/MIC ratios when treated with the same dose. METHODS:  We used 10 000-subject Monte Carlo experiments to identify the oral doses of linezolid, moxifloxacin, and faropenem that would achieve optimal target exposures associated with optimal efficacy in children with disseminated tuberculosis...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714487/neuroimaging-findings-of-zika-virus-infection-a-review-article
#20
REVIEW
Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Elham Keshavarz, Andrea Poretti, Adriano N Hazin
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It is usually transmitted by mosquito bite. There have been no reports of severe symptoms caused by ZIKV infection up until the last few years. In October 2013 an outbreak was reported in French Polynesia with severe neurological complications in some affected cases. In November 2015, the Ministry of Health of Brazil attributed the increased number of neonatal microcephaly cases in northeastern Brazil to congenital ZIKV infection. The rapid spread of the virus convinced the World Health Organization to announce ZIKV infection as a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern" in February 2016...
December 2016: Japanese Journal of Radiology
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