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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651405/-clinical-stages-and-outcomes-of-severe-cases-on-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#1
J Zhang, Y Jin, J L Sun, Y X Wang, X J Wang, X Q Fu, Z P Miao, J Lyu
Objective: To understand the characteristics and relation of clinical stage and outcome of severe cases on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and to establish the evaluation method for understanding severity of this disease. Methods: According to factors as geographical location, economic and epidemic levels, five provinces (Henan, Shandong, Yunnan, Zhejiang and Sichuan provinces) were selected. Reported severe cases of HFMD from the National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System were selected randomly in the five provinces...
May 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651250/a-role-for-neuronal-alpha-synuclein-in-gastrointestinal-immunity
#2
Ethan Stolzenberg, Deborah Berry, De Yang, Ernest Y Lee, Alexander Kroemer, Stuart Kaufman, Gerard C L Wong, Joost J Oppenheim, Supti Sen, Thomas Fishbein, Ad Bax, Brent Harris, Denise Barbut, Michael A Zasloff
BACKGROUND: Alpha-synuclein (αS) is a nerve cell protein associated with Parkinson disease (PD). Accumulation of αS within the enteric nervous system (ENS) and its traffic from the gut to the brain are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of PD. αS has no known function in humans and the reason for its accumulation within the ENS is unknown. Several recent studies conducted in rodents have linked αS to immune cell activation in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that αS in the ENS might play a role in the innate immune defenses of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651067/necrotizing-lip-infection-causing-septic-thrombophlebitis-of-the-neck-a%C3%A2-rare-variant-of-lemierre-syndrome
#3
Karl Cuddy, Nariman Saadat, Baber Khatib, Ashish Patel
Lemierre syndrome is an uncommon condition in which internal jugular vein thrombosis presents after recent oropharyngeal infection. Frequently, this is accompanied by septic emboli. This report outlines a variant of this disease process, with septic thrombophlebitis of the neck associated with a necrotizing skin infection of the lower lip and chin. A 25-year-old man with lower lip and chin swelling, initially managed with intravenous antibiotics, progressed to the development of a left facial vein thrombus, septic emboli to the lungs, and a necrotizing lower lip and chin infection that was managed with debridement, thrombectomy, and prolonged hemodynamic and pulmonary support...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651026/binding-of-human-plasminogen-and-high-molecular-mass-kininogen-by-cell-surface-exposed-proteins-of-candida-parapsilosis
#4
Justyna Karkowska-Kuleta, Dorota Zajac, Grazyna Bras, Oliwia Bochenska, Maria Rapala-Kozik, Andrzej Kozik
Pathogenic microbes can recruit to their cell surface human proteins that are components of important proteolytic cascades involved in coagulation, fibrinolysis and innate immune response. Once located at the bacterial or fungal surface, such deployed proteins might be utilized by pathogens to facilitate invasion and dissemination within the host organism by interfering with functionality of these systems or by exploiting specific activity of the bound enzymes. Aim of the study presented here was to characterize this phenomenon in Candida parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice - an important causative agent of systemic fungal infections (candidiases and candidemias) in humans...
June 24, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650995/septins-restrict-inflammation-and-protect-zebrafish-larvae-from-shigella-infection
#5
Maria J Mazon-Moya, Alexandra R Willis, Vincenzo Torraca, Laurent Boucontet, Avinash R Shenoy, Emma Colucci-Guyon, Serge Mostowy
Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen, causes inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. Infection by S. flexneri has been well-studied in vitro and is a paradigm for bacterial interactions with the host immune system. Recent work has revealed that components of the cytoskeleton have important functions in innate immunity and inflammation control. Septins, highly conserved cytoskeletal proteins, have emerged as key players in innate immunity to bacterial infection, yet septin function in vivo is poorly understood...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650987/accuracy-of-zika-virus-disease-case-definition-during-simultaneous-dengue-and-chikungunya-epidemics
#6
José Ueleres Braga, Clarisse Bressan, Ana Paula Razal Dalvi, Guilherme Amaral Calvet, Regina Paiva Daumas, Nadia Rodrigues, Mayumi Wakimoto, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Carlos Brito, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Patrícia Brasil
BACKGROUND: Zika is a new disease in the American continent and its surveillance is of utmost importance, especially because of its ability to cause neurological manifestations as Guillain-Barré syndrome and serious congenital malformations through vertical transmission. The detection of suspected cases by the surveillance system depends on the case definition adopted. As the laboratory diagnosis of Zika infection still relies on the use of expensive and complex molecular techniques with low sensitivity due to a narrow window of detection, most suspected cases are not confirmed by laboratory tests, mainly reserved for pregnant women and newborns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650985/chronic-trichuris-muris-infection-causes-neoplastic-change-in-the-intestine-and-exacerbates-tumour-formation-in-apc-min-mice
#7
Kelly S Hayes, Laura J Cliffe, Alison J Bancroft, Simon P Forman, Seona Thompson, Cath Booth, Richard K Grencis
Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris) is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+) mice were infected with this parasite...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650976/effect-of-praziquantel-on-the-differential-expression-of-mouse-hepatic-genes-and-parasite-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-gene-family-members-during-schistosoma-mansoni-infection
#8
Melissa C Sanchez, Katina V Krasnec, Amalia S Parra, Christian von Cabanlong, Geoffrey N Gobert, Boris Umylny, Pauline M Cupit, Charles Cunningham
Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by sexually dimorphic blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug widely available to treat the disease but does not kill juvenile parasites. Here we report the use of next generation sequencing to study the transcriptional effect of PZQ on murine hepatic inflammatory, immune and fibrotic responses to Schistosoma mansoni worms and eggs. An initial T helper cell 1 (Th1) response is induced against schistosomes in mice treated with drug vehicle (Vh) around the time egg laying begins, followed by a T helper cell 2 (Th2) response and the induction of genes whose action leads to granuloma formation and fibrosis...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650822/calculating-the-expected-time-to-eradicate-hiv-1-using-a-markov-chain
#9
Narayanan Viswanath
In this study, the expected time required to eradicate HIV-1 completely was found as the conditional absorbing time in a finite state space continuous-time Markov chain model. The Markov chain has two absorbing states: one corresponds to HIV eradication and another representing the possible disaster. This method allowed us to calculate the expected eradication time by solving systems of linear equations. To overcome the challenge of huge dimension of the problem, we applied a novel stop and resume technique...
October 20, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650593/hhv-6-in-liver-transplantation-a-literature-review
#10
REVIEW
Tuan L Phan, Irmeli Lautenschlager, Raymund R Razonable, Flor M Munoz
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) can cause primary infection or reactivate from latency in liver transplant recipients, which can result in a variety of clinical syndromes, including fever, hepatitis, encephalitis, and higher rates of graft dysfunction as well as indirect effects including increased risks of mortality, CMV disease, hepatitis C progression and greater fibrosis scores. Although HHV-6 infection is currently diagnosed by quantifying viral DNA in plasma or blood, biopsy to demonstrate histopathologic effects of HHV-6 remains the gold standard for diagnosis of end-organ disease...
June 26, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650475/division-site-selection-linked-to-inherited-cell-surface-wave-troughs-in-mycobacteria
#11
Haig A Eskandarian, Pascal D Odermatt, Joëlle X Y Ven, Mélanie T M Hannebelle, Adrian P Nievergelt, Neeraj Dhar, John D McKinney, Georg E Fantner
Cell division is tightly controlled in space and time to maintain cell size and ploidy within narrow bounds. In bacteria, the canonical Minicell (Min) and nucleoid occlusion (Noc) systems together ensure that division is restricted to midcell after completion of chromosome segregation(1). It is unknown how division site selection is controlled in bacteria that lack homologues of the Min and Noc proteins, including mycobacteria responsible for tuberculosis and other chronic infections(2). Here, we use correlated optical and atomic-force microscopy(3,4) to demonstrate that morphological landmarks (waveform troughs) on the undulating surface of mycobacterial cells correspond to future sites of cell division...
June 26, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650274/intranasal-administration-of-whole-inactivated-influenza-virus-vaccine-as-a-promising-influenza-vaccine-candidate
#12
Akira Ainai, Tadaki Suzuki, Shin-Ichi Tamura, Hideki Hasegawa
The effect of the current influenza vaccine, an inactivated virus vaccine administered by subcutaneous/intramuscular injection, is limited to reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with seasonal influenza outbreaks. Intranasal vaccination, by contrast, mimics natural infection and induces not only systemic IgG antibodies but also local secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibodies found on the surface of the mucosal epithelium in the upper respiratory tract. S-IgA antibodies are highly effective at preventing virus infection...
June 26, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650175/bioactive-peptide-natural-products-as-lead-structures-for-medicinal-use
#13
Tam Dang, Roderich D Süssmuth
The need for new drugs for the treatment of various diseases is enormous. From the previous century until the present, numerous peptide and peptide-derived natural products have been isolated from bacteria and fungi. Hence, microorganisms play a pivotal role as sources for novel drugs with an emphasis on anti-infective agents. Various disciplines from biology, chemistry, and medicine are involved in early stages of the search for peptide natural products including taxonomy, microbiology, bioanalytics, bioinformatics, and medicinal chemistry...
June 26, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650104/alzheimer-s-disease-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-link-from-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-to-neurodegeneration
#14
REVIEW
Eduardo Rojas-Gutierrez, Guadalupe Muñoz-Arenas, Samuel Treviño, Blanca Espinosa, Raúl Chavez, Karla Rojas, Gonzalo Flores, Alfonso Díaz, Jorge Guevara
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality among the aging population. AD diagnosis is made post-mortem, and the two pathologic hallmarks, particularly evident in the end stages of the illness, are amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). Currently, there is no curative treatment for AD. Additionally, there is a strong relation between oxidative stress, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and AD. The high levels of circulating lipids and glucose imbalances amplify lipid peroxidation that gradually diminishes the antioxidant systems, causing high levels of oxidative metabolism that affects cell structure, leading to neuronal damage...
June 26, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650001/brodalumab-the-first-anti-il-17-receptor-agent-for-psoriasis
#15
L Puig
Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease in which the alteration of the interleukin-23 (IL-23)/IL-17 cytokine axis appears to be crucial from a pathogenetic perspective. This has been confirmed by the efficacy of monoclonal antibodies blocking IL-17A, such as secukinumab and ixekizumab. Brodalumab is a human anti-IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) monoclonal antibody that inhibits the biological activity of IL-17A, IL-17F and other IL-17 isoforms, and has been approved (210 mg s.c. at weeks 0, 1, 2 and every 2 weeks thereafter) for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris, psoriatic arthritis, pustular psoriasis and psoriatic erythroderma in Japan (Lumicef)...
May 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649776/improving-the-baculovirus-expression-vector-system-with-vankyrin-enhanced-technology
#16
Kendra H Steele, Barbara J Stone, Kathleen M Franklin, Xiufeng Zhang, Haobo Jiang, Bruce A Webb, Christoph Geisler, Angelika Fath-Goodin
The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is a widely used platform for the production of recombinant eukaryotic proteins. However, the BEVS has limitations in comparison to other higher eukaryotic expression systems. First, the insect cell lines used in the BEVS cannot produce glycoproteins with complex-type N-glycosylation patterns. Second, protein production is limited as cells die and lyse in response to baculovirus infection. To delay cell death and lysis, we transformed several insect cell lines with an expression plasmid harboring a vankyrin gene (P-vank-1), which encodes an anti-apoptotic protein...
June 26, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649618/synergistic-effects-of-influenza-and-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-mptp-can-be-eliminated-by-the-use-of-influenza-therapeutics-experimental-evidence-for-the-multi-hit-hypothesis
#17
Shankar Sadasivan, Bridgett Sharp, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Richard Jay Smeyne
Central Nervous System inflammation has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (Ransohoff, Science 353: 777-783, 2016; Kannarkat et al. J. Parkinsons Dis. 3: 493-514, 2013). Here, we examined if the H1N1 influenza virus (Studahl et al. Drugs 73: 131-158, 2013) could synergize with the parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (Jackson-Lewis et al. in Mark LeDoux (ed) Movement Disorders: Genetics and Models: 287-306, Elsevier, 2015) to induce a greater microglial activation and loss of substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons than either insult alone...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649402/evolutionary-adaptations-of-biofilms-infecting-cystic-fibrosis-lungs-promote-mechanical-toughness-by-adjusting-polysaccharide-production
#18
Kristin Kovach, Megan Davis-Fields, Yasuhiko Irie, Kanishk Jain, Shashvat Doorwar, Katherine Vuong, Numa Dhamani, Kishore Mohanty, Ahmed Touhami, Vernita D Gordon
Biofilms are communities of microbes embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, largely polysaccharides. Multiple types of extracellular polymeric substances can be produced by a single bacterial strain. The distinct polymer components of biofilms are known to provide chemical protection, but little is known about how distinct extracellular polysaccharides may also protect biofilms against mechanical stresses such as shear or phagocytic engulfment. Decades-long infections of Pseudomonas. aeruginosa biofilms in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients are natural models for studies of biofilm fitness under pressure from antibiotics and the immune system...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649235/detection-of-mycobacteria-by-culture-and-dna-based-methods-in-animal-derived-food-products-purchased-at-spanish-supermarkets
#19
Iker A Sevilla, Elena Molina, Maitane Tello, Natalia Elguezabal, Ramón A Juste, Joseba M Garrido
Mycobacteria include obligate and opportunistic pathogens that cause significant human and animal disease. The burden of tuberculosis has been largely reduced in developed territories but remains a huge problem worldwide. The significance of nontuberculous mycobacteria is growing considerably, especially in developed regions with higher life expectancy and more therapy-related immunosuppressed individuals. Due to their robustness mycobacteria can contaminate animal products by direct transmission from infected individuals or by environmental contamination during processing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649138/pseudomonas-predators-understanding-and-exploiting-phage-host-interactions
#20
REVIEW
Jeroen De Smet, Hanne Hendrix, Bob G Blasdel, Katarzyna Danis-Wlodarczyk, Rob Lavigne
Species in the genus Pseudomonas thrive in a diverse set of ecological niches and include crucial pathogens, such as the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The bacteriophages that infect Pseudomonas spp. mirror the widespread and diverse nature of their hosts. Therefore, Pseudomonas spp. and their phages are an ideal system to study the molecular mechanisms that govern virus-host interactions. Furthermore, phages are principal catalysts of host evolution and diversity, which directly affects the ecological roles of environmental and pathogenic Pseudomonas spp...
June 26, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
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