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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793039/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-context-of-the-syrian-conflict-drivers-before-and-after-the-onset-of-conflict-and-key-recommendations
#1
REVIEW
Aula Abbara, Timothy M Rawson, Nabil Karah, Wael El-Amin, James Hatcher, Bachir Tajaldin, Osman Dar, Omar Dewachi, Ghassan Abu Sitta, Bernt Eric Uhlin, Annie Sparrow
Current evidence describing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the context of the Syrian conflict is of poor quality and sparse in nature. In this paper we explore and report the major drivers of AMR that were present in Syria pre-conflict and those that have emerged since its onset in March 2011. Drivers which existed before the conflict included a lack of enforcement of existing legislation to regulate over the counter antibiotics and notification of communicable diseases. This contributed to a number of drivers of AMR after the onset of conflict which were also compounded by the exodus of trained staff, the increase in overcrowding and unsanitary conditions, the increase in injuries and economic sanctions limiting the availability of required laboratory medical materials and equipment...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792989/novel-genotypes-and-multilocus-genotypes-of-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-in-pigs-in-northwestern-china-a-public-health-concern
#2
Sha-Sha Wang, Jun-Qiang Li, Yun-Hui Li, Xiang-Wei Wang, Xian-Chen Fan, Xin Liu, Zi-Juan Li, Jun-Ke Song, Long-Xian Zhang, Guang-Hui Zhao
Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the most important and common microsporidian species, inhabits in most animals and humans causing diarrhea and systemic diseases. The objectives of the present study were to examine the prevalence and genetic variability of E. bieneusi in pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 560 pig faecal samples were collected from five different farms in Shaanxi province and molecularly characterized using multilocus genotyping (MLST) technology. High E. bieneusi infection rate (78...
May 21, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792850/microrna-182-inhibits-hcmv-replication-through-activation-of-type-i-ifn-response-by-targeting-foxo3
#3
Xia He, Junfang Teng, Can Cui, Dongrui Li, Lijun Wen
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has led to kinds of clinical disorders and great morbidity worldwide, such as sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), mental retardation, and developmental delays in immunocompromised individuals. Previous studies reported that HCMV has evolved a variety of mechanisms to evade the immune system, such as dysregulation of miRNAs. However, reports concerning the role of miRNA in HCMV infection are limited. Here, we reported that a host microRNA, miR-182, was significantly up-regulated by HCMV infection in U-251MG and NPCs cells...
May 21, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792359/adverse-effect-analysis-of-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-in-the-treatment-of-benign-uterine-diseases
#4
Yunchang Liu, Wendy Wenyi Zhang, Min He, Chunmei Gong, Bin Xie, Xiangxia Wen, Dandan Li, Lian Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze the adverse effects of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in management of benign uterine diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2011 to 2017, 27,053 patients with benign uterine diseases were treated with HIFU in 19 centers in China. Among them, 17,402 patients had uterine fibroids, 8434 had adenomyosis, 876 had caesarean scar pregnancies, and 341 had placenta accreta. RESULTS: The median age, height, weight, BMI of the patients was 42 years, 158 mm, 56 kg, 22...
May 24, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792173/impact-of-growth-ph-and-glucose-concentrations-on-the-cody-regulatory-network-in-streptococcus-salivarius
#5
Jianing Geng, Szu-Chuan Huang, Yueh-Ying Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Songnian Hu, Yi-Ywan M Chen
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus salivarius is an abundant isolate of the human oral microbiota. Since both pH and glucose availability fluctuate frequently in the oral cavity, the goal of this study was to investigate regulation by CodY, a conserved pleiotropic regulator of Gram positive bacteria, in response to these two signals. The chemostat culture system was employed to precisely control the growth parameters, and the transcriptomes of wild-type S. salivarius 57.I and its CodY-null derivative (ΔcodY) grown at pH 7 and 5...
May 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792138/therapeutic-potential-of-phytomedicines-and-novel-polymeric-strategies-for-significant-management-of-candidiasis
#6
Surbhi Rohilla, D C Bhatt, Aditi Gupta
BACKGROUND: Candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections caused by genus Candida. The genus composed of around 200 species. The most virulent among all are, Candida albicans followed by various non-albicans species. Despite of various treatments available, the incidence of severe systemic fungal infections is increasing, and with it the related morbidity and mortality, in relation to the misuse of antimicrobials and the emergence of drug-resistant fungal species...
May 23, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791951/nervous-system-infections-and-the-global-traveler
#7
Savina Reid, Haley Thompson, Kiran T Thakur
Neurological complications of infectious diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. It is imperative that neurologists be up-to-date on current developments including typical and atypical presentations of neurological infections in travelers, diagnostic and treatment recommendations, and emerging pathogen resistance patterns to avoid fatal outcomes and long-term sequelae. This article will address concepts of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, and will provide updates on the neurological manifestations of select emerging and reemerging infections, including Ebola virus, bacterial meningitis, enterovirus 71, Zika virus, cerebral malaria, and Japanese encephalitis...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791942/emerging-viral-infections-and-their-impact-on-the-global-burden-of-neurological-disease
#8
Laura S Muñoz, Maria A Garcia, Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Beatriz Parra, Carlos A Pardo
Emerging viral infections of the nervous system represent a major global public health concern in the 21st century. They are caused primarily by RNA viruses and are mostly associated with acute or subacute encephalitis. The spectrum of associated central or peripheral nervous system disorders is broad, and results either from a direct viral effect or due to the host immune responses against the infection. Emerging viral infections impose substantial neurological morbidity and mortality, particularly in low- and middle-income regions...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791941/understanding-refugees-health
#9
Martin Müller, Dana Khamis, David Srivastava, Aristomenis K Exadaktylos, Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller
According to the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR), 65.6 million people have been forcibly displaced worldwide. Several factors have a major influence on asylum seekers' health; so, their health profile is markedly different from that of the population in the country of asylum. The aim of this study is to review the major issues physicians need to be aware of when treating asylum seekers, with a special focus on the neurological problems of asylum seekers and refugees. The major impact factors on refugees' health are linked to experiences and exposure (1) in the country of origin, (2) in refugee camps and en route to Europe, and (3) in the process of immigration into the host country and living in European asylum centers...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791841/functional-genomic-screening-reveals-core-modulators-of-echinocandin-stress-responses-in-candida-albicans
#10
Tavia Caplan, Elizabeth J Polvi, Jinglin L Xie, Shoshana Buckhalter, Michelle D Leach, Nicole Robbins, Leah E Cowen
Candida albicans is a leading cause of death due to fungal infection. Treatment of systemic candidiasis often relies on echinocandins, which disrupt cell wall synthesis. Resistance is readily acquired via mutations in the drug target gene, FKS1. Both basal tolerance and resistance to echinocandins require cellular stress responses. We performed a systematic analysis of 3,030 C. albicans mutants to define circuitry governing cellular responses to echinocandins. We identified 16 genes for which deletion or transcriptional repression enhanced echinocandin susceptibility, including components of the Pkc1-MAPK signaling cascade...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791810/anal-fibropapillomas-containing-bovine-papillomavirus-type-2-dna-in-two-groups-of-heifers
#11
J S Munday, A A Cullum, N A Thomson, M Bestbier, T McCormack, A F Julian
CASE HISTORY: Anal warts were observed in heifers in two unrelated groups of animals. Heifers in one group developed visible warts 4 months after manual rectal examination and heifers in the other group developed warts 5 months after examination using a hand-held rectal ultrasound probe. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Large exophytic proliferative anal masses were observed in 5/15 (33%) heifers in one group and 13/149 (9%) heifers in the second group. Heifers in the second group were also noted to have similar masses on the underside of the tail at sites previously used for venepuncture and some of the heifers had skin warts...
May 23, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791700/closing-the-gap-novel-abdominal-wound-closure-techniques
#12
James Dana Kondrup, Alaina M Qayyum
Traditionally, surgical procedures within the realm of both general and gynecological surgery employ the use of staples and interrupted sutures that run continuously with knot tying or subcuticular sutures to ensure closure of large wound incisions, subcuticular incisions, and fascial repair. However, these methods may not always be cosmetically favorable and, thus, result in an unpleasant outcome for the patient, adding to their surgery-related stress. It is, therefore, imperative that surgeons and gynecologists are aware of alternative methods of wound closure that are not only cosmetically favorable, but also ensure rapid wound recovery and infection control...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791507/a-novel-mouse-model-of-campylobacter-jejuni-enteropathy-and-diarrhea
#13
Natasa Giallourou, Gregory L Medlock, David T Bolick, Pedro Hqs Medeiros, Solanka E Ledwaba, Glynis L Kolling, Kenneth Tung, Patricia Guerry, Jonathan R Swann, Richard L Guerrant
Campylobacter infections are among the leading bacterial causes of diarrhea and of 'environmental enteropathy' (EE) and growth failure worldwide. However, the lack of an inexpensive small animal model of enteric disease with Campylobacter has been a major limitation for understanding its pathogenesis, interventions or vaccine development. We describe a robust standard mouse model that can exhibit reproducible bloody diarrhea or growth failure, depending on the zinc or protein deficient diet and on antibiotic alteration of normal microbiota prior to infection...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791486/involvement-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-the-progression-of-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#14
Chao Zhang, Shuaiyin Chen, Guangyuan Zhou, Yuefei Jin, Rongguang Zhang, Haiyan Yang, Yuanlin Xi, Jingchao Ren, Guangcai Duan
BACKGROUND: Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is generally considered as a mild exanthematous disease to infants and young children worldwide. HFMD cases are usually mild and self-limiting but for few cases leads to complicated severe clinical outcomes, and even death. Previous studies have indicated that serum Ang II levels in patients with H7N9 infection were related to the severity of infection. However, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of severe HFMD remain unclear. This study was undertaken to clarify the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the progression of severe HFMD...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791442/bacillus-cereus-a-serious-cause-of-nosocomial-infections-epidemiologic-and-genetic-survey
#15
Benjamin Glasset, Sabine Herbin, Sophie A Granier, Laurent Cavalié, Emilie Lafeuille, Cyprien Guérin, Raymond Ruimy, Florence Casagrande-Magne, Marion Levast, Nathalie Chautemps, Jean-Winoc Decousser, Laure Belotti, Isabelle Pelloux, Jerôme Robert, Anne Brisabois, Nalini Ramarao
Bacillus cereus is the 2nd most frequent bacterial agent responsible for food-borne outbreaks in France and the 3rd in Europe. In addition, local and systemic infections have been reported, mainly describing individual cases or single hospital setting. The real incidence of such infection is unknown and information on genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the incriminated strains is generally scarce. We performed an extensive study of B. cereus strains isolated from patients and hospital environments from nine hospitals during a 5-year study, giving an overview of the consequences, sources and pathogenic patterns of B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791292/sepsis-caused-by-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2-in-a-eurasian-river-otter-lutra-lutra-in-the-republic-of-korea
#16
Yeonsu Oh, Dongseob Tark, Sung-Hyun Moon, Jae-Ik Han, Won-Il Kim, Ho-Seong Cho
An adult male Eurasian river otter ( Lutra lutra) was diagnosed with systemic infection. Microbiologic findings identified Streptococcus suis serotype 2, clonal complex 28, and sequence type 629. Genetic analysis strongly suggested the transmission of S. suis isolate from pigs to wild animals through environmental contamination.
May 23, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790924/typhoidal-salmonella-serovars-ecological-opportunity-and-the-evolution-of-a-new-pathovar
#17
Hirotaka Hiyoshi, Connor R Tiffany, Denise N Bronner, Andreas J Bäumler
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever are severe systemic infections caused by human-adapted typhoidal Salmonella serovars that are indistinguishable in their clinical presentation, but differ from human gastroenteritis caused by zoonotic non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars. Typhoidal Salmonella serovars evolved from ancestral gastrointestinal pathogens through genetic changes that supported a change in pathogen ecology. Typhoidal Salmonella serovars share virulence properties that were acquired through convergent evolution and therefore this group is not defined by the presence of shared virulence genes that are absent from non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars...
May 21, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790849/-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antibody-encephalitis-the-janus-faced-disorder
#18
Ildiko Sipos
The recognition of the antibody-mediated encephalitis as a separate entity among the immune disorders of the central nervous system was one of the greatest breakthroughs of the last two decades in neurology. Unlike viral or tumor-related encephalitis, the antibody-mediated form has a good response to immunotherapy, which gives a special clinical importance to the discovery. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is one of the first fully characterized antibody-mediated encephalitises. This article attempts to summarize the clinical features of this complex neuropsychiatric disorder with the aim to help its early recognition and to report the clinical course and the outcome of our six seropositive anti-NMDAR cases...
March 2018: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790701/the-clinical-importance-of-changes-in-treg-and-th17-lymphocyte-subsets-in-splenectomized-patients-after-spleen-injury
#19
Witold Zgodziński, Ewelina Grywalska, Dorota Siwicka-Gieroba, Agata Surdacka, Krzysztof Zinkiewicz, Dariusz Szczepanek, Grzegorz Wallner, Jacek Roliński
BACKGROUND: Splenectomized patients are more prone to bacterial infections due to their immunocompromised status. Little is known about the role of T helper 17 (Th17) and T regulatory cells (Treg) in the immune system of patients after the removal of the spleen. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to analyze possible changes in CD4+ lymphocyte T subsets, especially Treg and Th17, in patients who had undergone splenectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included a group of 67 male patients (41...
May 22, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790584/effects-of-psidium-guajava-leaf-extract-on-secretion-systems-of-gram-negative-enteropathogenic-bacteria
#20
Noboru Nakasone, Yasunori Ogura, Naomi Higa, Claudia Toma, Yukiko Koizumi, Giichi Takaesu, Toshihiko Suzuki, Tetsu Yamashiro
We screened a total of 672 plant-tissue extracts to search for phytochemicals that inhibit the function of the type III secretion system (T3SS) of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Among candidates examined, we found that an extract from the leaves of Psidium guajava (guava) inhibited the secretion of the EspB protein from EPEC and EHEC without affecting bacterial growth. The guava extract (GE) also inhibited EPEC and EHEC from adhering to and injecting EspB protein into HEp-2 cells...
May 23, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
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