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neonatal immune system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128674/staged-development-of-long-lived-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-th17-resident-memory-t-cell-population-to-candida-albicans-after-skin-infection
#1
Chang Ook Park, Xiujun Fu, Xiaodong Jiang, Youdong Pan, Jessica E Teague, Nicholas Collins, Tian Tian, John T O'Malley, Ryan O Emerson, Ji Hye Kim, Yookyung Jung, Rei Watanabe, Robert C Fuhlbrigge, Francis R Carbone, Thomas Gebhardt, Rachael A Clark, Charles P Lin, Thomas S Kupper
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus to which humans are exposed early in life and by adulthood it is part of the mycobiome of skin and other tissues. Neonatal skin lacks resident memory T (TRM) cells, but in adults the C. albicans skin test is a surrogate for immunocompetence. Young adult mice raised under SPF conditions are naive to C. albicans, and have recently been shown to have an immune system resembling that of neonatal humans. OBJECTIVE: We studied the evolution of the adaptive cutaneous immune response to Candida...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125097/historical-and-contemporary-aspects-of-maternal-immunity-in-swine
#2
Korakrit Poonsuk, Jeff Zimmerman
Maternal immunity plays a pivotal role in swine health and production because piglets are born agammaglobulinemic and with limited cell-mediated immunity, i.e. few peripheral lymphoid cells, immature lymphoid tissues, and no effector and memory T-lymphocytes. Swine do not become fully immunologically competent until about 4 weeks of age, which means that their compromised ability to respond to infectious agents during the first month of life must be supplemented by maternal immune components: (1) circulating antibodies derived from colostrum; (2) mucosal antibodies from colostrum and milk; and (3) immune cells provided in mammary secretions...
November 10, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124321/vaccine-responses-in-newborns
#3
REVIEW
Anja Saso, Beate Kampmann
Immunisation of the newborn represents a key global strategy in overcoming morbidity and mortality due to infection in early life. Potential limitations, however, include poor immunogenicity, safety concerns and the development of tolerogenicity or hypo-responsiveness to either the same antigen and/or concomitant antigens administered at birth or in the subsequent months. Furthermore, the neonatal immunological milieu is polarised towards Th2-type immunity with dampening of Th1-type responses and impaired humoral immunity, resulting in qualitatively and quantitatively poorer antibody responses compared to older infants...
November 9, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115600/messenger-rna-sequencing-reveals-similar-mechanisms-between-neonatal-and-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#4
Hua Mei, Yuheng Zhang, Chunzhi Liu, Yayu Zhang, Chunli Liu, Dan Song, Chun Xin, Jing Wang, Jonathan Josephs-Spaulding, Yan Zhu, Feng Tang
Hypoxemia and hypercarbia resulting from a lack of surfactant is considered to be the primary mechanism underlying neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). Surfactant replacement therapy may mitigate the symptoms of the disease by decreasing the surface tension of alveoli and facilitating inflation. However, surfactant serves an additional role in immunological processes. Therefore, it may be hypothesized that mechanisms of NRDS involving surfactant exert additional functions to promoting alveolar inflation...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113524/how-does-preeclampsia-affect-neonates-highlights-in-the-disease-s-immunity
#5
Lina R Marins, Leonardo B Anizelli, Ana L Sarquis, Mariana D Romanowski
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia (PE) is the primary obstetrical cause in one to four perinatal deaths. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia is not fully known, a proinflammatory immune state prevails and can disrupt fetal hematopoiesis. Some of the effects on the newborn include neonatal thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, a reduction in T regulatory cells and an increased cytotoxic natural killer cell profile. METHOD: Electronic databases were searched, and defined criteria were applied to select articles for review...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111451/brain-immune-interactions-in-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#6
REVIEW
Bo Li, Katherine Concepcion, Xianmei Meng, Lubo Zhang
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia remains the primary cause of acute neonatal brain injury, leading to a high mortality rate and long-term neurological deficits, such as behavioral, social, attentional, cognitive and functional motor deficits. An ever-increasing body of evidence shows that the immune response to acute cerebral hypoxia-ischemia is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of neonatal brain injury. Hypoxia-ischemia provokes an intravascular inflammatory cascade that is further augmented by the activation of resident immune cells and the cerebral infiltration of peripheral immune cells response to cellular damages in the brain parenchyma...
October 27, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110142/an-outbreak-of-skin-infections-in-neonates-due-to-a-staphylococcus-aureus-strain-producing-the-exfoliative-toxin-a
#7
Fernanda Pimentel de Araujo, Marco Tinelli, Antonio Battisti, Angela Ercoli, Adriano Anesi, Annalisa Pantosti, Monica Monaco
PURPOSE: Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of infections in hospitalized neonates. Preterm or low birthweight infants are especially at risk to develop a S. aureus infection due to the immaturity of the immune system, length of hospital stay and invasive procedures. Exfoliative toxin (ET)-producing S. aureus is often responsible for neonatal infections, causing clinical manifestations such as staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, characterized by both localized blisters or generalized exfoliation of the skin...
November 6, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106820/development-and-function-of-the-mucosal-immune-system-in-the-upper-respiratory-tract-of-neonatal-calves
#8
Rahwa Osman, Nilusha Malmuthuge, Patricia Gonzalez-Cano, Philip Griebel
Respiratory infections remain the second most common cause of clinical disease and mortality in newborn calves, which has led to increased interest in using vaccines early in life to mitigate this risk. Intranasal vaccination of neonatal calves can be an effective strategy to circumvent vaccine interference by maternal antibody, but this raises questions regarding onset of immune competence in the upper respiratory tract (URT) following birth. Little is known, however, about the development and function of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the URT of newborn calves and what factors, including the commensal microbiome, contribute to this early development...
November 6, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106586/immunization-with-a-latch-peptide-provides-serotype-independent-protection-against-group-b-streptococcus-infection-in-mice
#9
Shun-Mei Lin, A-Yeung Jang, Yong Zhi, Shuang Gao, Sangyong Lim, Jae Hyang Lim, Joon Young Song, Paul M Sullam, Joon Heang Rhee, Ho Seong Seo
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal invasive diseases as well as of severe infections in the elderly. The GBS serine rich repeat glycoprotein, Srr1, acts as a critical virulent factor by facilitating GBS invasion into the central nervous system through interaction with the fibrinogen A chain. In this study, we found that Srr1 is highly conserved in GBS clinical isolates (86.7%). Following immunization with different Srr1 truncated peptides, we demonstrated that only mice immunized with Srr1 truncates containing the latch domain were protected against GBS meningitis...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083107/increased-mir-223-expression-in-foetal-organs-is-a-signature-of-acute-chorioamnionitis-with-systemic-consequences
#10
JoonHo Lee, Chong Jai Kim, Jung-Sun Kim, Deug-Chan Lee, Sejin Ahn, Bo Hyun Yoon
Acute chorioamnionitis, frequently observed in preterm placentas, is a major risk factor for the development of infection and non-infection-related adverse perinatal outcomes. MicroRNAs play important roles in immune cell development and function as well as in the development of cancers and neurologic diseases. We sought to investigate the changes in microRNA-223 (miR-223) expression and the functional significance of the changes in miR-223 expression in foetal organs in the presence of acute chorioamnionitis...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082370/the-effects-of-propolis-extract-on-ovarian-tissue-and-oxidative-stress-in-rats-with-maternal-separation-stress
#11
Atefeh Arabameri, Hamidreza Sameni, Ahmadreza Bandegi
BACKGROUND: Stress in infancy has dramatic effects on different systems, including the nervous system, endocrine, immune, reproductive and etc. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of extract of Iranian propolis (EIP) on ovarian tissue and oxidative stress in rats with maternal separation stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 48 immature female rats were divided randomly into six groups. 1) Control group, 2) Control group+saline, 3) Stress group, includes infants that were separated from their mothers 6 hr/day, the 4(th), 5(th) and 6(th) groups consisted of infants who in addition to daily stress received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of EIP, respectively...
August 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079121/alterations-in-inter-alpha-inhibitor-protein-expression-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-neonatal-rats
#12
Clémence Disdier, Jiyong Zhang, Yuki Fukunaga, Yow-Pin Lim, Joseph Qiu, Andre Santoso, Barbara S Stonestreet
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury is frequently associated with premature and/or full-term birth-related complications that reflect widespread damage to cerebral cortical structures. Inflammation has been implicated in the long-term evolution and severity of HI brain injury. Inter-Alpha Inhibitor Proteins (IAIPs) are immune modulator proteins that are reduced in systemic neonatal inflammatory states. We have shown that endogenous IAIPs are present in neurons, astrocytes and microglia and that exogenous treatment with human plasma purified IAIPs decreases neuronal injury and improves behavioral outcomes in neonatal rats with HI brain injury...
October 25, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077529/postnatal-melatonin-treatment-protects-against-affective-disorders-induced-by-early-life-immune-stimulation-by-reducing-the-microglia-cell-activation-and-oxidative-stress
#13
I Berkiks, H Benmhammed, A Mesfioui, A Elhasnaoui, S Mouden, T Touil, Y Bahbiti, R Nakache, A Ouichou, A El Hessni
Systemic inflammation induced by neonatal infection may result as long-term hyperactivation of microglial cells followed by an overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and lipid peroxidation. Those inflammation mediators can trigger behavioral disruption and/or cognitive disorders. The present work aims to evaluate the effect of melatonin (a cytokine release modulator and antioxidant agent) in the reduction of the prefrontal microglia activation and depressive-like behaviors induced by LPS injection in adult rats...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075246/crispr-a-useful-genetic-feature-to-follow-vaginal-carriage-of-group-b-streptococcus
#14
Clémence Beauruelle, Adeline Pastuszka, Philippe Horvath, Franck Perrotin, Laurent Mereghetti, Philippe Lanotte
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and Cas (CRISPR-associated proteins) play a critical role in adaptive immunity against mobile genetic elements, especially phages, through their ability to acquire novel spacer sequences. Polarized spacer acquisition results in spacer polymorphism and temporal organization of CRISPR loci, making them attractive epidemiological markers. Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a genital commensal for 10 to 30% of healthy women and a major neonatal pathogen, possesses a ubiquitous and functional CRISPR1 locus...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063638/repeated-ultraviolet-irradiation-induces-the-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-4-il-6-and-il-10-in-neonatal-human-melanocytes
#15
Hee Jin Song, Si Hyub Lee, Gwang Seong Choi, Jeonghyun Shin
BACKGROUND: Human melanocytes express Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which regulates ultraviolet (UV)-induced cutaneous immunosuppression in Langerhans cells. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation increases melanocyte pigmentation and TLR4 expression, while inducing local innate inflammatory responses. AIMS: We investigated whether UV radiation induces TLR4 expression in neonatal human melanocytes (NHMs) and how this affects the immune system. METHODS: We cultured NHMs with LPS treatment or with one-time or repeated UVA or UVB exposure, and investigated and compared the effects on TLR4 expression, melanin contents, and cytokine production...
October 24, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062316/preterm-birth-affects-the-risk-of-developing-immune-mediated-diseases
#16
Sybelle Goedicke-Fritz, Christoph Härtel, Gabriela Krasteva-Christ, Matthias V Kopp, Sascha Meyer, Michael Zemlin
Prematurity affects approximately 10% of all children, resulting in drastically altered antigen exposure due to premature confrontation with microbes, nutritional antigens, and other environmental factors. During the last trimester of pregnancy, the fetal immune system adapts to tolerate maternal and self-antigens, while also preparing for postnatal immune defense by acquiring passive immunity from the mother. Since the perinatal period is regarded as the most important "window of opportunity" for imprinting metabolism and immunity, preterm birth may have long-term consequences for the development of immune-mediated diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049359/analysis-of-pd-1-expression-in-the-monocyte-subsets-from-non-septic-and-septic-preterm-neonates
#17
Magdalena Zasada, Marzena Lenart, Magdalena Rutkowska-Zapała, Małgorzata Stec, Wojciech Durlak, Andrzej Grudzień, Agnieszka Krzeczkowska, Nina Mól, Marta Pilch, Maciej Siedlar, Przemko Kwinta
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor system represents a part of recently reported immunoregulatory pathway. PD-1 is an immune checkpoint molecule, which plays an important role in downregulating the immune system proinflammatory activity. Until recently, PD-1 expression was not established on immune cells of the preterm infants. The study objectives were to confirm expression of the PD-1 receptors on the monocytes isolated from very low birth weight newborns (VLBW), and to analyze their expression during the first week of life and late-onset sepsis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036471/immunization-completion-in-infants-born-at-low-birth-weight
#18
Matt Nestander, Jay Dintaman, Apryl Susi, Gregory Gorman, Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman
Background: Low birth weight (LBW) has been associated with underimmunization. We sought to understand the effect of LBW on immunization completion after controlling for previously hypothesized mediators, including prematurity, neonatal illness, well-child care, non-well-child visits, and provider consistency. Methods: We formed a retrospective cohort of infants born between 2008 and 2011 with ≥2 years of military healthcare follow-up. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes were used to identify LBW, preterm birth, neonatal illnesses, well-child visits, non-well-child visits, provider consistency, and parental rank in the inpatient and outpatient records...
September 23, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035947/cross-reactivity-of-hiv-vaccine-responses-and-the-microbiome
#19
Wilton B Williams, Qifeng Han, Barton F Haynes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A successful HIV-type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine will require immunogens that induce protective immune responses. However, recent studies suggest that the response to HIV-1 and perhaps other viruses may be altered by immune system exposure to intestinal microbiota-antigens. This review will discuss select aspects of these studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Naïve CD4 T and B cell repertoires can be imprinted by intestinal microbiota-antigens to respond to virus epitopes prior to virus infection...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993767/genomic-programming-of-human-neonatal-dendritic-cells-in-congenital-systemic-and-in-vitro-cytomegalovirus-infection-reveal-plastic-and-robust-immune-pathway-biology-responses
#20
Widad Dantoft, Pablo Martínez-Vicente, James Jafali, Lara Pérez-Martínez, Kim Martin, Konstantinos Kotzamanis, Marie Craigon, Manfred Auer, Neil T Young, Paul Walsh, Arnaud Marchant, Ana Angulo, Thorsten Forster, Peter Ghazal
Neonates and especially premature infants are highly susceptible to infection but still can have a remarkable resilience that is poorly understood. The view that neonates have an incomplete or deficient immune system is changing. Human neonatal studies are challenging, and elucidating host protective responses and underlying cognate pathway biology, in the context of viral infection in early life, remains to be fully explored. In both resource rich and poor settings, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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