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neonatal immune system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772785/comparison-of-human-milk-immunoglobulin-survival-during-gastric-digestion-between-preterm-and-term-infants
#1
Veronique Demers-Mathieu, Mark A Underwood, Robert L Beverly, Søren D Nielsen, David C Dallas
Human milk provides immunoglobulins (Igs) that supplement the passive immune system of neonates; however, the extent of survival of these Igs during gastric digestion and whether this differs between preterm and term infants remains unknown. Human milk, and infant gastric samples at 2 h post-ingestion were collected from 15 preterm (23⁻32 week gestational age (GA)) mother-infant pairs and from 8 term (38⁻40 week of GA) mother-infant pairs within 7⁻98 days postnatal age. Samples were analyzed via ELISA for concentration of total IgA (secretory IgA (SIgA)/IgA), total secretory component (SC/SIgA/SIgM), total IgM (SIgM/IgM), and IgG as well as peptidomics...
May 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769118/protection-against-neonatal-enteric-colibacillosis-employing-e-coli-derived-outer-membrane-vesicles-in-formulation-and-without-vitamin-d3
#2
Babak Beikzadeh, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni
OBJECTIVE: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) is the cause of diarrhea and even death in humans and offspring of animals. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of the ETEC was prepared and its potential as a vaccine candidate against enteric colibacillosis in neonatal mice was evaluated. Dam mice intradermally injected with ETEC-derived OMVs and OMVs plus an active form of vitamin D3 (avD3). Mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice and passive immunity protection against ETEC lethality in their offspring was investigated...
May 16, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745444/expression-of-fcrn-receptor-in-placental-tissue-and-its-relationship-with-igg-levels-in-term-and-preterm-newborns
#3
Natalia A Lozano, Alejandro Lozano, Vanina Marini, Ricardo J Saranz, Richard S Blumberg, Kristi Baker, Maria F Agresta, Marina F Ponzio
PROBLEM: IgG is the only antibody class, that is, actively transferred from the mother to the fetus across the placenta by an active, neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) mediated process during pregnancy, conferring passive immunity and protection against infections to the newborn during the first months of life. Preterm infants may not receive sufficient titers of protective antibodies, as most of them are transferred only after the 34th week of gestation. Because of the great importance of this process, we investigated in a clinical setting the placental transmission of IgG antibodies in term and preterm newborns...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727446/development-of-experimental-gbs-vaccine-for-mucosal-immunization
#4
T Gupalova, G Leontieva, T Kramskaya, K Grabovskaya, E Bormotova, D Korjevski, A Suvorov
Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B streptococcus (GBS), is an important pathogen as it is the leading cause of neonatal deaths due to sepsis, meningitis or bacterial pneumonia. Although the development of an effective and safe GBS vaccine is on the agenda of many research labs, there is no GBS vaccine on the market yet. In the present study we attempted to engineer a live vaccine strain based on Bac, a surface protein of GBS, incorporated into a surface fimbrial protein of probiotic Enterococcus. The resulting strain induced specific systemic and local immune responses in mice and provided protection against GBS when administered via the intranasal, oral or intravaginal immunization routes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724161/transcriptional-profiling-of-swine-mammary-gland-during-the-transition-from-colostrogenesis-to-lactogenesis-using-rna-sequencing
#5
V Palombo, J J Loor, M D'Andrea, M Vailati-Riboni, K Shahzad, U Krogh, P K Theil
BACKGROUND: Colostrum and milk are essential sources of antibodies and nutrients for the neonate, playing a key role in their survival and growth. Slight abnormalities in the timing of colostrogenesis/lactogenesis potentially threaten piglet survival. To further delineate the genes and transcription regulators implicated in the control of the transition from colostrogenesis to lactogenesis, we applied RNA-seq analysis of swine mammary gland tissue from late-gestation to farrowing. Three 2nd parity sows were used for mammary tissue biopsies on days 14, 10, 6 and 2 before (-) parturition and on day 1 after (+) parturition...
May 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720984/activation-of-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-redirects-the-inflammatory-response-in-neonatal-sepsis
#6
Alexandra C Bolognese, Weng-Lang Yang, Laura W Hansen, Archna Sharma, Jeffrey M Nicastro, Gene F Coppa, Ping Wang
Sepsis is the third leading cause of death in the neonatal population, due to susceptibility to infection conferred by immaturity of both the innate and adaptive components of the immune system. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are specialized adaptive immune cells that possess important innate-like characteristics and have not yet been well-studied in septic neonates. We hypothesized that iNKT cells would play an important role in mediating the neonatal immune response to sepsis. To study this, we subjected 5- to 7-day-old neonatal C57BL/6 mice to sepsis by intraperitoneal (i...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717661/cd4-t-cell-activation-during-the-newborn-period-barriers-against-and-pathways-toward-th1-immunity
#7
Luke S Uebelhoer, Christina L Lancioni
During the period of transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life, the neonatal immune system must learn to rapidly identify pathogens while balancing pro-inflammatory, antimicrobial responses with immune regulation that allows for resolution of inflammation and limits responses to commensal organisms and benign environmental antigens. However, the naive immune system of neonates is presented with several barriers that limit robust proinflammatory immune responses. Specifically, epigenetic modifications to neonatal naive CD4+ T cells, heightened neonatal regulatory T cell frequency and function, and limitations in the co-stimulatory potential of neonatal antigen presenting cells restrict development of CD4+ T cells with a T-helper 1 type functional profile...
2018: Critical Reviews in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715493/spleen-development-is-modulated-by-neonatal-gut-microbiota
#8
M Manuela Rosado, Alaitz Aranburu, Marco Scarsella, Simona Cascioli, Ezio Giorda, Federica Del Chierico, Stefano Levi Mortera, Eva Piano Mortari, Stefania Petrini, Lorenza Putignani, Rita Carsetti
The full development of the mammalian immune system occurs after birth upon exposure to non self-antigens. The gut is the first site of bacterial colonization where it is crucial to create the appropriate microenvironment able to balance effector or tolerogenic responses to external stimuli. It is a well-established fact that at mucosal sites bacteria play a key role in developing the immune system but we ignore how colonising bacteria impact the maturation of the spleen. Here we addressed this issue. Taking advantage of the fact that milk SIgA regulates bacterial colonization of the newborn intestine, we generated immunocompetent mice born either from IgA pro-efficient or IgA deficient females...
April 28, 2018: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713493/prophylaxis-of-acute-respiratory-infections-via-improving-the-immune-system-in-late-preterm-newborns-with-e-coli-strain-nissle-1917-a-controlled-pilot-trial
#9
Mykola L Aryayev, Liudmyla I Senkivska, Nataliya K Bredeleva, Irina V Talashova
Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs), caused by the high level of immaturity of the immune system, are a major cause of morbidity in preterm newborns. The probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is well known for its immuno-modulatory properties and may therefore enhance the immune competence. Thus, EcN administration may provide a promising possibility to decrease the risk of ARIs in this vulnerable group of children. However, clinical data supporting or refuting this hypothesis are, to our knowledge, not available...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709367/inhibition-of-necroptosis-attenuates-lung-injury-and-improves-survival-in-neonatal-sepsis
#10
Alexandra C Bolognese, Weng-Lang Yang, Laura W Hansen, Naomi-Liza Denning, Jeffrey M Nicastro, Gene F Coppa, Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis represents a unique therapeutic challenge owing to an immature immune system. Necroptosis is a form of programmed cell death that has been identified as an important mechanism of inflammation-induced cell death. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 plays a key role in mediating this process. We hypothesized that pharmacologic blockade of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 activity would be protective in neonatal sepsis. METHODS: Sepsis was induced in C57BL/6 mouse pups (5-7 days old) by intraperitoneal injection of adult cecal slurry...
April 27, 2018: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688570/diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-chemotherapy-reveals-a-combined-immunodeficiency-syndrome-in-cartilage-hair-hypoplasia
#11
Alexandre Nguyen, Nicolas Martin Silva, Hubert de Boysson, Gandhi Damaj, Achille Aouba
Cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare autosomal recessive ribosomopathy characterised by skeletal and integumentary system manifestations. It may also present with varied forms and intensities of haematopoietic and/or immune disorders. We report a 27-year-old female who presented a picture of combined immunodeficiency after receiving an adriamycin-based chemotherapy regimen followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Her medical history indicated neonatal dwarfism, recurrent ear, nose and throat and respiratory infections, and hypogammaglobulinaemia, which were suggestive of a primary minor B-cell immune deficiency...
April 24, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685987/characterization-of-a-two-component-system-transcriptional-regulator-ltdr-that-impacts-group-b-streptococcal-colonization-and-disease
#12
Liwen Deng, Rong Mu, Thomas A Weston, Brady L Spencer, Roxanne Liles, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus , GBS) is often a commensal bacterium that colonizes healthy adults asymptomatically and is a frequent inhabitant of the vaginal tract in women. However, in immune-compromised individuals, particularly the newborn, GBS may transition to an invasive pathogen and cause serious disease. Despite currently recommended intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for GBS-positive mothers, GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal septicemia and meningitis. To adapt to the various host environments encountered during its disease cycle, GBS possesses multiple two-component regulatory systems (TCS)...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684078/ovarian-mast-cells-migrate-toward-ovary-fimbria-connection-in-neonatal-mrl-mpj-mice
#13
Teppei Nakamura, Masataka Chihara, Osamu Ichii, Saori Otsuka-Kanazawa, Ken-Ichi Nagasaki, Yaser Hosny Ali Elewa, Osamu Tatsumi, Yasuhiro Kon
MRL/MpJ mice have abundant ovarian mast cells (MCs) as compared with other strains at postnatal day 0 (P0); however, they sharply decrease after birth. These ovarian MCs, particularly beneath the ovarian surface epithelium (SE), which express mucosal MC (MMC) marker, might participate in early follicular development. This study investigated the changes in spatiotemporal distribution of MCs in the perinatal MRL/MpJ mouse ovaries. At P0 to P7, the MCs were densely localized to the ovary, especially their caudomedial region around the ovary-fimbria connection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680746/monocyte-activation-and-inflammation-can-exacerbate-treg-th17-imbalance-in-infants-with-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#14
Yin Pang, Xiaoya Du, Xueli Xu, Mengjie Wang, Zhichang Li
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a potentially fatal disease that develops in the intestinal tract of newborn infants. An overactive immune system in the intestinal tract of NEC patients not only propagates inflammation and mediates tissue damage, but may also radiate the disease systemically and impose injury to distant organs. We previously identified impairment in the Treg compartment in NEC patients. Here, we hypothesized that monocytes, which could promote iTreg differentiation both in vitro and in vivo, were dysregulated in NEC infants...
April 19, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672989/a-novel-model-to-study-neonatal-escherichia-coli-sepsis-and-the-effect-of-treatment-on-the-human-immune-system-using-humanized-mice
#15
Florian Schlieckau, Daniela Schulz, Sara Fill Malfertheiner, Kathrin Entleutner, Birgit Seelbach-Goebel, Wolfgang Ernst
PROBLEM: Neonatal sepsis is a serious threat especially for preterm infants. As existing in vitro and in vivo models have limitations, we generated a novel neonatal sepsis model using humanized mice and tested the effect of Betamethasone and Indomethacin which are used in the clinic in case of premature birth. METHOD OF STUDY: Humanized mice were infected with Escherichia coli (E. coli). Subsequently, the effect of the infection itself, and treatment with Betamethasone and Indomethacin on survival, recovery, bacterial burden, leukocyte populations, and cytokine production, was analyzed...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670610/neonatal-immunization-rationale-current-state-and-future-prospects
#16
REVIEW
Elizabeth Whittaker, David Goldblatt, Peter McIntyre, Ofer Levy
Infections take their greatest toll in early life necessitating robust approaches to protect the very young. Here, we review the rationale, current state, and future research directions for one such approach: neonatal immunization. Challenges to neonatal immunization include natural concern about safety as well as a distinct neonatal immune system that is generally polarized against Th1 responses to many stimuli such that some vaccines that are effective in adults are not in newborns. Nevertheless, neonatal immunization could result in high-population penetration as birth is a reliable point of healthcare contact, and offers an opportunity for early protection of the young, including preterm newborns who are deficient in maternal antibodies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668899/how-uterine-microbiota-might-be-responsible-for-a-receptive-fertile-endometrium
#17
Marilen Benner, Gerben Ferwerda, Irma Joosten, Renate G van der Molen
BACKGROUND: Fertility depends on a receptive state of the endometrium, influenced by hormonal and anatomical adaptations, as well as the immune system. Local and systemic immunity is greatly influenced by microbiota. Recent discoveries of 16S rRNA in the endometrium and the ability to detect low-biomass microbiota fueled the notion that the uterus may be indeed a non-sterile compartment. To date, the concept of the 'sterile womb' focuses on in utero effects of microbiota on offspring and neonatal immunity...
April 16, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642927/streptococcus-bovis-unusual-etiology-of-meningitis-in-a-neonate-with-down-syndrome-a-case-report
#18
Sachith Mettananda, Phirarthana Kamalanathan, K Dhananja Namalie
BACKGROUND: Common etiological agents of neonatal meningitis include group B Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Here we report a rare pathogen - Streptococcus bovis - causing meningitis in a premature neonate with Down syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-day-old Asian male neonate with Down syndrome presented with a history of high-grade fever, poor sucking, poor cry, and reduced activity. On admission, he was febrile and had features of circulatory collapse...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642829/-infecting-glial-cells-with-antimony-resistant-leishmania-tropica-a-new-ex-vivo-model
#19
Orçun Zorbozan, Mehmet Harman, Vedat Evren, Mümin Alper Erdoğan, Aslı Kılavuz, Varol Tunalı, İbrahim Çavuş, Özlem Yılmaz, Ahmet Özbilgin, Nevin Turgay
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that shows different clinical features like cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral and viscerotropic forms. The protocols used in the treatment of leishmaniasis are toxic and have many limitations during administration. One of the limitations of treatment is the resistance against the protocols in practice. There is also a need to define new treatment options especially for resistant patients. Ex-vivo models using primary cell cultures may be a good source for evaluating new drug options in patients with antimony resistance, in addition to in-vitro and in-vivo studies...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627530/an-enriched-environment-restores-hepatitis-b-vaccination-mediated-impairments-in-synaptic-function-through-ifn-%C3%AE-arginase1-signaling
#20
Fangfang Qi, Zejie Zuo, Saisai Hu, Yucen Xia, Dan Song, Jiechen Kong, Yang Yang, Yingying Wu, Xiao Wang, Junhua Yang, Dandan Hu, Qunfang Yuan, Juntao Zou, Kaihua Guo, Jie Xu, Zhibin Yao
Activation of the neonatal immune system may contribute to deficits in neuronal plasticity. We have reported that neonatal vaccination with a hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) transiently impairs mood status and spatial memory involving a systemic T helper (Th) 2 bias and M1 microglial activation. Here, an EE induced microglial anti-inflammatory M2 polarization, as evidenced by selectively enhanced expression of the Arginase1 gene (Arg-1) in the hippocampus. Interestingly, knock-down of the Arg-1 gene prevented the effects of EE on restoring the dendritic spine density...
April 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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