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Novel narcotics

Joseph M Blankush, Robbie Freeman, Joy McIlvaine, Trung Tran, Stephen Nassani, I Michael Leitman
Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) provide real-time vital sign (VS) trending and reduce ICU admissions in post-operative patients. These early warning calculations classically incorporate oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and temperature but have not previously included end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), more recently identified as an independent predictor of critical illness. These systems may be subject to failure when physiologic data is incorrectly measured, leading to false alarms and increased workload...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Minhan Ka, Yeon-Hee Kook, Ke Liao, Shilpa Buch, Woo-Yang Kim
Cocaine is a highly addictive narcotic associated with dendritic spine plasticity in the striatum. However, it remains elusive whether cocaine modifies spines in a cell type-specific or region-specific manner or whether it alters different types of synapses in the brain. In addition, there is a paucity of data on the regulatory mechanism(s) involved in cocaine-induced modification of spine density. In the current study, we report that cocaine exposure differentially alters spine density, spine morphology, and the types of synapses in hippocampal and cortical neurons...
October 13, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Christian Görgens, Sven Guddat, Andreas Thomas, Philipp Wachsmuth, Anne-Katrin Orlovius, Gerd Sigmund, Mario Thevis, Wilhelm Schänzer
So far, in sports drug testing compounds of different classes are processed and measured using different screening procedures. The constantly increasing number of samples in doping analysis, as well as the large number of substances with doping related, pharmacological effects require the development of even more powerful assays than those already employed in sports drug testing, indispensably with reduced sample preparation procedures. The analysis of native urine samples after direct injection provides a promising analytical approach, which thereby possesses a broad applicability to many different compounds and their metabolites, without a time-consuming sample preparation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Andrew C Eppstein, Bryan Sakamoto
Opioids are important for surgical pain control but may not be appropriate for patients with narcotic abuse histories or opioid intolerance. We describe a laparoscopic bilateral inguinal herniorrhaphy performed without perioperative or postoperative narcotics. Postoperative analgesia involves a novel technique using 2 different bupivacaine formulations that act synergistically to avoid lag time and provide extended pain relief during the acute surgical recovery phase.
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Paul C Mayor, Shashikant Lele
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality used in the management of solid tumor malignancies that employs the use of a photosensitizing agent, a light source and oxygen in order to illicit a direct cytotoxic effect. Its use in gynecologic malignancies is somewhat novel and has been used for palliative and curative intent. At the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, the use of PDT in the management of gynecologic cancers began in the mid 1980s and since that time 35 patients have received PDT as a treatment for recurrent or metastatic cutaneous and vulvar, vaginal, anal, and cervical recurrences...
2016: Cancers
O Hayden Griffin, Jace A Daniels, Elizabeth A Gardner
Although some novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are newly discovered chemicals, others are traditional or indigenous substances that are introduced to new markets. One of these latter substances is a plant many people refer to as kratom. Indigenous to Southeast Asia and used for a variety of instrumental and recreational purposes, kratom has recently become available to Western drug users. Kratom is somewhat unique in that the plant contains two different psychoactive chemicals, which have both stimulant (mitragynine) and narcotic (7-hydroxymitragynine) properties...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Joseph G Crompton, Aaron J Dawes, Graham W Donald, Masha J Livhits, Charles F Chandler
BACKGROUND: Inguinodynia, defined as pain lasting >3 months after inguinal hernia repair, remains the major complication of hernia operation. We sought to determine the effect of direct perineural infiltration on acute pain and inguinodynia after open inguinal hernia repair. METHODS: Patients who presented with an inguinal hernia at a university teaching hospital were evaluated prospectively and randomized to either (1) percutaneous ilioinguinal nerve block or (2) percutaneous ilioinguinal nerve block with additional perineural infiltration of the ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, genitofemoral nerves...
August 25, 2016: Surgery
Rachel B Seymour, Daniel Leas, Meghan K Wally, Joseph R Hsu
BACKGROUND: Prescription narcotic overdoses and abuse have reached alarming numbers. To address this epidemic, integrated clinical decision support within the electronic medical record (EMR) to impact prescribing behavior was developed and tested. METHODS: A multidisciplinary Expert Panel identified risk factors for misuse, abuse, or diversion of opioids or benzodiazepines through literature reviews and consensus building for inclusion in a rule within the EMR. We ran the rule "silently" to test the rule and collect baseline data...
2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Yu Qian, Zhen Lin, Cong Jin, Xing Zhao, Minghao Zheng
STUDY DESIGN: Surgical approach development in an animal model, and a prospective study comparing clinical outcomes between novel and conventional approaches in thoracolumbar burst fracture fixation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of a less-invasive retroperitoneal approach to the lumbar spine in a sheep model and to compare the clinical outcomes of anterior reconstruction in the treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures using novel and conventional approaches...
June 28, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Walter G Park
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize observations in clinical chronic pancreatitis in the past year. RECENT FINDINGS: A predisposing genetic mutation was identified in 67% of cases of pediatric chronic pancreatitis. A novel susceptibility gene involving a hybrid allele is associated with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. ABO blood type B and FUT2 nonsecretor status is associated with asymptomatic hyperlipasemia and chronic pancreatitis. Alcohol consumption impairs cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity leading to decreased bicarbonate secretion and patients with susceptible CFTR mutations can develop clinical pancreatitis...
June 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Hongbo Zhang, Chunsheng Wei, Yingying Huang, Guanshu Li, Qiong Wu, Jun Wang, Youtao Song
A novel sonocatalyst, Er(3+):Y3Al5O12/KNbO3 composite, was synthesized, and then, characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). In order to evaluate the sonocatalytic activity of prepared Er(3+):Y3Al5O12/KNbO3 composite, the sonocatalytic degradation of ketamine, a kind of narcotic drug, was studied. In addition, some influencing factors such as mass ratio, heat-treated temperature and heat-treated time on the sonocatalytic activity of prepared Er(3+):Y3Al5O12/KNbO3 powders and ultrasonic irradiation time on the sonocatalytic degradation of ketamine were examined by using GC-MS machine...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Celina S Liu, Myuri Ruthirakuhan, Sarah A Chau, Nathan Herrmann, André F Carvalho, Krista L Lanctôt
Agitation and aggression are common neuropsychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and are highly prevalent in people with dementia. When pharmacological intervention becomes necessary, current clinical practice guidelines recommend antipsychotics, cholinesterase inhibitors, and some antidepressants. However, those interventions have modest to low efficacy, and those with the highest demonstrated efficacy have significant safety concerns. As a result, current research is focusing on novel compounds that have different mechanisms of action and that may have a better balance of efficacy over safety...
2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Stuart A Harlin, Ruth A Grissom, Christopher LeCroy, Susan M Pouliot, Scott A Harlin
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endovascular aneurysm repair (PEVAR) continues to evolve. Device profiles continue to decline, further reducing the physiological insult of the procedure. Anesthesia, however, has not evolved with a large proportion of patients continuing to receive general anesthesia for their increasingly less invasive procedures. We report on a novel anesthetic technique providing outstanding anesthesia in patients undergoing PEVAR in an outpatient setting. The total anesthesia used was remarkably cost effective...
July 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
E Esposito, Impellizzeri D, Bruschetta G, Cordaro M, Siracusa R, Gugliandolo E, Crupi R, Cuzzocrea S
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a special food for medical purposes, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Nevertheless, PEA lacks direct ability to prevent free radical formation. Polydatin (PLD), a natural precursor of resveratrol, has antioxidant activity. The combination of PEA and PLD could have beneficial effects on oxidative stress induced by inflammatory processes. In the present study, we compared the effects of micronized PEA (PEA-m) and PLD association (PEA-m+PLD) with a new co-micronized composite containing PEA and PLD (m(PEA/PLD)) in the rat paw model of carrageenan (CAR)-induced acute inflammation...
July 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Alena Celsie, Donald Mackay, J Mark Parnis, Jon A Arnot
A novel dynamic fugacity-based model is described, developed, and tested that simulates the uptake of narcotic organic chemicals in fish from water as occurs in aquatic bioconcentration and toxicity tests. The physiologically based toxicokinetic model treats the time course of chemical distribution in 4 compartments (tissue groups) in the fish, including the liver, in which biotransformation may occur. In addition to calculating bioconcentration and toxicokinetics, 5 possible toxic endpoints are defined corresponding to chemical concentration, fugacity, or activity reaching a critical value that causes 50% mortality...
May 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
R Gray, D Bressington, E Hughes, A Ivanecka
UNLABELLED: WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) include synthetic drugs mimicking the effects of illicit drugs, e.g. synthetic cannabinoids, and herbs such as Salvia divinorum. NPS are substances that can trigger hallucinations and other effects altering the mind, and are currently uncontrolled by the United Nations' 1961 Narcotic Drugs/1971 Psychotropic Substances Conventions. NPS affect brain chemistry that induces the psychoactive effects, such as hallucinations and feeling 'high'...
June 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Na Liu, Yeyao Wang, Qi Yang, Yibing Lv, Xiaowei Jin, John P Giesy, Andrew C Johnson
Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is considered to be an endocrine disruptor, which unlike other chemicals that have either non-specific (e.g., narcotics) or more generalized reactive modes of action, affect the Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and tend to have specific interactions with particular molecular targets within biochemical pathways. Responding to this challenge, a novel method for deriving predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) and probabilistic ecological risk assessment (PERAs) for DEHP based on long-term exposure to potentially sensitive species with appropriate apical endpoints was development for protection of Chinese surface waters...
June 2016: Environmental Pollution
T Wesley Templeton, Martina G Downard, Christopher R Simpson, Kristen A Zeller, Leah B Templeton, Yvon F Bryan
BACKGROUND: One-lung ventilation (OLV) is frequently employed to improve surgical exposure during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and thoracotomy in adults and children. Because of their small size, children under the age of 2 years are not candidates for some of the methods typically used for OLV in adults and older children, such as a double-lumen endotracheal (DLT) tube or intraluminal use of a bronchial blocker. Due to this, the clinician is left with few options. One of the most robust approaches to OLV in infants and small children has been the extraluminal placement of a 5 French (5F) Arndt endobronchial blocker (AEB)...
May 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Ran Schwarzkopf, Michael Drexler, Michael W Ma, Vanessa M Schultz, Khanhvan T Le, Tal Frenkel Rutenberg, Joseph B Rinehart
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) poses a major challenge. It delays mobilization, increases opioid consumption and side effects, and lengthens hospitalization. This challenge multiplies when treating an opioid-dependent population. We examined whether a novel suspended release local anesthetic, liposomal bupivacaine (LB) would improve pain control and decrease opioid consumption after TKA compared to a standard periarticular injection in opioid-dependent patients...
August 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Joseph M Reardon, Katherine J Harmon, Genevieve C Schult, Catherine A Staton, Anna E Waller
BACKGROUND: Although fatal opioid poisonings tripled from 1999 to 2008, data describing nonfatal poisonings are rare. Public health authorities are in need of tools to track opioid poisonings in near real time. METHODS: We determined the utility of ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes for identifying clinically significant opioid poisonings in a state-wide emergency department (ED) surveillance system. We sampled visits from four hospitals from July 2009 to June 2012 with diagnosis codes of 965...
2016: BMC Emergency Medicine
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