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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618720/anti-tnf-and-thiopurine-therapy-in-pregnant-ibd-patients-does-not-significantly-alter-a-panel-of-b-cell-and-t-cell-subsets-in-1-year-old-infants
#1
Michael G Kattah, Jeffrey M Milush, Trevor Burt, Robert P McCabe, Michael I Whang, Averil Ma, Uma Mahadevan
OBJECTIVES: Infants exposed to combination therapy with anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents and thiopurines may exhibit increased infections at 1 year of age compared to unexposed infants. We hypothesized that this increased risk of infection is due to abnormal development of the newborn immune system. METHODS: We immunophenotyped B-cell and T-cell subsets using multiparameter flow cytometry in 1-year-old infants whose mothers were exposed to therapeutic agents for IBD...
April 3, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610181/neonatal-alloimmune-thrombocytopenia-with-amegakaryocytosis-b-lymphopenia-and-villitis
#2
Arthur Dony, Annie Buenerd, Corinne Pondarre
Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) is a common but significant challenge for neonatologists and a potentially devastating disease that may lead to intracranial bleeding. The underlying mechanism of thrombocytopenia is expected to be mediated by accelerated clearance of antibody-opsonized fetal platelets. We report severe recurrent NAIT related to human platelet antigen (HPA)-15 systems in 2 consecutive siblings. The first child presented with intracranial hemorrhage at birth and subsequently died. The diagnosis of NAIT, although initially suspected, was ruled out after negative investigation of only HPA-1, HPA-3, and HPA-5 systems...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604222/biliary-atresia-clinical-and-research-challenges-for-the-21-st-century
#3
Jorge A Bezerra, Rebecca G Wells, Cara L Mack, Saul J Karpen, Jay H Hoofnagle, Edward Doo, Ronald J Sokol
Biliary atresia (BA) is a fibroinflammatory disease of the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree. Without medical treatment, surgical hepatic portoenterosmy (HPE) may restore bile drainage, but progression of the intrahepatic disease results in complications of portal hypertension and advanced cirrhosis in most children. Recognizing that further progress in the field is unlikely without a better understanding of the underlying cause(s) and pathogenesis of the disease, the National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases sponsored a research workshop focused on innovative and promising approaches and on identifying future areas of research...
March 31, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599088/a-single-vaccination-with-non-replicating-mva-at-birth-induces-both-immediate-and-long-term-protective-immune-responses
#4
Cédric Cheminay, Jana Körner, Constanze Bernig, Michael Brückel, Markus Feigl, Martin Schletz, Mark Suter, Paul Chaplin, Ariane Volkmann
Newborns are considered difficult to protect against infections shortly after birth, due to their ineffective immune system that shows quantitative and qualitative differences compared to adults. However, here we show that a single vaccination of mice at birth with a replication-deficient live vaccine Modified Vaccinia Ankara [MVA] efficiently induces antigen-specific B- and T-cells that fully protect against a lethal Ectromelia virus challenge. Protection was induced within 2 weeks and using genetically modified mice we show that this protection was mainly T-cell dependent...
March 27, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588230/associations-between-maternal-cytokine-levels-during-gestation-and-measures-of-child-cognitive-abilities-and-executive-functioning
#5
Mikhail G Dozmorov, Staci D Bilbo, Scott H Kollins, Nancy Zucker, Elizabeth K Do, Julia C Schechter, Junfeng Jim Zhang, Susan Murphy, Cathrine Hoyo, Bernard F Fuemmeler
Preclinical studies demonstrate that environmentally-induced alterations in inflammatory cytokines generated by the maternal and fetal immune system can significantly impact fetal brain development. Yet, the relationship between maternal cytokines during gestation and later cognitive ability and executive function remains understudied. Children (n = 246) were born of mothers enrolled in the Newborn Epigenetic Study - a prospective pre-birth cohort in the Southeastern US. We characterized seven cytokines [IL-1β, IL-4,IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and interferon-γ (IFNγ)] and one chemokine (IL-8) from maternal plasma collected during pregnancy...
March 24, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578438/the-morphological-picture-of-local-immune-responses-in-the-kidneys-ureters-and-bladder-of-the-foetuses-and-newborns-who-developed-in-conditions-of-maternal-preeclampsia
#6
I Sorokina, M Myroshnychenko, S Sherstiuk, Y Zubova, S Nakonechna, S Panov
The purpose of the research consisted in revealing morphological peculiarities of local immune responses in the kidneys, ureters and bladder of the foetuses and newborns, who developed in conditions of maternal preeclampsia with different degrees of its severity. The research was conducted on autopsy material: the kidneys, ureters and bladders of mature foetuses and newborns. Four groups were formed in the study: group I - foetuses and newborns from mothers with physiological pregnancy; group II - foetuses and newborns from mothers, whose pregnancy was complicated with a mild degree of preeclampsia; group III - foetuses and newborns from mothers, whose pregnancy was complicated with a moderately severe degree of preeclampsia; group IV - foetuses and newborns from mothers, whose pregnancy was complicated with severe preeclampsia...
February 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551298/a-novel-pathogenic-mutation-on-interleukin-7-receptor-leading-to-severe-combined-immunodeficiency-identified-with-newborn-screening-and-whole-exome-sequencing
#7
Cheng-Yu Liao, Hui-Wen Yu, Chao-Neng Cheng, Jiann-Shiuh Chen, Ching-Wei Lin, Peng-Chieh Chen, Chi-Chang Shieh
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), which is caused by genetic defects in immune-related genes involved in the development or activation of the adaptive immune system, often died in infancy due to severe infections before definite molecular diagnosis could be made. Although recent improvement in early diagnosis has been achieved by newborn screening, the genetic basis of many of the patients is still unknown. METHODS: Here we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) to investigate the underlying genetic causes of SCID in a proband identified with newborn screening...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545512/immunological-status-of-children-born-to-female-liver-recipients
#8
Agnieszka Drozdowska-Szymczak, Bronisława Pietrzak, Natalia Czaplińska, Joanna Schreiber-Zamora, Zoulikha Jabiry-Zieniewicz, Mirosław Wielgoś, Bożena Kociszewska-Najman
BACKGROUND Immunosuppressive treatment in pregnant organ recipients can affect functions of the fetal and newborn immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of this treatment on selected parameters of the immune system of children born to mothers after liver transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 52 children born to liver recipients and 52 children in the control group. The study was conducted in the 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw...
March 16, 2018: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542687/sickle-cell-disease
#9
REVIEW
Gregory J Kato, Frédéric B Piel, Clarice D Reid, Marilyn H Gaston, Kwaku Ohene-Frempong, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti, Wally R Smith, Julie A Panepinto, David J Weatherall, Fernando F Costa, Elliott P Vichinsky
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited disorders caused by mutations in HBB, which encodes haemoglobin subunit β. The incidence is estimated to be between 300,000 and 400,000 neonates globally each year, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Haemoglobin molecules that include mutant sickle β-globin subunits can polymerize; erythrocytes that contain mostly haemoglobin polymers assume a sickled form and are prone to haemolysis. Other pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the SCD phenotype are vaso-occlusion and activation of the immune system...
March 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534408/-chinese-expert-consensus-on-tetanus-immunization
#10
(no author information available yet)
Tetanus is an acute specific infection caused by obligate anaerobes, which is still a serious public health problem. Tetanus bacterium is an obligate anaerobic bacterium, widely distributed in nature, which can exist in dust, soil, human or animal excrement. The bacteria invade the body primarily through the skin or mucosal wounds, and most commonly in trauma and burn patients, unclean newborns, and unsafe surgical instruments. Exotoxin produced by tetanus bacteria can cause temporary changes in the central nervous system, manifested as systemic skeletal muscle persistence and paroxysmal spasm, severe cases of laryngospasm, asphyxia, lung infections and organ failure, which is a very serious and potentially fatal disease...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520354/group-b-streptococcal-maternal-colonization-and-neonatal-disease-molecular-mechanisms-and-preventative-approaches
#11
REVIEW
Kathryn A Patras, Victor Nizet
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonizes the gastrointestinal and vaginal epithelium of a significant percentage of healthy women, with potential for ascending intrauterine infection or transmission during parturition, creating a risk of serious disease in the vulnerable newborn. This review highlights new insights on the bacterial virulence determinants, host immune responses, and microbiome interactions that underpin GBS vaginal colonization, the proximal step in newborn infectious disease pathogenesis. From the pathogen perspective, the function GBS adhesins and biofilms, β-hemolysin/cytolysin toxin, immune resistance factors, sialic acid mimicry, and two-component transcriptional regulatory systems are reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512054/peripartum-care-for-mothers-diagnosed-with-hepatitis-b-during-pregnancy-a-survey-of-provider-practices
#12
Allison J Kwong, Matthew S Chang, Ruth E Tuomala, Laura E Riley, Julian N Robinson, Muthoka L Mutinga, Karin L Andersson, Robert S Brown, Emily Oken, Chinweike Ukomadu, Anna E Rutherford
Objectives Hepatitis B (HBV) remains a significant public health burden, despite effective therapy. Routine HBV screening is recommended during pregnancy to reduce the risk of vertical transmission, but the rates of follow-up care peri-partum are low. The aim of this study was to evaluate physician practices and knowledge regarding HBV in women diagnosed perinatally. Methods A survey was distributed to obstetricians and midwives within the Partners HealthCare system at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital...
March 6, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494530/oral-immunization-against-pedv-with-recombinant-lactobacillus-casei-expressing-dendritic-cell-targeting-peptide-fusing-coe-protein-of-pedv-in-piglets
#13
Xingyu Hou, Xinpeng Jiang, Yanping Jiang, Lijie Tang, Yigang Xu, Xinyuan Qiao, Liu Min, Cui Wen, Guangpeng Ma, Yijing Li
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious disease in newborn piglets. In our previous study, a genetically engineered Lactobacillus casei oral vaccine ( pPG-COE-DCpep/L393 ) expressing a dendritic cell (DC)-targeting peptide fused with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) COE antigen was developed. This vaccine induced significant levels of anti-PEDV specific IgG and IgA antibody responses in mice, indicating a potential strategy against PEDV infection. In this study, pPG-COE-DCpep/L393 was used for oral vaccination of newborn piglets against PEDV...
March 1, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492465/current-and-future-management-of-recurrent-respiratory-papillomatosis
#14
REVIEW
Ryan Ivancic, Hassan Iqbal, Brad deSilva, Quintin Pan, Laura Matrka
Objectives: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a chronic disease of the respiratory tract that occurs in both children and adults. It is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), in particular low-risk HPV6 and HPV11, and aggressiveness varies among patients. RRP remains a chronic disease that is difficult to manage. This review provides perspectives on current and future management of RRP. Results: The current standard of care is surgical excision, with adjuvant therapies as needed...
February 2018: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479018/core-factors-promoting-a-continuum-of-care-for-maternal-newborn-and-child-health-in-japan
#15
Hidechika Akashi, Miwa Ishioka, Akiko Hagiwara, Rumiko Akashi, Yasuyo Osanai
Providing a continuum of care (CoC) is important strategy for improving maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH). Japan's current very low maternal and infant mortality rates suggest that its CoC for MNCH is good. In this paper, we attempt to clarify how CoC and low mortality rates are being maintained in Japan, by examining the entire MNCH service provision system. First, we examine two important tools for integrated service provision, the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Handbook and registration of pregnant women with local governments, both introduced in 1942...
February 26, 2018: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470360/oral-supplementation-with-bovine-colostrum-prevents-septic-shock-and-brain-barrier-disruption-during-bloodstream-infection-in-preterm-newborn-pigs
#16
Anders Brunse, Päivi Worsøe, Susanne Elisabeth Pors, Kerstin Skovgaard, Per Torp Sangild
Preterm infants have increased risk of neonatal sepsis, potentially inducing brain injury, and they may benefit from early initiation of enteral milk feeding. Using preterm pigs as models, we hypothesized that early provision of bovine colostrum to parentally nourished newborns protects against sepsis and neuroinflammation during bloodstream infection. Preterm newborn pigs were administered 10 CFU/kg of intra-arterial Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE, an opportunistic pathogen often causing sepsis in preterm infants), followed by administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN, SE + TPN, n = 15) or oral provision of bovine colostrum with supplementary parenteral nutrition (SE + COL, n = 14), and compared with uninfected, TPN-nourished controls (CON + TPN, n = 11)...
February 21, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463139/non-persistent-pesticides-in-breast-milk-in-an-agricultural-area-in-turkey
#17
Hacer Yapicioglu Yildizdas, Ferda Ozlu, Pinar Efeoglu, Nebile Daglioglu, Mehmet Satar
BACKGROUND: Organophosphates, pythyreoids, carbamate pesticides and fungicides are heavily used in agriculture. They may have dangerous effects on newborn health especially on immune system and growth via prenatal transmission by placenta or postnatal transmission by breastfeeding. METHODS: In 2015, 144 non-persistent pesticides in 64 milk samples of 32 mothers were studied by OuEChERS method in liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometer in neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Adana, a city in Cukurova region which is an important agricultural area in Turkey...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433128/-the-new-national-immunization-program-2017-2019-and-the-essential-care-levels-what-is-going-to-change
#18
Chiara De Waure, Leuconoe Grazia Sisti, Andrea Poscia, Walter Ricciardi
Italy is witnessing relevant challenges in the field of prevention and control of vaccine-preventable diseases. The worrying and growing phenomenon of "vaccine-hesitancy" has contributed to the reduction of vaccination coverage, undermining goals reached thanks to vaccines introduction. The new Italian National Immunization Plan (NIP) 2017-2019 and the update of the list of Essential Care Levels (LEA), approved in the current year, extend the vaccination offer based on the latest scientific evidence with the introduction of new vaccines and the enlargement of target population...
September 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420131/t-cell-receptor-excision-circle-levels-and-safety-of-paediatric-immunization-a-population-based-self-controlled-case-series-analysis
#19
Kumanan Wilson, Daniel R Duque, Malia Sq Murphy, Steven Hawken, Anne Pham-Huy, Jeffrey Kwong, Shelley L Deeks, Beth K Potter, Natasha S Crowcroft, Dennis E Bulman, Pranesh Chakraborty, Julian Little
T-cell receptor excision circle levels are a surrogate marker of T-cell production and immune system function. We sought to determine whether non-pathological infant T-cell receptor excision circle levels were associated with adverse events following immunization. A self-controlled case series design was applied on a sample of 231,693 children who completed newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency in Ontario, Canada between August 2013 and December 2015. Exposures included routinely administered pediatric vaccines up to 15 months of age...
February 8, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412128/variation-in-immune-related-micrornas-profile-in-human-milk-amongst-lactating-women
#20
Mariarita Perri, Maria Lucente, Roberto Cannataro, Ida Francesca De Luca, Luca Gallelli, Concetta Cafiero, Giovambattista De Sarro, Guido Moro, Maria Cristina Caroleo, Erika Cione
BACKGROUND: Human milk (HM) is a biological fluid representing the first nutriment for newborns. It directly impacts the development of the infant's immune system. In this concern, specific microRNAs (miRNAs) such as hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-181a, hsa-miR-150 and hsa-miR-223 are known to be involved in the innate and acquired immune response. OBJECTIVE: Herein, these miRNAs were evaluated in frozen and pasteurized samples of human colostrum and HM in order to elucidate the distribution and the expression profile of these biological mediators in both biological fluids...
February 6, 2018: MicroRNA
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