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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329702/protecting-the-newborn-and-young-infant-from-infectious-diseases-lessons-from-immune-ontogeny
#1
REVIEW
Tobias R Kollmann, Beate Kampmann, Sarkis K Mazmanian, Arnaud Marchant, Ofer Levy
Infections in the first year of life are common and often severe. The newborn host demonstrates both quantitative and qualitative differences to the adult in nearly all aspects of immunity, which at least partially explain the increased susceptibility to infection. Here we discuss how differences in susceptibility to infection result not out of a state of immaturity, but rather reflect adaptation to the particular demands placed on the immune system in early life. We review the mechanisms underlying host defense in the very young, and discuss how specific developmental demands increase the risk of particular infectious diseases...
March 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326082/neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-disease-in-otherwise-healthy-infants-failure-of-specific-neonatal-immune-responses
#2
Alessandro Borghesi, Mauro Stronati, Jacques Fellay
Only a small proportion of newborn infants exposed to a pathogenic microorganism develop overt infection. Susceptibility to infection in preterm infants and infants with known comorbidities has a likely multifactorial origin and can be often attributed to the concurrence of iatrogenic factors, environmental determinants, underlying pathogenic processes, and probably genetic predisposition. Conversely, infection occurring in otherwise healthy full-term newborn infants is unexplained in most cases. Microbial virulence factors and the unique characteristics of the neonatal immune system only partially account for the interindividual variability in the neonatal immune responses to pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326080/characterization-of-the-highly-prevalent-regulatory-cd24-hi-cd38-hi-b-cell-population-in-human-cord-blood
#3
Ana Esteve-Solé, Irene Teixidó, Angela Deyà-Martínez, Jordi Yagüe, Ana M Plaza-Martín, Manel Juan, Laia Alsina
The newborn's immune system must transition from a sterile haploidentical uterus to the world full of antigens. Regulatory B-cells (Breg; broadly defined as CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi)) are tolerance promoters in the adult immune system. They can inhibit IFN-γ and IL-17 production by T-cells and are essential in different conditions, including pregnancy. Breg have still not been well characterized in umbilical cord blood, where we hypothesize that they are pivotal in the achievement of tolerance. We studied CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) Breg in healthy umbilical cord blood (hUCB) compared to healthy peripheral adult blood (hAPB)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296565/maternal-microbiota-and-antibodies-as-advocates-of-neonatal-health
#4
Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg, Tobias Fuhrer, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero
Mammalian body surfaces are inhabited by vast numbers of microbes, the commensal microbiota, which help the host to digest food, provide nutrients, and mature its immune system. For a long time, postnatal colonization was believed to be the main stimulus for microbial-induced immune development. Using a model of reversible colonization of germ-free mice during gestation, we recently showed that the microbial shaping of the neonatal immune system begins even before birth through molecular signals derived from the microbiota of the mother...
March 1, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289707/eomesodermin-and-t-bet-mark-developmentally-distinct-human-natural-killer-cells
#5
Amélie Collins, Nyanza Rothman, Kang Liu, Steven L Reiner
Immaturity of the immune system of human fetuses and neonates is often invoked to explain their increased susceptibility to infection; however, the development of the fetal innate immune system in early life remains incompletely explored. We now show that the most mature NK cells found in adult (or postnatal) human circulation (CD94(-)CD16(+)) are absent during ontogeny. Human fetal NK cells were found to express the 2 signature T-box transcription factors essential for the development of all murine NK and NK-like cells, eomesodermin (Eomes) and T-bet...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289572/human-listeriosis-presenting-as-breast-abscess-report-of-a-rare-case
#6
Venkataramana Kandi
An abscess is defined as a collection of pus in various tissues of the body including skin and other organs. Abscesses most commonly are formed on the skin under the armpits, groin areas, and rectal areas. Most abscesses involve microbial infections with few remaining sterile. The treatment of abscesses includes both medical and surgical intervention. In the era of multidrug resistance, isolation and identification of the causative microbe and testing for antimicrobial susceptible patterns assume greater significance for the better management of patients, thereby reducing the resultant morbidity and mortality...
February 1, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288018/cost-effectiveness-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-children-in-portugal
#7
Miguel Gouveia, Francesca Fiorentino, Gonçalo Jesus, João Costa, Margarida Borges
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal infections are the leading cause of vaccine-preventable death in children. In June 2015, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was introduced in the Portuguese Immunization Program. We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of children vaccination with PCV13 versus no vaccination for preventing pneumococcal diseases (PD). METHOD: A cohort simulation model for 2014 Portuguese newborns was used, considering a lifetime horizon and existence of herd effect on adults...
March 10, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278385/the-type-i-interferon-response-and-age-dependent-susceptibility-to-herpes-simplex-virus-infection
#8
Daniel Giraldo, Douglas R Wilcox, Richard Longnecker
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a highly prevalent human neurotropic pathogen. HSV-1 infection is associated with a variety of diseases ranging from benign orolabial lesions to more serious and even life-threatening conditions such as herpes simplex keratitis and herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). HSE is a rare occurrence among healthy adult individuals, but newborns are a particularly susceptible population. Type I IFN signaling has been identified as a crucial component of the innate immune response to the control of HSV-1 infection...
March 9, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276111/immune-cell-subsets-cytokine-and-cortisol-levels-during-the-first-week-of-life-in-neonates-born-to-pre-eclamptic-mothers
#9
Florentina Sava, Gergely Toldi, András Treszl, Júlia Hajdú, Ágnes Harmath, János Rigó, Tivadar Tulassay, Barna Vásárhelyi
PROBLEM: To address the hypothesis that pre-eclampsia (PE) impacts the fetal immune system, we investigated the prevalence of distinct immune cell subsets along with plasma cortisol and cytokine levels in pre-term newborns of PE mothers. METHOD OF STUDY: Cord blood and peripheral blood samples on the 1st, 3rd and 7th postnatal days of life were collected from 14 pre-term infants affected by PE and 14 non-PE pregnancies. We measured plasma cortisol and cytokine levels with immunoassays and assessed the prevalence of T, NK and DC subsets using flow cytometry...
March 9, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267635/associations-between-fetal-hla-g-genotype-and-birth-weight-and-placental-weight-in-a-large-cohort-of-pregnant-women-possible-implications-for-hla-diversity
#10
Johanne Emmery, Ole B Christiansen, Line Lynge Nilsson, Mette Dahl, Peter Skovbo, Anna Margrethe Møller, Rudi Steffensen, Thomas Vauvert F Hviid
Birth weight and placental weight are crucial parameters for the survival of fetuses and newborns in mammals. High variation in the MHC is important for an effective adaptive immune response. The maternal immune system must be controlled in relation to the semi-allogenic fetus. The immunoregulatory HLA/MHC class Ib gene, HLA-G, is strongly expressed on extravillous trophoblast cells. We investigated birth weight and placental weight of the newborns in mothers heterozygous for an HLA-G 14bp insertion (Ins)/deletion (Del) gene polymorphism...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252216/use-of-gammarus-fossarum-amphipoda-embryo-for-toxicity-testing-a-case-study-with-cadmium
#11
Hélène Arambourou, Alexandre Decamps, Hervé Quéau, Aymeric Dabrin, Didier Neuzeret, Arnaud Chaumot
The effects of environmental contaminants on arthropod embryo stages have been poorly investigated in ecotoxicology. Moreover, many of these tests used hatching success as the sole metric, while many more subtle effects could be detected. In the present study, after having finely described embryogenesis in Gammarus fossarum, sublethal effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure during the embryonic development of G. fossarum were studied. For this purpose, embryos were first directly exposed in multiwell plates throughout the entire embryo cycle (i...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228394/update-in-chlamydia-trachomatis-vaccinology
#12
Luis M de la Maza, Guangming Zhong, Robert C Brunham
Attempts to produce a vaccine to protect against Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) induced trachoma were initiated more than 100 years ago and continued for several decades. Using whole organisms protective responses were obtained. However, upon exposure to C. trachomatis, disease exacerbation developed in some immunized individuals precluding the implementation of the vaccine. Evidence of the role of C. trachomatis as a sexually transmitted pathogen started to emerge in the 1960's and soon became evident that it can cause acute infections and long term-sequelae in women, men and newborns...
February 22, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212334/transfer-of-anti-rotavirus-antibodies-during-pregnancy-and-in-milk-following-maternal-vaccination-with-a-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-amplicon-vector
#13
Anita F Meier, Mark Suter, Elisabeth M Schraner, Bruno M Humbel, Kurt Tobler, Mathias Ackermann, Andrea S Laimbacher
Rotaviruses (RVs) are important enteric pathogens of newborn humans and animals, causing diarrhea and in rare cases death, especially in very young individuals. Rotavirus vaccines presently used are modified live vaccines that lack complete biological safety. Previous work from our laboratory suggested that vaccines based on in situ produced, non-infectious rotavirus-like particles (RVLPs) are efficient while being entirely safe. However, using either vaccine, active mucosal immunization cannot induce protective immunity in newborns due to their immature immune system...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169551/advances-in-lactoferrin-research-concerning-bovine-mastitis
#14
Kei-Ichi Shimazaki, Kazuhiro Kawai
Lactoferrin is a multifunctional, iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and other exocrine secretions. Lactoferrin in milk plays vital roles in the healthy development of newborn mammals, and is also an innate resistance factor involved in the prevention of mammary gland infection by microorganisms. Inflammation of the udder because of bacterial infection is referred to as mastitis. There have been many investigations into the relationships between lactoferrin and mastitis, which fall into several categories...
February 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166927/effect-of-artificial-rearing-of-piglets-on-the-volume-densities-of-m-cells-in-the-tonsils-of-the-soft-palate-and-ileal-peyer-s-patches
#15
S Prims, N Pintens, H Vergauwen, S Van Cruchten, C Van Ginneken, C Casteleyn
The high prolificacy of modern hybrid sows has increased the mean litter size during the last decades. However, rearing large litters is challenging and has increased the use of alternative management strategies such as euthanasia of weak piglets, cross-fostering, supplementing piglets with milk, split-nursing and split-weaning. The latter includes artificial rearing on brooders where piglets have ad libitum access to milk replacer. The effect of this artificial rearing on the immune system of the piglet is the subject of various studies...
February 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162823/mucosal-vaccination-promotes-clearance-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-vaginal-colonization
#16
Jacqueline A Baker, Emma L Lewis, Leah M Byland, Maryam Bonakdar, Tara M Randis, Adam J Ratner
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants, and colonization of the maternal genital tract is the primary risk factor for newborn infection. Despite the importance of mucosal colonization in GBS pathogenesis, relevant host and bacterial factors are incompletely understood. We investigated the role of humoral immunity in clearance of vaginal colonization in vivo. B-cell-deficient mice or those lacking neonatal Fc-receptor, a mediator of IgG transport to the vaginal mucosa, exhibit prolonged GBS vaginal colonization compared to wild type animals...
March 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154564/immunization-of-newborn-mice-accelerates-the-architectural-maturation-of-lymph-nodes-but-aid-dependent-igg-responses-are-still-delayed-compared-to-the-adult
#17
Rosario Munguía-Fuentes, Juan Carlos Yam-Puc, Aarón Silva-Sánchez, Edith Marcial-Juárez, Isis Amara Gallegos-Hernández, Juana Calderón-Amador, Troy D Randall, Leopoldo Flores-Romo
Lymph nodes (LNs) have evolved to maximize antigen (Ag) collection and presentation as well as lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation-processes that are spatially regulated by stromal cell subsets, including fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Here, we showed that naïve neonatal mice have poorly organized LNs with few B and T cells and undetectable FDCs, whereas adult LNs have numerous B cells and large FDC networks. Interestingly, immunization on the day of birth accelerated B cell accumulation and T cell recruitment into follicles as well as FDC maturation and FRC organization in neonatal LNs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138335/lifewide-profile-of-cytokine-production-by-innate-and-adaptive-immune-cells-from-brazilian-individuals
#18
Gabriela Silveira-Nunes, Elaine Speziali, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Danielle M Vitelli-Avelar, Renato Sathler-Avelar, Taciana Figueiredo-Soares, Maria Luiza Silva, Vanessa Peruhype-Magalhães, Daniel Gonçalves Chaves, Gustavo Eustáquio Brito-Melo, Glenda Meira Cardoso, Eric Bassetti Soares, Silvana Maria Elói-Santos, Rosângela Teixeira, Dulciene Magalhães Queiroz, Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira, Ana Maria Caetano Faria, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho
BACKGROUND: Immunosenescence is associated with several changes in adaptive and innate immune cells. Altered cytokine production is among the most prominent of these changes. The impact of age-related alterations on cytokine global profiles produced by distinct populations of leukocytes from healthy Brazilian individuals was studied. We analysed frequencies of cytokine-producing lymphocytes and innate immune cells from individuals at several ages spanning a lifetime period (0-85 years)...
2017: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126016/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-and-associated-risk-factors-among-hiv-infected-women-within-reproductive-age-group-at-mizan-aman-general-hospital-southwest-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Ayalew Jejaw Zeleke, Yayehirad Alemu Melsew
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is serious in the case of immune suppression and prenatal transmission. In immunocompromised hosts, it is manifested primarily as a life-threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. Congenital toxoplasmosis results in abortion or congenitally acquired disorders which primarily affect the central nervous system. This study assessed seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and associated factors among HIV-infected women within the reproductive age group (18-49 years) at Mizan Aman General Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia...
January 26, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098883/developmental-expression-of-toll%C3%A2-like-receptors-in-the-guinea-pig-lung
#20
Lingjie Ma, Jiali Yang, Li Yang, Juan Shi, Jing Xue, Yong Li, Xiaoming Liu
The guinea pig is a useful model for investigating infectious and non‑infectious lung diseases due to the sensitivity of its respiratory system and susceptibility to infectious agents. Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) are important components of the innate immune response and are critical for lung immune function. In the present study, the differentiation of epithelial cells in the guinea pig lung was examined during gestation by studying anatomic morphology and the major epithelial cell types using cell type‑specific markers...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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