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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898024/perinatal-arterial-ischemic-stroke-is-associated-to-materno-fetal-immune-activation-and-intracranial-arteritis
#1
Clémence Guiraut, Nicole Cauchon, Martin Lepage, Guillaume Sébire
The medium-size intra-cranial arteries arising from the carotid bifurcation are prone to perinatal arterial ischemic strokes (PAIS). PAIS' physiopathology needs to be better understood to develop preventive and therapeutic interventions that are currently missing. We hypothesized that materno-fetal inflammation leads to a vasculitis affecting selectively the carotidian tree and promoting a focal thrombosis and subsequent stroke. Dams were injected with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893356/single-stranded-dna-aptamer-targeting-and-neutralization-of-anti-d-alloantibody-a-potential-therapeutic-strategy-for-haemolytic-diseases-caused-by-rhesus-alloantibody
#2
Yinze Zhang, Fan Wu, Manni Wang, Naibao Zhuang, Huayou Zhou, Hua Xu
BACKGROUND: Rhesus (Rh) D antigen is the most important antigen in the Rh blood group system because of its strong immunogenicity. When RhD-negative individuals are exposed to RhD-positive blood, they may produce anti-D alloantibody, potentially resulting in delayed haemolytic transfusion reactions and Rh haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn, which are difficult to treat. Inhibition of the binding of anti-D antibody with RhD antigens on the surface of red blood cells may effectively prevent immune haemolytic diseases...
November 11, 2016: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890454/effect-of-phototherapy-on-b-and-t-lymphocytes-in-egyptian-infants-suffering-from-neonatal-jaundice
#3
I K Eyada, A L El Saie, G A Ibrahem, N M Riad
BACKGROUND: Neonatal jaundice is one of the most common problems that affect newborn infants, and phototherapy is usually used for treatment. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the effect of phototherapy on neonatal immune system through measuring the percentage of B and T lymphocytes and determining the frequency of development of infections and need for hospitalisation during the first six months of life. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted on 50 full term new-borns; 25 with indirect hyperbilirubinaemia and treated with conventional phototherapy and 25 healthy matched neonates as untreated controls...
November 24, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887572/maternal-smoking-impacts-key-biological-pathways-in-newborns-through-epigenetic-modification-in-utero
#4
Daniel M Rotroff, Bonnie R Joubert, Skylar W Marvel, Siri E Håberg, Michael C Wu, Roy M Nilsen, Per M Ueland, Wenche Nystad, Stephanie J London, Alison Motsinger-Reif
BACKGROUND: Children exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy exhibit increased risk for many adverse health effects. Maternal smoking influences methylation in newborns at specific CpG sites (CpGs). Here, we extend evaluation of individual CpGs to gene-level and pathway-level analyses among 1062 participants in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) using the Illumina 450 K platform to measure methylation in newborn DNA and maternal smoking in pregnancy, assessed using the biomarker, plasma cotinine...
November 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885575/administration-of-huperzia-quadrifariata-extract-a-cholinesterase-inhibitory-alkaloid-mixture-has-neuroprotective-effects-in-a-rat-model-of-cerebral-hypoxia-ischemia
#5
F K Odorcyk, E F Sanches, F C Nicola, J Moraes, L F Pettenuzzo, J Kolling, C Siebert, A Longoni, E L Konrath, A Wyse, C A Netto
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is an etiologic component of several neurologic pathologies associated to cognitive impairment. The mechanisms involved in HI-induced tissue damage start immediately after HI and extend for days. Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and exerts a protector effect on tissue damage by modulating inflammation, and cholinesterase inhibitors have shown neuroprotective properties and their action are often attributed to inhibition of the immune response...
November 24, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884010/less-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-in-term-newborns-than-in-adults
#6
Patrick Lipp, Johanna Ruhnau, Anja Lange, Antje Vogelgesang, Alexander Dressel, Matthias Heckmann
BACKGROUND: Newborns are prone to infections, which are independent predictors of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are structures composed of chromatin and antimicrobial molecules that capture and kill pathogens. NETs may play an important role in the innate immune system and, thus, might be associated with impaired neonatal immune function. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare NET formation between term neonates and healthy adults...
November 25, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881652/inhibition-of-human-cytomegalovirus-pul89-terminase-subunit-blocks-virus-replication-and-genome-cleavage
#7
Yan Wang, Lili Mao, Jayakanth Kankanala, Zhengqiang Wang, Robert J Geraghty
: Human cytomegalovirus terminase complex cleaves the concatemeric genomic DNA into unit lengths during genome packaging and particle assembly. This process is an attractive drug target because cleavage of concatemeric DNA is not required in mammalian cell DNA replication, indicating that drugs targeting the terminase complex could be safe and selective. One component of the human cytomegalovirus terminase complex, pUL89, provides the endonucleolytic activity for genome cleavage and the domain responsible is reported to have an RNase H-like fold...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849237/immunology-of-breast-milk
#8
Patricia Palmeira, Magda Carneiro-Sampaio
In the critical phase of immunological immaturity of the newborn, particularly for the immune system of mucous membranes, infants receive large amounts of bioactive components through colostrum and breast milk. Colostrum is the most potent natural immune booster known to science. Breastfeeding protects infants against infections mainly via secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies, but also via other various bioactive factors. It is striking that the defense factors of human milk function without causing inflammation; some components are even anti-inflammatory...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830761/delayed-development-of-systemic-immunity-in-preterm-pigs-as-a-model-for-preterm-infants
#9
Duc Ninh Nguyen, Pingping Jiang, Hanne Frøkiær, Peter M H Heegaard, Thomas Thymann, Per T Sangild
Preterm neonates are highly sensitive to systemic infections in early life but little is known about systemic immune development following preterm birth. We hypothesized that preterm neonates have immature systemic immunity with distinct developmental trajectory for the first several weeks of life, relative to those born at near-term or term. Using pigs as a model, we characterized blood leukocyte subsets, antimicrobial activities and TLR-mediated cytokine production during the first weeks after preterm birth...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807240/porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-pedv-3c-like-protease-mediated-nucleocapsid-processing-a-possible-link-to-viral-cell-culture-adaptability
#10
Peera Jaru-Ampornpan, Juggragarn Jengarn, Asawin Wanitchang, Anan Jongkaewwattana
: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes severe diarrhea and high mortality in newborn piglets, leading to massive loss to the swine industry worldwide during recent epidemics. Intense research effort is now focusing on defining viral characteristics that confer growth advantage, pathogenicity or cell adaptability in order to better understand PEDV life cycle and identify suitable targets for antiviral or vaccine development. Here, we reported a unique phenomenon of PEDV nucleocapsid (N) cleavage by PEDV-encoded 3C-like protease (3Cpro) during infection...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793997/age-specific-adjuvant-synergy-dual-tlr7-8-and-mincle-activation-of-human-newborn-dendritic-cells-enables-th1-polarization
#11
Simon D van Haren, David J Dowling, Willemina Foppen, Dennis Christensen, Peter Andersen, Steven G Reed, Robert M Hershberg, Lindsey R Baden, Ofer Levy
Due to functionally distinct cell-mediated immunity, newborns and infants are highly susceptible to infection with intracellular pathogens. Indeed, neonatal Ag-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) demonstrate impaired Th1 responses to many candidate adjuvants, including most TLR agonists (TLRAs). Combination adjuvantation systems may provide enhanced immune activation but have typically been developed without regard to the age of the target population. We posited that distinct combinations of TLRAs and C-type lectin receptor agonists may enhance Th1 responses of newborn DCs...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744547/a-mixture-of-milk-and-vegetable-lipids-in-infant-formula-changes-gut-digestion-mucosal-immunity-and-microbiota-composition-in-neonatal-piglets
#12
Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Karima Bouzerzour, Stéphanie Ferret-Bernard, Olivia Ménard, Laurence Le Normand, Cécile Perrier, Cindy Le Bourgot, Julien Jardin, Claire Bourlieu, Thomas Carton, Pascale Le Ruyet, Isabelle Cuinet, Cécile Bonhomme, Didier Dupont
PURPOSE: Although composition of infant formula has been significantly improved during the last decade, major differences with the composition and structure of breast milk still remain and might affect nutrient digestion and gut biology. We hypothesized that the incorporation of dairy fat in infant formulas could modify their physiological impacts by making their composition closer to that of human milk. The effect of milk fat and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fragments in infant formulas on gut digestion, mucosal immunity and microbiota composition was evaluated...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718327/the-newborn-human-nk-cell-repertoire-is-phenotypically-formed-but-functionally-reduced
#13
Dara M Strauss-Albee, Emily C Liang, Thanmayi Ranganath, Natali Aziz, Catherine A Blish
BACKGROUND: Infection is a leading cause of death worldwide in babies under one month of age. Better vaccines and therapeutics are desperately needed for this vulnerable population. METHODS: Because newborns rely heavily on the innate immune system, we evaluated cell phenotype and function of some of the earliest cellular responders during infection, natural killer (NK) cells. We used mass cytometry to provide a comprehensive comparison of NK cells from umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood...
October 7, 2016: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696149/generation-of-il10-and-tgfb1-coexpressed-mice-displaying-resistance-to-ovalbumin-induced-asthma
#14
Fei Xu, Xiuhua Kang, Liang Chen, Chuanhui Chen, Gen Hu, Wei Bai, Wei Zhang
Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease in the airways with wide prevalence, and it is thought to be caused by the combinational factors in environment and genetics. A large body of studies has suggested that cell immunity played a vital role in regulating the airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and inflammation. Therefore, we here developed a mouse model of asthma by microinjecting the pronucleus with a vector spontaneously coding human IL10 and TGFB1 gene to explore the possible interaction between these two potent molecules during asthma progression...
October 1, 2016: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690059/lactoferrin-from-milk-nutraceutical-and-pharmacological-properties
#15
Francesco Giansanti, Gloria Panella, Loris Leboffe, Giovanni Antonini
Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein present in large quantities in colostrum and in breast milk, in external secretions and in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Lactoferrin's main function is non-immune protection. Among several protective activities shown by lactoferrin, those displayed by orally administered lactoferrin are: (i) antimicrobial activity, which has been presumed due to iron deprivation, but more recently attributed also to a specific interaction with the bacterial cell wall and extended to viruses and parasites; (ii) immunomodulatory activity, with a direct effect on the development of the immune system in the newborn, together with a specific antinflammatory effects; (iii) a more recently discovered anticancer activity...
2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666279/child-health-care-in-ireland
#16
Anthony Staines, Kevin P Balanda, Steve Barron, Yvonne Corcoran, Lorraine Fahy, Louise Gallagher, Tessa Greally, Jean Kilroe, Caroline Mason Mohan, Anne Matthews, Elyce McGovern, Alf Nicholson, Anne O'Farrell, Roy K Philip, Helen Whelton
The Irish health care system is based on a complex and costly mix of private, statutory, and voluntary provisions. The majority of health care expenditure comes from the state, with a significant proportion of acute hospital care funded from private insurance, but there are relatively high out-of-pocket costs for most service users. There is free access to acute hospital care, but not for primary care, for all children. About 40% of the population have free access to primary care. Universal preventive public health services, including vaccination and immunization, newborn blood spot screening, and universal neonatal hearing screening are free...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661278/immune-changes-in-newborn-infants-with-gastrointestinal-failure-requiring-intensive-care
#17
D Kholod, D Shkurupii, E Sonnik
Newborns in critical conditions, because of the natureof the immune system, have the greatest risk of realization of immune deficiency, especially with gastrointestinal failure. We analyzed 44 cases of diseases in newborns in critical conditions and 20 cases without and studied the clinical and laboratory signs of immunological disorders, organpathology, gene expressionToll-likereceptor type 2. In newborns requiring intensive care, the frequency of gastrointestinal failure registration in 40,9%. Gastrointestinal failure leads to increased amounts of other affected systems, severity of systemic inflammation, gene expressionToll-likereceptor type 2, a marker of apoptosis of lymphocytes-CD95+, inhibition lymphocyte germ of immune system due to fraction of CD4+,the severity of the clinical condition...
July 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633175/the-effect-of-a-probiotic-escherichia-coli-strain-on-regulatory-t-cells-in-six-year-old-children
#18
J Hrdý, I Kocourková, R Lodinová-Žádníková, L Kolářová, L Prokešová
Probiotics are believed to prevent or reduce allergy development but the mechanism of their beneficial effect is still poorly understood. Immune characteristics of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in peripheral blood of perinatally probiotic-supplemented children of allergic mothers (51 children), non-supplemented children of allergic mothers (42 children), and non-supplemented children of healthy mothers (28 children) were compared at the age of 6-7 years. A first dose of a probiotic Escherichia coli strain (E. coli O83:K24:H31) was administered within 2 days after the birth and then 12 times during the first months of life and children were followed longitudinally...
September 16, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619517/an-intracellular-adrenomedullin-system-reduces-il-6-release-via-a-nf-kb-mediated-camp-independent-transcriptional-mechanism-in-rat-thymic-epithelial-cells
#19
Giulia Castellani, Giovanna Paliuri, Genny Orso, Nicola Paccagnella, Claudio D'Amore, Laura Facci, Francesca Cima, Federico Caicci, Pietro Palatini, Sergio Bova, Sara De Martin
Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) play a key role in the regulation of central immune tolerance by expressing autoantigens and eliminating self-reactive T cells. In a previous paper we reported that adrenomedullin (ADM) and its co-receptor protein RAMP2 are located intracellularly in newborn human thymic epithelial cells (TECs). This work has two main aims: (1) to examine the cellular localization of ADM and its receptor in TECs of adult Wistar rats to validate this animal model for the study of the ADM system and its function(s) in thymus; (2) to investigate the potential modulating effect of ADM on the NF-kB pathway, which is involved through the production of cytokines such as IL-6, in the maturation of T-lymphocytes and immunological tolerance...
December 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601599/comprehensive-proteomic-analysis-of-human-milk-derived-extracellular-vesicles-unveils-a-novel-functional-proteome-distinct-from-other-milk-components
#20
Martijn J C van Herwijnen, Marijke I Zonneveld, Soenita Goerdayal, Esther N M Nolte-'t Hoen, Johan Garssen, Bernd Stahl, A F Maarten Altelaar, Frank A Redegeld, Marca H M Wauben
Breast milk contains several macromolecular components with distinctive functions, whereby milk fat globules and casein micelles mainly provide nutrition to the newborn, and whey contains molecules that can stimulate the newborn's developing immune system and gastrointestinal tract. Although extracellular vesicles (EV) have been identified in breast milk, their physiological function and composition has not been addressed in detail. EV are submicron sized vehicles released by cells for intercellular communication via selectively incorporated lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins...
November 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
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