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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029729/schmallenberg-virus-a-novel-virus-of-veterinary-importance
#1
Kerstin Wernike, Martin Beer
In late 2011, unspecific clinical symptoms such as fever, diarrhea, and decreased milk production were observed in dairy cattle in the Dutch/German border region. After exclusion of classical endemic and emerging viruses by targeted diagnostic systems, blood samples from acutely diseased cows were subjected to metagenomics analysis. An insect-transmitted orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup was identified as the causative agent and named Schmallenberg virus (SBV). It was one of the first detections of the introduction of a novel virus of veterinary importance to Europe using the new technology of next-generation sequencing...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983301/immunological-changes-in-blood-of-newborns-exposed-to-anti-tnf-%C3%AE-during-pregnancy
#2
Ana Esteve-Solé, Àngela Deyà-Martínez, Irene Teixidó, Elena Ricart, Macarena Gompertz, Maria Torradeflot, Noemí de Moner, Europa Azucena Gonzalez, Ana Maria Plaza-Martin, Jordi Yagüe, Manel Juan, Laia Alsina
BACKGROUND: Although anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibodies are considered safe during pregnancy, there are no studies on the development of the exposed-infant immune system. The objective was to study for the first time the impact of throughout pregnancy exposure to anti-TNF-α has an impact in the development of the infant's immune system, especially B cells and the IL-12/IFN-γ pathway. METHODS: Prospective study of infants born to mothers with inflammatory bowel disease treated throughout pregnancy with anti-TNF-α (adalimumab/infliximab)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980158/age-dependent-neurochemical-remodeling-of-hypothalamic-astrocytes
#3
Camila Leite Santos, Paola Haack Amaral Roppa, Pedro Truccolo, Fernanda Urruth Fontella, Diogo Onofre Souza, Larissa Daniele Bobermin, André Quincozes-Santos
The hypothalamus is a crucial integrative center in the central nervous system, responsible for the regulation of homeostatic activities, including systemic energy balance. Increasing evidence has highlighted a critical role of astrocytes in orchestrating hypothalamic functions; they participate in the modulation of synaptic transmission, metabolic and trophic support to neurons, immune defense, and nutrient sensing. In this context, disturbance of systemic energy homeostasis, which is a common feature of obesity and the aging process, involves inflammatory responses...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975368/obesogenic-endocrine-disruptors-and-obesity-myths-and-truths
#4
REVIEW
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Luigi Barrea, Daniela Laudisio, Silvia Savastano, Annamaria Colao
Obesogenic endocrine disruptors, also known as obesogens, are chemicals potentially involved in weight gain by altering lipid homeostasis and promoting adipogenesis and lipid accumulation. They included compounds to which human population is exposed over daily life such as pesticides/herbicides, industrial and household products, plastics, detergents and personal care products. The window of life during which the exposure happens could lead to different effects. A critical window is during utero and/or neonatal period in which the obesogens could cause subtle changes in gene expression and tissue organization or blunt other levels of biological organization leading to increased susceptibility to diseases in the adulthood...
October 3, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971246/transfer-of-maternal-immunity-and-programming-of-the-newborn-immune-system
#5
REVIEW
Madeleine F Jennewein, Bahaa Abu-Raya, Yiwei Jiang, Galit Alter, Arnaud Marchant
As placental mammals, the pregnant women and the fetus have intense and prolonged interactions during gestation. There is increasing evidence that multiple molecular as well as cellular components originating in pregnant women are transferred to the fetus. The transfer of maternal antibodies has long been recognized as a central component of newborn immunity against pathogens. More recent studies indicate that inflammatory mediators, micronutrients, microbial products and maternal cells are transferred in utero and influence the fetal immune system...
October 2, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966060/dynamics-of-vaccination-in-a-time-delayed-epidemic-model-with-awareness
#6
G O Agaba, Y N Kyrychko, K B Blyuss
This paper investigates the effects of vaccination on the dynamics of infectious disease, which is spreading in a population concurrently with awareness. The model considers contributions to the overall awareness from a global information campaign, direct contacts between unaware and aware individuals, and reported cases of infection. It is assumed that there is some time delay between individuals becoming aware and modifying their behaviour. Vaccination is administered to newborns, as well as to aware individuals, and it is further assumed that vaccine-induced immunity may wane with time...
September 28, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947540/in-utero-exposure-to-histological-chorioamnionitis-primes-the-exometabolomic-profiles-of-preterm-cd4-t-lymphocytes
#7
Poojitha Matta, Stacy D Sherrod, Christina C Marasco, Daniel J Moore, John A McLean, Joern-Hendrik Weitkamp
Histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) is an intrauterine inflammatory condition that increases the risk for preterm birth, death, and disability because of persistent systemic and localized inflammation. The immunological mechanisms sustaining this response in the preterm newborn remain unclear. We sought to determine the consequences of HCA exposure on the fetal CD4(+) T lymphocyte exometabolome. We cultured naive CD4(+) T lymphocytes from HCA-positive and -negative preterm infants matched for gestational age, sex, race, prenatal steroid exposure, and delivery mode...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942621/current-status-and-strategies-for-the-control-of-viral-hepatitis-a-in-korea
#8
REVIEW
Eileen L Yoon, Dong Hyun Sinn, Hyun Woong Lee, Ji Hoon Kim
Hepatitis A virus is one of the most frequent causes of foodborne infection, which is closely associated with sanitary conditions and hygienic practices. The clinical spectrum of acute hepatitis A is wide, ranging from mild case without any noticeable symptoms to severe case with acute liver failure leading to mortality. The severity and outcome are highly correlated with age at infection. In developing countries, most people are infected in early childhood without significant symptom. Ironically, in area where sanitary condition has improved rapidly, adults who do not have immunity for viral hepatitis A (VH-A) in early childhood is accumulating...
September 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942491/modulation-of-type-1-diabetes-risk-by-the-intestinal-microbiome
#9
REVIEW
Mikael Knip, Jarno Honkanen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize potential modulations of the intestinal microbiome aimed at preventing or delaying progression to overt type 1 diabetes in the light of recently identified perturbations of the gut microbiota associated with the development of type 1 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulated data suggest that the gut microbiota is involved at two different steps in the evolution of type 1 diabetes. At the first step, the intestinal tract is colonized by a microbial community unable to provide an adequate education of the immune system...
September 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929093/the-elevated-rate-of-cesarean-section-and-its-contribution-to-non-communicable-chronic-diseases-in-latin-america-the-growing-involvement-of-the-microbiota
#10
REVIEW
Fabien Magne, Alexa Puchi Silva, Bielka Carvajal, Martin Gotteland
The current recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) regarding cesarean section (C-section) is that this clinical practice should be carried out only under specific conditions, when the health or life of the mother/newborn dyad is threatened, and that its use should not exceed 10-15% of the total deliveries. However, over the last few decades, the frequency of C-section delivery in medium- and high-income countries has rapidly increased worldwide. This review describes the evolution of this procedure in Latin American countries, showing that today more than half of newborns in the region are delivered by C-section...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916391/zika-virus-structural-biology-and-progress-in-vaccine-development
#11
REVIEW
Hsiao-Han Lin, Bak-Sau Yip, Li-Min Huang, Suh-Chin Wu
The growing number of zika virus (ZIKV) infections plus a 20-fold increase in neonatal microcephaly in newborns in Brazil have raised alarms in many countries regarding the threat to pregnant women. Instances of microcephaly and central nervous system malformations continue to increase in ZIKV outbreak regions. ZIKV is a small enveloped positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. High-resolution ZIKV structures recently identified by cryo-electron microscopy indicate that the overall ZIKV structure is similar to those of other flaviviruses...
September 12, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916046/inflammatory-response-and-long-term-behavioral-assessment-after-neonatal-co2-pneumothorax-study-in-a-rodent-model
#12
Alice Miranda, Susana Roque, Cláudia Serre-Miranda, José Miguel Pêgo, Jorge Correia-Pinto
BACKGROUND: Carbon-dioxide (CO2)-pneumothorax during minimally invasive surgery induces well-known metabolic changes. However, little is known about its impact on the central nervous system. The aim of this work is to evaluate the acute impact of CO2-pneumothorax over central cytokine response and its long-term effect on animal behavior. METHODS: This is an experimental study where neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats are submitted to CO2-pneumothorax. Peripheral and central cytokine response was evaluated 24h after insufflation, and peripheral immune cell phenotyping was evaluated 24h and 4weeks post-insufflation...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854515/intravenous-immunoglobulin-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-management-of-a-rare-cause-of%C3%A2-hemolytic-disease-of-the-newborn-anti-sara-antibodies
#13
R Venkataraman, K Yusuf
Hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN) is a condition that develops in a fetus, when the IgG molecules produced by the mother pass through the placenta and attack the fetal red blood cells. HDN can occur due to Rh and ABO incompatibilities between the mother and the fetus as well as due to other allo-immune antibodies belonging to Kell (K and k), Duffy (Fya), Kidd (Jka and Jkb), and MNS (M, N, S, and s) systems. Role of intravenous immunoglobulin in management of HDN is not clear.SARA red blood cell antigen, first discovered in 1990 is a low frequency antigen...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838187/experiences-and-lessons-from-polio-eradication-applied-to-immunization-in-10-focus-countries-of-the-polio-endgame-strategic-plan
#14
Maya M V X van den Ent, Apoorva Mallya, Hardeep Sandhu, Blanche-Philomene Anya, Nasir Yusuf, Marcelline Ntakibirora, Andreas Hasman, Kamal Fahmy, John Agbor, Melissa Corkum, Kyandindi Sumaili, Anisur Rahman Siddique, Jane Bammeke, Fiona Braka, Rija Andriamihantanirina, Antoine-Marie C Ziao, Clement Djumo, Moise Desire Yapi, Stephen Sosler, Rudolf Eggers
Nine polio areas of expertise were applied to broader immunization and mother, newborn and child health goals in ten focus countries of the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan: policy & strategy development, planning, management and oversight (accountability framework), implementation & service delivery, monitoring, communications & community engagement, disease surveillance & data analysis, technical quality & capacity building, and partnerships. Although coverage improvements depend on multiple factors and increased coverage cannot be attributed to the use of polio assets alone, 6 out of the 10 focus countries improved coverage in three doses of diphtheria tetanus pertussis containing vaccine between 2013 and 2015...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838165/contribution-of-global-polio-eradication-initiative-funded-personnel-to-the-strengthening-of-routine-immunization-programs-in-the-10-focus-countries-of-the-polio-eradication-and-endgame-strategic-plan
#15
Maya M V X van den Ent, Rachel D Swift, Sameer Anaokar, Lea Anne Hegg, Rudolf Eggers, Stephen L Cochi
Background: The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) established a target that at least 50% of the time of personnel receiving funding from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) for polio eradication activities (hereafter, "GPEI-funded personnel") should be dedicated to the strengthening of immunization systems. This article describes the self-reported profile of how GPEI-funded personnel allocate their time toward immunization goals and activities beyond those associated with polio, the training they have received to conduct tasks to strengthen routine immunization systems, and the type of tasks they have conducted...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837864/the-political-economy-of-diagnosis-related-groups
#16
Paola Bertoli, Veronica Grembi
A well-established political economic literature has shown as multi-level governance affects the inefficiency of public expenditures. Yet, this expectation has not been empirically tested on health expenditures. We provide a political economy interpretation of the variation in the prices of 6 obstetric DRGs using Italy as a case study. Italy offers a unique institutional setting since its 21 regional governments can decide whether to adopt the national DRG system or to adjust/waive it. We investigate whether the composition and characteristics of regional governments do matter for the average DRG level and, if so, why...
August 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835502/cd8-t-cell-immune-response-in-immunocompetent-mice-during-zika-virus-infection
#17
Huarong Huang, Shihua Li, Yongli Zhang, Xiaojuan Han, Baoqian Jia, Hongtao Liu, Dandan Liu, Shuguang Tan, Qihui Wang, Yuhai Bi, William J Liu, Baidong Hou, George Fu Gao, Fuping Zhang
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection cause neurologic complications, including Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults and central nerve system (CNS) abnormalities in fetuses. We investigated the immune response, especially CD8(+) T cell response in C57BL/6 (B6) wild type (WT) mouse during ZIKV infection. We found that robust CD8(+) T cell response was elicited, MHC-I restricted CD8(+) T cell epitopes were identified and a tetramer that recognized ZIKV specific CD8(+) T cells was developed. Finally, virus specific memory CD8(+) T cells were generated in these mice...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814388/impact-of-poxvirus-vector-priming-protein-coadministration-and-vaccine-intervals-on-hiv-gp120-vaccine-elicited-antibody-magnitude-and-function-in-infant-macaques
#18
Bonnie Phillips, Genevieve G Fouda, Josh Eudailey, Justin Pollara, Alan D Curtis, Erika Kunz, Maria Dennis, Xiaoying Shen, Camden Bay, Michael Hudgens, David Pickup, S Munir Alam, Amir Ardeshir, Pamela A Kozlowski, Koen K A Van Rompay, Guido Ferrari, M Anthony Moody, Sallie Permar, Kristina De Paris
Despite success in reducing vertical HIV transmission by maternal antiretroviral therapy, several obstacles limit its efficacy during breastfeeding, and breast-milk transmission is now the dominant mode of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in infants. Thus, a pediatric vaccine is needed to eradicate oral HIV infections in newborns and infants. Utilizing the infant rhesus macaque model, we compared 3 different vaccine regimens: (i) HIV envelope (Env) protein only, (ii) poxvirus vector (modified vaccinia virus Ankara [MVA])-HIV Env prime and HIV Env boost, and (iii) coadministration of HIV Env and MVA-HIV Env at all time points...
October 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813529/natural-and-artificial-feeding-management-before-weaning-promote-different-rumen-microbial-colonization-but-not-differences-in-gene-expression-levels-at-the-rumen-epithelium-of-newborn-goats
#19
Leticia Abecia, Elisabeth Jiménez, Gonzalo Martínez-Fernandez, A Ignacio Martín-García, Eva Ramos-Morales, Eric Pinloche, Stuart E Denman, C Jamie Newbold, David R Yáñez-Ruiz
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding management during the first month of life (natural with the mother, NAT, or artificial with milk replacer, ART) on the rumen microbial colonization and the host innate immune response. Thirty pregnant goats carrying two fetuses were used. At birth one kid was taken immediately away from the doe and fed milk replacer (ART) while the other remained with the mother (NAT). Kids from groups received colostrum during first 2 days of life. Groups of four kids (from ART and NAT experimental groups) were slaughtered at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812000/diagnostic-imaging-features-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-narrative-review
#20
REVIEW
Francesco Esposito, Rosanna Mamone, Marco Di Serafino, Carmela Mercogliano, Valerio Vitale, Gianfranco Vallone, Patrizia Oresta
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory process, characterized by intestinal necrosis of variable extension, leading to perforation, generalized peritonitis and death. The classical pathogenetic theory focuses on mucosal damage related to a stress induced intestinal ischemia leading to mucosal injury and bacterial colonization of the wall. A more recent hypothesis emphasizes the role of immaturity of gastrointestinal and immune system, particularly of the premature, responsible of bowel wall vulnerability and suffering...
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
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