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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882038/alzheimer-and-vascular-dementia-in-the-elderly-patients
#1
Naresh Kumar Seetlani, Narindar Kumar, Khalid Imran, Asif Ali, Nadia Shams, Taha Sheikh
OBJECTIVES: To find out the frequency of Alzheimer's and Vascular dementia in the elderly patients. METHODS: This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Medicine, Ziauddin Hospital Karachi from 1(st) October 2013 to 31(st) March 2014. Patients with symptoms of dementia for more than 6 months duration, and Mini Mental State Examination score <24 were included in this study. Patients who fell in category of dementia were assessed for duration of symptoms...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865707/a-comprehensive-database-of-published-tdcs-clinical-trials-2005-2016
#2
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique of noninvasive cortical stimulation allowing significant modification of brain functions. Clinical application of this technique was reported for the first time in March 2005. This paper presents a detailed list of the 340 articles (excluding single case reports) which have assessed the clinical effect of tDCS in patients, at least when delivered to cortical targets. The reviewed conditions were: pain syndromes, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, cerebral palsy, post-stroke limb motor impairment, post-stroke neglect, post-stroke dysphagia, post-stroke aphasia, primary progressive aphasia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia, tinnitus, depression, auditory hallucinations and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, addiction and craving, autism, and attention disorders...
December 2016: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862654/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-medial-temporal-lobe-atrophy-and-cognitive-status-in-patients-with-ischaemic-stroke-and-transient-ischaemic-attack
#3
F Arba, T Quinn, G J Hankey, M Ali, K R Lees, D Inzitari
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Small vessel disease (SVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two common causes of cognitive impairment and dementia, traditionally considered as distinct processes. The relationship between radiological features suggestive of AD and SVD was explored, and the association of each of these features with cognitive status at 1 year was investigated in patients with stroke or transient ischaemic attack. METHODS: Anonymized data were accessed from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA)...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816343/epidemiology-of-stroke-in-europe-and-trends-for-the-21st-century
#4
Yannick Béjot, Henri Bailly, Jérôme Durier, Maurice Giroud
Despite major improvements in primary prevention and acute treatment over the last decades, stroke is still a devastating disease. At the beginning of the 21st century, the age-standardized incidence of stroke in Europe ranged from 95 to 290/100,000 per year, with one-month case-fatality rates ranging from 13 to 35%. Approximately 1.1 million inhabitants of Europe suffered a stroke each year, and ischemic stroke accounted for approximately 80% of cases. Although global stroke incidence is declining, rates observed in young adults are on the rise, thus suggesting a need for strategies to improve prevention...
December 2016: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802359/antihypertensive-withdrawal-for-the-prevention-of-cognitive-decline
#5
REVIEW
Susan Jongstra, Jennifer K Harrison, Terry J Quinn, Edo Richard
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials and observational data have variously shown a protective, harmful or neutral effect of antihypertensives on cognitive function. In theory, withdrawal of antihypertensives could improve cerebral perfusion and reduce or delay cognitive decline. However, it is also plausible that withdrawal of antihypertensives may have a detrimental effect on cognition through increased incidence of stroke or other vascular events. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of complete withdrawal of at least one antihypertensive medication on incidence of dementia, cognitive function, blood pressure and other safety outcomes in cognitively intact and cognitive impaired adults...
November 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802225/urine-formaldehyde-predicts-cognitive-impairment-in-post-stroke-dementia-and%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Zhiqian Tong, Weishan Wang, Wenhong Luo, Jihui Lv, Hui Li, Hongjun Luo, Jianping Jia, Rongqiao He
Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) was first described over 100 years ago, there is still no suitable biomarker for diagnosing AD in easily collectable samples (e.g., blood plasma, saliva, and urine). Here, we investigated the relationship between morning urine formaldehyde concentration and cognitive impairment in patients with post-stroke dementia (PSD) or AD in this cross-sectional survey for 7 years. Cognitive abilities of the study participants (n = 577, four groups: 231 controls, 61 stroke, 65 PSD, and 220 AD) were assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757933/treating-hypertension-to-prevent-cognitive-decline-and-dementia-re-opening-the-debate
#7
M Florencia Iulita, Hélène Girouard
Hypertension and dementia are two of the most prevalent and damaging diseases associated with aging. Chronic hypertension, particularly during mid-life, is a strong risk factor for late-life cognitive decline and impairment. Hypertension is also the number one risk factor for stroke and a major contributor to the pathogenesis of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Despite the vast epidemiologic and mechanistic evidence linking hypertension to cognitive impairment, and the positive effects of blood pressure lowering on reducing the risk of post-stroke dementia, uncertainty remains about the benefit of antihypertensive medication on other forms of dementia...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752476/shining-light-on-the-head-photobiomodulation-for-brain-disorders
#8
Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate, heal, regenerate, and protect tissue that has either been injured, is degenerating, or else is at risk of dying. One of the organ systems of the human body that is most necessary to life, and whose optimum functioning is most worried about by humankind in general, is the brain. The brain suffers from many different disorders that can be classified into three broad groupings: traumatic events (stroke, traumatic brain injury, and global ischemia), degenerative diseases (dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's), and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder)...
December 2016: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748849/gastrodin-ameliorates-subacute-phase-cerebral-ischemia%C3%A2-reperfusion-injury-by-inhibiting-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-rats
#9
Bo Liu, Fei Li, Jingshan Shi, Danli Yang, Yuanyuan Deng, Qihai Gong
Gastrodin (GAS), which is extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, has long been used to improve stroke, epilepsy, dizziness and dementia. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of GAS on subacute phase cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion (I/R) injury remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of GAS on cerebral I/R injury in rats. The rats were pretreated with GAS by gavage for 7 days followed by I/R surgery, and were then treated with GAS for 7 days after I/R surgery...
November 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595007/cerebellar-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-neurological-disease
#10
REVIEW
Roberta Ferrucci, Tommaso Bocci, Francesca Cortese, Fabiana Ruggiero, Alberto Priori
Several studies have highlighted the therapeutic potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with neurological diseases, including dementia, epilepsy, post-stroke dysfunctions, movement disorders, and other pathological conditions. Because of this technique's ability to modify cerebellar excitability without significant side effects, cerebellar tDCS is a new, interesting, and powerful tool to induce plastic modifications in the cerebellum. In this report, we review a number of interesting studies on the application of cerebellar tDCS for various neurological conditions (ataxia, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor) and the possible mechanism by which the stimulation acts on the cerebellum...
2016: Cerebellum & Ataxias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539301/prevalence-of-amyloid-positron-emission-tomographic-positivity-in-poststroke-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
Frank Arne Wollenweber, Sonja Därr, Claudia Müller, Marco Duering, Katharina Buerger, Vera Zietemann, Rainer Malik, Matthias Brendel, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Peter Bartenstein, Axel Rominger, Martin Dichgans
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is common after stroke and associated with poor outcome. However, the mechanisms underlying poststroke MCI (PS-MCI) are insufficiently understood. We performed amyloid-β positron emission tomography (PET) in a prospective cohort of stroke survivors to determine the role of amyloid pathology in PS-MCI. METHODS: We studied 178 consecutive patients enrolled into the prospective DEDEMAS study (Determinants of Dementia After Stroke)...
October 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531189/does-b-lymphocyte-mediated-autoimmunity-contribute-to-post-stroke-dementia
#12
Kristian P Doyle, Marion S Buckwalter
Post-stroke cognitive decline and dementia pose a significant public health problem, with 30% of stroke survivors suffering from dementia. The reason for this high prevalence is not well understood. Pathogenic B cell responses to the damaged CNS are one possible contributing factor. B-lymphocytes and antibodies are present in and around the stroke core of some human subjects who die with stroke and dementia, and mice that develop delayed cognitive dysfunction after stroke have clusters of B-lymphocytes in the stroke lesion, and antibody infiltration in the stroked hemisphere...
August 13, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486045/targeting-cdk5-post-stroke-provides-long-term-neuroprotection-and-rescues-synaptic-plasticity
#13
Johanna A Gutiérrez-Vargas, Herman Moreno, Gloria P Cardona-Gómez
Post-stroke cognitive impairment is a major cause of long-term neurological disability. The prevalence of post-stroke cognitive deficits varies between 20% and 80% depending on brain region, country, and diagnostic criteria. The biochemical mechanisms underlying post-stroke cognitive impairment are not known in detail. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is involved in neurodegeneration, and its dysregulation contributes to cognitive disorders and dementia. Here, we administered cyclin-dependent kinase 5-targeting gene therapy to the right hippocampus of ischemic rats after transient right middle cerebral artery occlusion...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412470/determinants-of-post-stroke-cognitive-impairment-analysis-from-vista
#14
F Arba, T Quinn, G J Hankey, D Inzitari, M Ali, K R Lees
BACKGROUND: Post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) occurs commonly and is linked with development of dementia. We investigated the relationship between demographic, clinical and stroke symptoms at stroke onset and the presence of PSCI at 1 and 3 years after stroke. METHODS: We accessed anonymized data from the Virtual International Stroke Trial Archive (VISTA), including demographic and clinical variables. Post-stroke cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ≤26...
July 13, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396434/are-stroke-survivors-with-delirium-at-higher-risk-of-post-stroke-dementia-current-evidence-and-future-directions
#15
Akin Ojagbemi, Dominic H Ffytche
OBJECTIVES: The idea that delirium is a risk factor for dementia, broadly defined, is derived from heterogeneous patient samples. We reviewed available evidence as to whether stroke survivors who developed delirium during the acute phase of treatment are at a higher prospective risk of incident post-stroke cognitive impairment or dementia. DESIGN: We searched 8721 records in the Cochrane database for reviews or protocols dealing with the study objective, Medline, EMBASE, PsycInfo and CINAHL for observational studies in the general adult population and PubMed for in-process articles...
July 11, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27395459/-post-stroke-dementia
#16
Masafumi Ihara
Post-stroke dementia (PSD) is a clinical entity that encompasses all types of dementia following an index stroke. Current evidence suggests that 25-30% of ischemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment or vascular dementia. The type of stroke can be either ischemic, hemorrhagic or hypoperfusive. There are multiple risk factors for PSD including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness...
July 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356861/a-population-based-study-for-30-day-hospital-readmissions-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#17
Manoj K Mittal, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Jay Mandrekar, Robert D Brown, Kelly D Flemming
OBJECTIVE: To determine post-stroke 30-day readmission rate, its predictors, its impact on mortality, and to identify potentially preventable causes of post-stroke 30-day readmission in a population-based study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified all acute ischemic strokes (AIS) using the ICD-9 codes (433.x1, 434.xx, and 436) via the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) between January 2007 and December 2011. Acute stroke care in Olmsted County is provided by two medical centers, Saint Marys Hospital (SMH), and Olmsted Medical Center Hospital (OMCH)...
June 29, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318702/sphingosine-1-phosphate-s1p-and-s1p-signaling-pathway-therapeutic-targets-in-autoimmunity-and-inflammation
#18
Hsing-Chuan Tsai, May H Han
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and S1P receptors (S1PR) are ubiquitously expressed. S1P-S1PR signaling has been well characterized in immune trafficking and activation in innate and adaptive immune systems. However, the full extent of its involvement in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is not well understood. FTY720 (fingolimod), a non-selective S1PR modulator, significantly decreased annualized relapse rates in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). FTY720, which primarily targets S1P receptor 1 as a functional antagonist, arrests lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid tissues and reduces neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS)...
July 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293329/hippocampal-volumes-among-older-indian-adults-comparison-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#19
Vikas Dhikav, Sharmila Duraisamy, Kuljeet Singh Anand, Umesh Chandra Garga
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal volume data from India have recently been reported in younger adults. Data in older adults are unknown. The present paper describes hippocampal volume from India among older adults and compares the same with patients having Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 32 cognitively normal subjects, 20 patients with AD, and 13 patients with MCI were enrolled. Patients were evaluated for the diagnosis of AD/MCI using the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Related Disorders Association criteria and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale (score = 0...
April 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236454/piracetam-for-aphasia-in-post-stroke-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#20
REVIEW
Jie Zhang, Ruili Wei, Zhongqin Chen, Benyan Luo
BACKGROUND: Aphasia is a common symptom in post-stroke patients. Piracetam is a commonly used nootropic agent that promises various benefits to brain function, including language improvement. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether piracetam facilitates the rehabilitation of language performance in post-stroke patients. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of piracetam treatment in post-stroke patients published in any language were included, excluding those involving pre-existing cognitive disorders such as dementia and mood disturbances...
July 2016: CNS Drugs
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