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post-stroke dementia

M Florencia Iulita, Hélène Girouard
Hypertension and dementia are two of the most prevalent and damaging diseases associated with aging. Chronic hypertension, particularly during mid-life, is a strong risk factor for late-life cognitive decline and impairment. Hypertension is also the number one risk factor for stroke and a major contributor to the pathogenesis of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Despite the vast epidemiologic and mechanistic evidence linking hypertension to cognitive impairment, and the positive effects of blood pressure lowering on reducing the risk of post-stroke dementia, uncertainty remains about the benefit of antihypertensive medication on other forms of dementia...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate, heal, regenerate, and protect tissue that has either been injured, is degenerating, or else is at risk of dying. One of the organ systems of the human body that is most necessary to life, and whose optimum functioning is most worried about by humankind in general, is the brain. The brain suffers from many different disorders that can be classified into three broad groupings: traumatic events (stroke, traumatic brain injury, and global ischemia), degenerative diseases (dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's), and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder)...
December 2016: BBA Clinical
Bo Liu, Fei Li, Jingshan Shi, Danli Yang, Yuanyuan Deng, Qihai Gong
Gastrodin (GAS), which is extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, has long been used to improve stroke, epilepsy, dizziness and dementia. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of GAS on subacute phase cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion (I/R) injury remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of GAS on cerebral I/R injury in rats. The rats were pretreated with GAS by gavage for 7 days followed by I/R surgery, and were then treated with GAS for 7 days after I/R surgery...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Roberta Ferrucci, Tommaso Bocci, Francesca Cortese, Fabiana Ruggiero, Alberto Priori
Several studies have highlighted the therapeutic potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with neurological diseases, including dementia, epilepsy, post-stroke dysfunctions, movement disorders, and other pathological conditions. Because of this technique's ability to modify cerebellar excitability without significant side effects, cerebellar tDCS is a new, interesting, and powerful tool to induce plastic modifications in the cerebellum. In this report, we review a number of interesting studies on the application of cerebellar tDCS for various neurological conditions (ataxia, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor) and the possible mechanism by which the stimulation acts on the cerebellum...
2016: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Frank Arne Wollenweber, Sonja Därr, Claudia Müller, Marco Duering, Katharina Buerger, Vera Zietemann, Rainer Malik, Matthias Brendel, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Peter Bartenstein, Axel Rominger, Martin Dichgans
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is common after stroke and associated with poor outcome. However, the mechanisms underlying poststroke MCI (PS-MCI) are insufficiently understood. We performed amyloid-β positron emission tomography (PET) in a prospective cohort of stroke survivors to determine the role of amyloid pathology in PS-MCI. METHODS: We studied 178 consecutive patients enrolled into the prospective DEDEMAS study (Determinants of Dementia After Stroke)...
October 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Kristian P Doyle, Marion S Buckwalter
Post-stroke cognitive decline and dementia pose a significant public health problem, with 30% of stroke survivors suffering from dementia. The reason for this high prevalence is not well understood. Pathogenic B cell responses to the damaged CNS are one possible contributing factor. B-lymphocytes and antibodies are present in and around the stroke core of some human subjects who die with stroke and dementia, and mice that develop delayed cognitive dysfunction after stroke have clusters of B-lymphocytes in the stroke lesion, and antibody infiltration in the stroked hemisphere...
August 13, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Johanna A Gutiérrez-Vargas, Herman Moreno, Gloria P Cardona-Gómez
Post-stroke cognitive impairment is a major cause of long-term neurological disability. The prevalence of post-stroke cognitive deficits varies between 20% and 80% depending on brain region, country, and diagnostic criteria. The biochemical mechanisms underlying post-stroke cognitive impairment are not known in detail. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is involved in neurodegeneration, and its dysregulation contributes to cognitive disorders and dementia. Here, we administered cyclin-dependent kinase 5-targeting gene therapy to the right hippocampus of ischemic rats after transient right middle cerebral artery occlusion...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
F Arba, T Quinn, G J Hankey, D Inzitari, M Ali, K R Lees
BACKGROUND: Post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) occurs commonly and is linked with development of dementia. We investigated the relationship between demographic, clinical and stroke symptoms at stroke onset and the presence of PSCI at 1 and 3 years after stroke. METHODS: We accessed anonymized data from the Virtual International Stroke Trial Archive (VISTA), including demographic and clinical variables. Post-stroke cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ≤26...
July 13, 2016: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Akin Ojagbemi, Dominic H Ffytche
OBJECTIVES: The idea that delirium is a risk factor for dementia, broadly defined, is derived from heterogeneous patient samples. We reviewed available evidence as to whether stroke survivors who developed delirium during the acute phase of treatment are at a higher prospective risk of incident post-stroke cognitive impairment or dementia. DESIGN: We searched 8721 records in the Cochrane database for reviews or protocols dealing with the study objective, Medline, EMBASE, PsycInfo and CINAHL for observational studies in the general adult population and PubMed for in-process articles...
July 11, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Masafumi Ihara
Post-stroke dementia (PSD) is a clinical entity that encompasses all types of dementia following an index stroke. Current evidence suggests that 25-30% of ischemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment or vascular dementia. The type of stroke can be either ischemic, hemorrhagic or hypoperfusive. There are multiple risk factors for PSD including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness...
July 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Manoj K Mittal, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Jay Mandrekar, Robert D Brown, Kelly D Flemming
OBJECTIVE: To determine post-stroke 30-day readmission rate, its predictors, its impact on mortality, and to identify potentially preventable causes of post-stroke 30-day readmission in a population-based study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified all acute ischemic strokes (AIS) using the ICD-9 codes (433.x1, 434.xx, and 436) via the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) between January 2007 and December 2011. Acute stroke care in Olmsted County is provided by two medical centers, Saint Marys Hospital (SMH), and Olmsted Medical Center Hospital (OMCH)...
June 29, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Hsing-Chuan Tsai, May H Han
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and S1P receptors (S1PR) are ubiquitously expressed. S1P-S1PR signaling has been well characterized in immune trafficking and activation in innate and adaptive immune systems. However, the full extent of its involvement in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases is not well understood. FTY720 (fingolimod), a non-selective S1PR modulator, significantly decreased annualized relapse rates in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). FTY720, which primarily targets S1P receptor 1 as a functional antagonist, arrests lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid tissues and reduces neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS)...
July 2016: Drugs
Vikas Dhikav, Sharmila Duraisamy, Kuljeet Singh Anand, Umesh Chandra Garga
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal volume data from India have recently been reported in younger adults. Data in older adults are unknown. The present paper describes hippocampal volume from India among older adults and compares the same with patients having Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 32 cognitively normal subjects, 20 patients with AD, and 13 patients with MCI were enrolled. Patients were evaluated for the diagnosis of AD/MCI using the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Related Disorders Association criteria and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale (score = 0...
April 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Jie Zhang, Ruili Wei, Zhongqin Chen, Benyan Luo
BACKGROUND: Aphasia is a common symptom in post-stroke patients. Piracetam is a commonly used nootropic agent that promises various benefits to brain function, including language improvement. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether piracetam facilitates the rehabilitation of language performance in post-stroke patients. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of piracetam treatment in post-stroke patients published in any language were included, excluding those involving pre-existing cognitive disorders such as dementia and mood disturbances...
July 2016: CNS Drugs
George Mihai Bădescu, Mădălina Fîlfan, Ovidiu Ciobanu, DănuŢ Adrian Dumbravă, Aurel Popa-Wagner
Although neuropathological conditions differ in the etiology of the inflammatory response, cellular and molecular mechanisms of neuroinflammation are probably similar in aging, hypertension, depression and cognitive impairment. Moreover, a number of common risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis are increasingly understood to act as "silent contributors" to neuroinflammation and can underlie the development of disorders such as cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) and subsequent dementia...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Courtney Lane-Donovan, Charisma Desai, Theresa Pohlkamp, Erik J Plautz, Joachim Herz, Ann M Stowe
Stroke and Alzheimer's disease, two diseases that disproportionately affect the aging population, share a subset of pathological findings and risk factors. The primary genetic risk factor after age for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, ApoE4, has also been shown to increase stroke risk and the incidence of post-stroke dementia. One mechanism by which ApoE4 contributes to disease is by inducing in neurons a resistance to Reelin, a neuromodulator that enhances synaptic function. Previous studies in Reelin knockout mice suggest a role for Reelin in protection against stroke; however, these studies were limited by the developmental requirement for Reelin in neuronal migration...
July 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Stéphanie Hostenbach, Miguel D'haeseleer, Ron Kooijman, Jacques De Keyser
In the normal central nervous system, endothelin-1 (ET-1) is found in some types of neurons, epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, and endothelial cells of microvessels, but it is usually not detectable in glial cells. However, in different pathological conditions, astrocytes adapting a reactive phenotype express high levels of ET-1 and its receptors, mainly the ETB receptor. ET-1 released by reactive astrocytes appears mainly to have neurodeleterious effects by mechanisms that include constriction of cerebral arterioles leading to impairment of the cerebral microcirculation, increase of blood brain barrier permeability, inflammation, excitotoxicity, impairment of fast axonal transport, and astrogliosis...
September 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
Wanwan Ma, Qizhi Fu, Yanpeng Zhang, Zhen Zhang
BACKGROUND Ischemic stroke is widely recognized as a major health problem and social burden worldwide, and it usually leads to dementia. In this study, we aimed to better understand the pathogenesis in the development of dementia following ischemic stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS We exploited miRNA database to search for the target for miR-125a and validated the found target using luciferase assay. Further, we performed real-time PCR and Western blot analysis to examine the expression of miR-125a and its target in the tissue samples...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Sajjad Rezaei, Karim Asgari Mobarake, Alia Saberi, Parvaneh Keshavarz, Ehsan Kazemnejad Leili
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism is associated with functional and cognitive outcomes of stroke and plays a key role in preventing neuronal death. This study aimed to answer the following question: does BDNF Val66Met polymorphism prognosticate survival status and risk of post-stroke dementia (PSD)? In a retrospective cohort study, 206 patients with ischemic stroke (IS) entered the study. They were consecutively being admitted to the neurology clinic in Poursina Hospital (northern Iran) from 2012 to 2014...
June 2016: Neurological Sciences
V C T Mok, W Y Liu, A Wong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
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