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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107386/regulation-of-pi-2b-pilus-expression-in-hypervirulent-streptococcus-agalactiae-st-17-bm110
#1
Bruno Périchon, Noémi Szili, Laurence du Merle, Isabelle Rosinski-Chupin, Myriam Gominet, Samuel Bellais, Claire Poyart, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Shaynoor Dramsi
The widely spread Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as Group B Streptococcus, GBS) "hypervirulent" ST17 clone is strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. The PI-2b locus is mainly found in ST17 strains but is also present in a few non ST17 human isolates such as the ST-7 prototype strain A909. Here, we analysed the expression of the PI-2b pilus in the ST17 strain BM110 as compared to the non ST17 A909. Comparative genome analyses revealed the presence of a 43-base pair (bp) hairpin-like structure in the upstream region of PI-2b operon in all 26 ST17 genomes, which was absent in the 8 non-ST17 strains carrying the PI-2b locus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103319/an-hsv-2-trivalent-vaccine-is-immunogenic-in-rhesus-macaques-and-highly-efficacious-in-guinea-pigs
#2
Sita Awasthi, Lauren M Hook, Carolyn E Shaw, Bapi Pahar, Jacob A Stagray, David Liu, Ronald S Veazey, Harvey M Friedman
A genital herpes vaccine is urgently needed to prevent pain and suffering, reduce the incidence of neonatal herpes, and decrease the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission that accompanies genital infection. We evaluated a trivalent HSV-2 subunit antigen vaccine administered with CpG and alum in rhesus macaques and guinea pigs. The vaccine contains glycoproteins C, D and E (gC2, gD2, gE2) to block virus entry by gD2 and immune evasion by gC2 and gE2. In rhesus macaques, the trivalent vaccine induced plasma and mucosa neutralizing antibodies, antibodies that block gC2 and gE2 immune evasion activities, and stimulated CD4 T cell responses...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102058/neonatal-immune-state-is-influenced-by-maternal-allergic-rhinitis-and-associated-with-regulatory-t-cells
#3
Lu Tan, Jing Ou, Zezhang Tao, Yonggang Kong, Yu Xu
PURPOSE: Maternal influences contribute to the origin of allergic diseases, but the mechanisms are not clear. The current literature prompted the role of epigenetics in the development of allergic diseases. We sought to investigate the roles of regulatory T (Treg) cells and Forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) DNA methylation in the process of maternal transmission of allergic rhinitis (AR) susceptibility. METHODS: BALB/c female mice (AR mother) were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 1 on day 1 and 7...
March 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097694/serial-cytokine-alterations-and-abnormal-neuroimaging-in-newborn-infants-with-encephalopathy
#4
Fiona M O'Hare, R William G Watson, Amanda O'Neill, Ricardo Segurado, Deirdre Sweetman, Paul Downey, Eoghan Mooney, John Murphy, Veronica Donoghue, Eleanor J Molloy
AIM: Inflammatory cytokines may play a role in the final common pathway in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischaemic injury in experimental models. We aimed to profile the systemic pro- and anti-inflammatory response over the first week of life in term infants at risk of neonatal encephalopathy. METHOD: In a tertiary referral university neonatal intensive care unit, serial blood samples were analysed from 41 term infants (requiring resuscitation at birth) in this prospective observational pilot study...
January 17, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093081/the-most-important-questions-in-cancer-research-and-clinical-oncology-question-1-could-the-vertical-transmission-of-human-papilloma-virus-hpv-infection-account-for-the-cause-characteristics-and-epidemiology-of-hpv-positive-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-non-smoking
#5
Joseph T S Wee, Sharon Shuxian Poh
Specific research foci: (1) Mouse models of gamma-herpes virus-68 (γHV-68) and polyomavirus (PyV) infections during neonatal versus adult life. (2) For human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC)-(a) Asking the question: Is oral sex a powerful carcinogen? (b) Examining the evidence for the vertical transmission of HPV infection. (c) Examining the relationship between HPV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections and nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) in West European, East European, and East Asian countries...
January 16, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092597/role-of-probiotics-in-nutrition-and-health-of-small-ruminants
#6
M M Abd El-Tawab, I M I Youssef, H A Bakr, G C Fthenakis, N D Giadinis
Small ruminants represent an important economic source in small farm systems and agriculture. Feed is the main component of livestock farming, which has gained special attention to improve animal performance. Many studies have been done to improve feed utilisation through addition of feed additives. For a long period, antibiotics have been widely used as growth promoters in livestock diets. Due to their ban in many countries, search for alternative feed additives has been intensified. Probiotics are one of these alternatives recognised to be safe to the animals...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092363/mouse-models-of-uv-induced-melanoma-genetics-pathology-and-clinical-relevance
#7
Chi-Ping Day, Rachel Marchalik, Glenn Merlino, Helen Michael
Melanocytes, a neural crest cell derivative, produce pigment to protect keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Although melanocytic lesions such as nevi and cutaneous malignant melanomas are known to be associated with sun exposure, the role of UVR in oncogenesis is complex and has yet to be clearly elucidated. UVR appears to have a direct mutational role in inducing or promoting melanoma formation as well as an indirect role through microenvironmental changes. Recent advances in the modeling of human melanoma in animals have built platforms upon which prospective studies can begin to investigate these questions...
January 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092212/systemic-medications-used-in-treatment-of-common-dermatological-conditions-safety-profile-with-respect-to-pregnancy-breast-feeding-and-content-in-seminal-fluid
#8
S M Brown, K A Aljefri, R Waas, P J Hampton
: Prescribing for pregnant or lactating patients and male patients wishing to father children can be a difficult area for dermatologists. There is a lack of review articles of commonly used systemic medications in dermatology with respect to their effects on developing embryogenesis and their potential transfer across the placenta, in breast milk and in seminal fluid. This paper aims to provide an up to date summary of evidence to better equip dermatologists to inform patients about the effects of systemic medications commonly used in dermatology to treat conditions such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and acne, on current and future embryogenesis and fertility...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086957/regulatory-t-cells-and-il10-suppress-pulmonary-host-defense-during-early-life-exposure-to-radical-containing-combustion-derived-ultrafine-particulate-matter
#9
Sridhar Jaligama, Jordy Saravia, Dahui You, Nikki Yadav, Greg I Lee, Bishwas Shrestha, Stephania A Cormier
BACKGROUND: Exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory tract viral infections in infants. Recent identification of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in the PM from a variety of combustion sources suggests its role in the enhancement of disease severity of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Our previous studies demonstrated that acute exposure to EPFRs induces pulmonary immunosuppression allowing for enhanced influenza disease severity...
January 13, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081328/cytomegalovirus-hepatitis-in-49-pediatric-patients-with-normal-immunity
#10
Hasan Tezer, Saliha Kanık Yüksek, Belgin Gülhan, Aslı Nur Özkaya Parlakay, Ceyda Tuna Kırsaçlıoğlu
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) hepatitis is generally asymptomatic or rarely can lead to severe complications in immunocompetent hosts. This study aims to evaluate CMV hepatitis in immunocompetent young children, which is discussed relatively rarely in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 49 pediatric patients with CMV hepatitis from January 2005 to December 2010 was performed. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 5...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071709/early-life-peripheral-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-reprograms-catecholaminergic-neurons
#11
Lin Kooi Ong, Erin A Fuller, Luba Sominsky, Deborah M Hodgson, Peter R Dunkley, Phillip W Dickson
Neonatal immune challenge with the bacterial mimetic lipopolysaccharide has the capacity to generate long-term changes in the brain. Neonatal rats were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (0.05 mg/kg) on postnatal day (PND) 3 and again on PND 5. The activation state of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was measured in the locus coeruleus, ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra on PND 85. In the locus coeruleus there was an approximately four-fold increase in TH activity. This was accompanied by a significant increase in TH protein together with increased phosphorylation of all three serine residues in the N-terminal region of TH...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069750/the-neonatal-window-of-opportunity-setting-the-stage-for-life-long-host-microbial-interaction-and-immune-homeostasis
#12
REVIEW
Natalia Torow, Mathias W Hornef
The existence of a neonatal window was first highlighted by epidemiological studies that revealed the particular importance of this early time in life for the susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases in humans. Recently, the first animal studies emerged that present examples of early-life exposure-triggered persisting immune events, allowing a detailed analysis of the factors that define this particular time period. The enteric microbiota and the innate and adaptive immune system represent prime candidates that impact on the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases and are known to reach a lasting homeostatic equilibrium following a dynamic priming period after birth...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060871/a-neonatal-murine-model-of-mrsa-pneumonia
#13
Elizabeth A Fitzpatrick, Dahui You, Bishwas Shrestha, David Siefker, Vivek S Patel, Nikki Yadav, Sridhar Jaligama, Stephania A Cormier
Pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants particularly following lower respiratory tract viral infections such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). However, the mechanisms by which co-infection of infants by MRSA and RSV cause increased lung pathology are unknown. Because the infant immune system is qualitatively and quantitatively different from adults we developed a model of infant MRSA pneumonia which will allow us to investigate the effects of RSV co-infection on disease severity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060792/expression-of-x-linked-toll-like-receptor-4-signalling-genes-in-female-versus-male-neonates
#14
David N O'Driscoll, Chiara DeSanti, Paul J McKiernan, Victoria McEneaney, Eleanor J Molloy, Catherine M Greene
BACKGROUND: Male neonates display poorer disease prognosis and outcomes compared to females. Immune genes which exhibit higher expression in umbilical cord blood (UCB) of females may contribute to the female immune advantage during infection and inflammation. The aim of this study was to quantify expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signalling genes encoded on the X-chromosome in UCB from term female versus male neonates. METHODS: UCB samples were collected from term neonates (n=26) born by elective Caesarean section and whole blood was collected from adults (n=20)...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060120/type-2b-von-willebrand-disease-an-unusual-cause-of-severe-neonatal-thrombocytopenia
#15
Seth J Rotz, Joseph S Palumbo, Russell E Ware
An infant with presumed maternal immune thrombocytopenic purpura had persistent thrombocytopenia with platelet clumping. The patient had no significant bleeding symptoms in the first year of life and von Willebrand antigen and ristocetin cofactor activity were normal. Absent high molecular weight multimers ultimately led to a genetically proven diagnosis of type 2B von Willebrand disease (3964G>A VWF exon 28), highlighting the challenges of establishing this diagnosis in infants.
January 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059609/rotavirus-specific-maternal-antibodies-and-immune-response-to-rv3-bb-neonatal-rotavirus-vaccine-in-new-zealand
#16
Mee-Yew Chen, Carl D Kirkwood, Julie Bines, Daniel Cowley, Daniel Pavlic, Katherine J Lee, Francesca Orsini, Emma Watts, Graeme Barnes, Margaret Danchin
Background Maternal antibodies, acquired passively via placenta and/or breast milk, may contribute to the reduced efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccine observed in children in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus specific maternal antibodies on the serum IgA response or stool excretion of vaccine virus after any dose of an oral rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, in parallel to a Phase IIa clinical trial conducted at Dunedin Hospital, New Zealand. At the time of the study rotavirus vaccines had not been introduced in New Zealand and the burden of rotavirus disease was evident...
January 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057934/the-driving-force-of-prophages-and-crispr-cas-system-in-the-evolution-of-cronobacter-sakazakii
#17
Haiyan Zeng, Jumei Zhang, Chensi Li, Tengfei Xie, Na Ling, Qingping Wu, Yingwang Ye
Cronobacter sakazakii is an important foodborne pathogens causing rare but life-threatening diseases in neonates and infants. CRISPR-Cas system is a new prokaryotic defense system that provides adaptive immunity against phages, latter play an vital role on the evolution and pathogenicity of host bacteria. In this study, we found that genome sizes of C. sakazakii strains had a significant positive correlation with total genome sizes of prophages. Prophages contributed to 16.57% of the genetic diversity (pan genome) of C...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049533/inflammatory-pre-conditioning-restricts-the-seeded-induction-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathology-in-wild-type-mice
#18
Emily J Koller, Mieu M T Brooks, Todd E Golde, Benoit I Giasson, Paramita Chakrabarty
BACKGROUND: Cell-to-cell transmission of α-synuclein (αSyn) is hypothesized to play an important role in disease progression in synucleinopathies. This process involves cellular uptake of extracellular amyloidogenic αSyn seeds followed by seeding of endogenous αSyn. Though it is well known that αSyn is an immunogenic protein that can interact with immune receptors, the role of innate immunity in regulating induction of αSyn pathology in vivo is unknown. Herein, we explored whether altering innate immune activation affects induction of αSyn pathology in wild type mice...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045974/neonatal-immunization-with-a-single-il-4-antigen-dose-induces-increased-antibody-responses-after-challenge-infection-with-equine-herpesvirus-type-1-ehv-1-at-weanling-age
#19
Bettina Wagner, Gillian Perkins, Susanna Babasyan, Heather Freer, Alison Keggan, Laura B Goodman, Amy Glaser, Sigurbjorg Torsteinsdóttir, Vilhjálmur Svansson, Sigríður Björnsdóttir
Neonatal foals respond poorly to conventional vaccines. These vaccines typically target T-helper (Th) cell dependent B-cell activation. However, Th2-cell immunity is impaired in foals during the first three months of life. In contrast, neonatal basophils are potent interleukin-4 (IL-4) producers. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel vaccine triggering the natural capacity of neonatal basophils to secrete IL-4 and to evaluate if vaccination resulted in B-cell activation and antibody production against EHV-1 glycoprotein C (gC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044966/-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-mif-a-regulator-of-neonatal-innate-immune-response
#20
Éric Giannoni, Anina Schneider, Thierry Calandra, Thierry Roger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
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