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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647405/docosahexaenoic-acid-promotes-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-via-ppar-%C3%AE-signalling-and-prevents-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-dependent-maturational-arrest
#1
A Bernardo, M L Giammarco, C De Nuccio, M A Ajmone-Cat, S Visentin, R De Simone, L Minghetti
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential omega-3 fatty acid known to be neuroprotective in several models of human diseases, including multiple sclerosis. The protective effects of DHA are largely attributed to its ability to interfere with the activity of transcription factors controlling immune and inflammatory responses, including the agonist-dependent transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). In this study, we used primary oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) cultures from neonatal rat brain to investigate whether DHA could influence OP maturation and directly promote myelination, as previously reported for selective PPAR-γ agonists...
June 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641938/administration-of-a-leptin-antagonist-during-the-neonatal-leptin-surge-induces-alterations-in-the-redox-and-inflammatory-state-in-peripubertal-adolescent-rats
#2
Virginia Mela, Oskarina Hernandez, Caroline Hunsche, Francisca Diaz, Julie A Chowen, Mónica De la Fuente
The importance of the neonatal leptin surge in rodents in neurodevelopmental processes has aroused curiosity in its implication in other physiological systems. Given the role of leptin in neuro-immune interactions, we hypothesized that the neonatal leptin surge could have an effect on the oxidative and inflammatory stress situations of both systems. We blocked the neonatal leptin surge by a leptin antagonist and measured several parameters of oxidative and inflammatory stress in the spleen, hypothalamus and adipose tissue of peripubertal/adolescent rats...
June 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634103/undetectable-mannose-binding-lectin-and-corticosteroids-increase-serious-infection-risk-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
Graeme J Carroll, Krista Makin, Maxine Garnsey, Max Bulsara, Bronwyn V Carroll, Shona M Curtin, Erin M Allan, Andrew McLean-Tooke, Christine Bundell, Monica L Kemp, Pooja Deshpande, Dana Ihdayhid, Sophie Coleman, Tracie Easter, James Triplett, Timothy Disteldorf, C Helen Marsden, Michaela Lucas
BACKGROUND: Infection is the leading cause of death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Corticosteroid (CS) use is a known and important risk factor for serious infections (SIs). Mannose binding lectin (MBL) is a genetically determined component of the innate immune system implicated in neonatal infections. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine whether MBL deficiency is a risk factor for SIs in RA and to compare it with CS use and also synthetic and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#4
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630706/effects-of-feeding-untreated-pasteurized-and-acidified-waste-milk-and-bunk-tank-milk-on-the-performance-serum-metabolic-profiles-immunity-and-intestinal-development-in-holstein-calves
#5
Yang Zou, Yajing Wang, Youfei Deng, Zhijun Cao, Shengli Li, Jiufeng Wang
BACKGROUND: The present experiment was performed to assess the effects of different sources of milk on the growth performance, serum metabolism, immunity, and intestinal development of calves. Eighty-four Holstein male neonatal calves were assigned to one of the following four treatment groups: those that received bunk tank milk (BTM), untreated waste milk (UWM), pasteurized waste milk (PWM), and acidified waste milk (AWM) for 21 d. RESULTS: Calves in the BTM and AWM groups consumed more starter (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629243/effect-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-on-myocardial-dysfunction-in-term-neonates-with-perinatal-asphyxia-%C3%A2-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Rakesh Kotha, B Vishnu Bhat, B Adhisivam, P Ajith
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on myocardial dysfunction in term neonates with perinatal asphyxia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This Randomized Controlled Trial conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital, south India included 120 newborns with perinatal asphyxia who were randomized to 2 groups (therapeutic hypothermia and normothermia). Cardiac enzyme profile changes between groups were assessed at 0, 24, 72 hrs CPK-MB and troponin I levels were estimated by immune inhibition and quantitative immunochromatography methods respectively...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629237/improved-pregnancy-outcome-following-earlier-splenectomy-in-women-with-immune-thrombocytopenia-a-5-year-observational-study
#7
Mohamed Rezk, Alaa Masood, Ragab Dawood, Mahmoud Emara, Hanan El-Sayed
OBJECTIVE: to assess prospectively the maternal and fetal outcome in women with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) who undergone earlier splenectomy compared to women on medical therapy. METHODS: a 5-year observational study included pregnant women in the first trimester previously diagnosed with primary ITP with 74 patients underwent splenectomy before pregnancy and 86 patients on medical therapy. Patients were followed throughout pregnancy and labor to record their obstetric outcome...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628889/the-innate-immune-response-to-lower-respiratory-tract-e-coli-infection-and-the-role-of-the-ccl2-ccr2-axis-in-neonatal-mice
#8
Sharon A McGrath-Morrow, Roland Ndeh, Joseph M Collaco, Amy K Poupore, Dustin Dikeman, Qiong Zhong, Benjamin D Singer, Franco D'Alessio, Alan Scott
Neonates have greater morbidity/mortality from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) compared to older children. Lack of conditioning of the pulmonary immune system due to limited environmental exposures and/or infectious challenges likely contributes to the increase susceptibility in the neonate. In this study, we sought to gain insights into the nature and dynamics of the neonatal pulmonary immune response to LRTI using a murine model. METHODS: Wildtype (WT) and Ccr2(-/-) C57BL/6 neonatal and juvenile mice received E...
June 16, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626982/vaginal-seeding-or-vaginal-microbial-transfer-from-the-mother-to-the-cesarean-born-neonate-a-commentary-regarding-clinical-management
#9
Thor Haahr, Julie Glavind, Paul Axelsson, Margit Bistrup Fischer, Johanna Bjurström, Gudbjörg Andrésdóttir, Dorte Teilmann-Jørgensen, Ulla Bonde, Nina Olsén Sørensen, Margrethe Møller, Jens Fuglsang, Per G Ovesen, Jesper P Petersen, Jakob Stokholm, Tine D Clausen
Recent evidence suggests cesarean delivery (CD) to be a risk factor for inflammatory and metabolic diseases such as asthma, allergies and other chronic immune disorders in the child. One hypothetical pathogenesis of these associations has been proposed to be a disruption of the neonatal colonization (NC) after CD. To further support this hypothesis, it has been observed that the effect of CD on NC was different according to type of CD, i.e. planned or emergency, and that the risk of asthma in children born by CD was mitigated by rupture of membranes, though still increased compared to children delivered vaginally...
June 18, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625478/a-neonatal-mouse-model-of-coxsackievirus-a10-infection-for-anti-viral-evaluation
#10
Shuxuan Li, Huan Zhao, Lisheng Yang, Wangheng Hou, Longfa Xu, Yangtao Wu, Wei Wang, Chunye Chen, Junkai Wan, Xiangzhong Ye, Zhenglun Liang, Qunying Mao, Tong Cheng, Ningshao Xia
Epidemiological data indicate that coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10) has become one of the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and in recent years has often been found to co-circulate with other enteroviruses, which poses a challenge for the prevention and control of HFMD. Although most CVA10-associated HFMD cases present mild symptoms, severe manifestations and even death can also occur. However, the study of the pathogenesis and the development of drugs and vaccines for CVA10 infection is still far from complete...
June 15, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620237/lea29y-expression-in-transgenic-neonatal-porcine-islet-like-cluster-promotes-long-lasting-xenograft-survival-in-humanized-mice-without-immunosuppressive-therapy
#11
L Wolf-van Buerck, M Schuster, F S Oduncu, A Baehr, T Mayr, S Guethoff, J Abicht, B Reichart, N Klymiuk, E Wolf, J Seissler
Genetically engineered pigs are a promising source for islet cell transplantation in type 1 diabetes, but the strong human anti-pig immune response prevents its successful clinical application. Here we studied the efficacy of neonatal porcine islet-like cell clusters (NPICCs) overexpressing LEA29Y, a high-affinity variant of the T cell co-stimulation inhibitor CTLA-4Ig, to engraft and restore normoglycemia after transplantation into streptozotocin-diabetic NOD-SCID IL2rγ(-/-) (NSG) mice stably reconstituted with a human immune system...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618852/low-vitamin-d-is-associated-with-infections-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-during-pregnancy
#12
Christine C Akoh, Eva K Pressman, Elizabeth Cooper, Ruth Anne Queenan, Julie Pillittere, Kimberly O O'Brien
Vitamin D is known to regulate innate and adaptive immune processes at the cellular level, but the role of vitamin D status on associated inflammatory processes across pregnancy is unclear. Our primary objective was to evaluate the relationships between serum biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), acute-phase proteins (C-reactive protein and hepcidin) and vitamin D status, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), measured across pregnancy and in the neonate at birth...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617764/oropharyngeal-colostrum-administration-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Yuxia Zhang, Futing Ji, Xiaojing Hu, Yun Cao, Jos M Latour
OBJECTIVES: Studies have confirmed the safety of oropharyngeal administration of colostrum in very low birth weight infants. However, the effect of oropharyngeal administration of colostrum on immune system is inconclusive. This study aims to evaluate the effect of oropharyngeal administration of colostrum on secretory immunoglobulin A and lactoferrin in very low birth weight infants. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Forty-bedded neonatal ICU in a university children's hospital in the People's Republic of China...
June 14, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617678/single-variant-bottleneck-in-the-early-dynamics-of-h-influenzae-bacteremia-in-neonatal-rats-questions-the-theory-of-independent-action
#14
Xinxian Shao, Bruce Levin, Ilya Nemenman
There is an abundance of information about the genetic basis, physiological and molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. In contrast, relatively little is known about population dynamic processes, by which bacteria colonize hosts and invade tissues and cells and thereby cause disease. In an article published in 1978, Moxon and Murphy presented evidence that, when inoculated intranasally with a mixture streptomycin sensitive and resistant (Sm (S) and Sm (R) ) and otherwise isogenic strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), neonatal rats develop a bacteremic infection that often is dominated by only one strain, Sm (S) or Sm (R) ...
June 15, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612942/cytomegalovirus-vector-expressing-rae-1%C3%AE-induces-enhanced-anti-tumor-capacity-of-murine-cd8-t-cells
#15
Tihana Tršan, Kristina Vuković, Petra Filipović, Ana Lesac Brizić, Niels A W Lemmermann, Kilian Schober, Dirk H Busch, William J Britt, Martin Messerle, Astrid Krmpotić, Stipan Jonjić
Designing CD8(+) T-cell vaccines, which would provide protection against tumors is still considered a great challenge in immunotherapy. Here we show the robust potential of cytomegalovirus (CMV) vector expressing the NKG2D ligand RAE-1γ as CD8(+) T cell-based vaccine against malignant tumors. Immunization with the CMV vector expressing RAE-1γ, delayed tumor growth or even provided complete protection against tumor challenge in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Moreover, a potent tumor control in mice vaccinated with this vector can be further enhanced by blocking the immune checkpoints TIGIT and PD-1...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609432/protective-effects-of-amniotic-fluid-in-the-setting-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#16
REVIEW
Soham Dasgupta, Sunil Kumar Jain
Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common life threatening condition affecting preterm infants. NEC occurs in 1-5% of all neonatal intensive care admissions and 5-10% of very low birth weight infants. The protective role of human breast milk (BM) has been well established. It has also been shown that amniotic fluid (AF) and breast milk have many similarities in terms of presence of growth and other immune-modulatory factors. This finding led to the initial hypothesis that AF may exert similar protective effects against the development of NEC as does BM...
June 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607211/consensus-statement-of-the-indian-academy-of-pediatrics-on-newborn-hearing-screening
#17
Abraham Paul, Chhaya Prasad, S S Kamath, Samir Dalwai, M K C Nair, Waheeda Pagarkar
JUSTIFICATION: Hearing impairment is one of the most critical sensory impairments with significant social and psychological consequences. Reported incidence of congenital hearing loss is 30 per 10,000 children. Evidence-based, standardized national guidelines are needed for professionals to screen for hearing impairment during the neonatal period. PROCESS: The meeting on formulation of national consensus guidelines on developmental disorders was organized by Indian Academy of Pediatrics in Mumbai, on 18th and 19th December, 2015...
June 4, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604736/how-nutrition-and-the-maternal-microbiota-shape-the-neonatal-immune-system
#18
REVIEW
Andrew J Macpherson, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg
The mucosal surfaces of mammals are densely colonized with microorganisms that are commonly referred to as the commensal microbiota. It is believed that the fetus in utero is sterile and that colonization with microorganisms starts only after birth. Nevertheless, the unborn fetus is exposed to a multitude of metabolites that originate from the commensal microbiota of the mother that reach systemic sites of the maternal body. The intestinal microbiota is strongly personalized and influenced by environmental factors, including nutrition...
June 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601976/zika-virus-as-an-emerging-neuropathogen-mechanisms-of-neurovirulence-and-neuro-immune-interactions
#19
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Tatiana Barichello, Brendon Stubbs, Cristiano A Köhler, André F Carvalho, Michael Maes
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the genus Flaviviridae, which causes a febrile illness and has spread from across the Pacific to the Americas in a short timeframe. Convincing evidence has implicated the ZIKV to incident cases of neonatal microcephaly and a set of neurodevelopmental abnormalities referred to as the congenital Zika virus syndrome. In addition, emerging data points to an association with the ZIKV and the development of the so-called Guillain-Barre syndrome, an acute autoimmune polyneuropathy...
June 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601030/aggressive-gastrointestinal-food-allergy-in-neonates-and-its-possible-relationship-to-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#20
Kazuto Suda, Toshihiro Yanai, Miki Toma, Tsubasa Aiyoshi, Takato Sasaki, Toshihiro Muraji
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of gastrointestinal food allergy (FA) in neonates is increasing. Despite this, cases of patients with gastrointestinal FA who develop necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) requiring laparotomy are extremely rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We describe two cases that presented with bloody stool with a probable diagnosis of FA as eosinophils were positive in the stool at onset. Both cases failed conservative treatment. Jejunostomy and ileostomy were performed in both cases due to secondary NEC with underlying acute FA...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
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