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neonatal immunity

Raches Ella, Radhika Bobba, Sanjay Muralidhar, Sudhir Babji, Krishna Mohan Vadrevu, Maharaj Kishan Bhan
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends that rotavirus vaccines should be included in all national immunization programs. Some currently licensed oral rotavirus vaccines contain a buffering agent (either as part of a ready-to-use liquid formulation or added during reconstitution) to reduce possible degradation of the vaccine virus in the infant gut, which poses several programmatic challenges (the large dose volume or the reconstitution requirement) during vaccine administration...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Gregory J Kato, Frédéric B Piel, Clarice D Reid, Marilyn H Gaston, Kwaku Ohene-Frempong, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti, Wally R Smith, Julie A Panepinto, David J Weatherall, Fernando F Costa, Elliott P Vichinsky
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited disorders caused by mutations in HBB, which encodes haemoglobin subunit β. The incidence is estimated to be between 300,000 and 400,000 neonates globally each year, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Haemoglobin molecules that include mutant sickle β-globin subunits can polymerize; erythrocytes that contain mostly haemoglobin polymers assume a sickled form and are prone to haemolysis. Other pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the SCD phenotype are vaso-occlusion and activation of the immune system...
March 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
N A Filatova, N A Knyazev, S O Skarlato, O V Anatskaya, A E Vinogradov
Cryptosporidiosis causes persistent diarrhea in infants, immunocompromised patients and elderly persons. Long-term consequences of the disease include increased risk of malignancy, cardiomyopathy and gastrointestinal inflammation. This study aimed to investigate prolonged effects of cryptosporidiosis on innate immunity and growth in neonatal C3HA mice. The disease was challenged by Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inoculation into 7-days old animals. The mice whose intestine smears contained 3-5 or 6 and more oocysts per microscopic field at the day 5 after infection were considered as mildly or severely infected, correspondingly...
March 14, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Maria Vono, Christiane Sigrid Eberhardt, Elodie Mohr, Floriane Auderset, Dennis Christensen, Mirco Schmolke, Rhea Coler, Andreas Meinke, Peter Andersen, Paul-Henri Lambert, Beatris Mastelic-Gavillet, Claire-Anne Siegrist
Neonates and infants are more vulnerable to infections and show reduced responses to vaccination. Consequently, repeated immunizations are required to induce protection and early life vaccines against major pathogens such as influenza are yet unavailable. Formulating antigens with potent adjuvants, including immunostimulators and delivery systems, is a demonstrated approach to enhance vaccine efficacy. Yet, adjuvants effective in adults may not meet the specific requirements for activating the early life immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Li Wang, Yang Li, Na Ning, Jin Wang, Zi Yan, Suli Zhang, Xiangying Jiao, Xiaohui Wang, Huirong Liu
It has been recognized that myocardial apoptosis is one major factor in the development of heart dysfunction and autophagy has been shown to influence the apoptosis. In previous studies, we reported that anti-β1 -adrenergic receptor autoantibodies (β1 -AABs) decreased myocardial autophagy, but the role of decreased autophagy in cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains unclear. In the present study, we used a β1 -AAB-immunized rat model to investigate the role of decreased autophagy in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. We reported that the level of autophagic flux increased early and then decreased in an actively β1 -AAB-immunized rat model...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Emma de Jong, David G Hancock, Christine Wells, Peter Richmond, Karen Simmer, David Burgner, Tobias Strunk, Andrew J Currie
Preterm infants are uniquely susceptible to late-onset sepsis that is frequently caused by the skin commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis. Innate immune responses, particularly from monocytes, are a key protective mechanism. Impaired cytokine production by preterm infant monocytes is well described, but few studies have comprehensively assessed the corresponding monocyte transcriptional response. Innate immune responses in preterm infants may be modulated by inflammation such as prenatal exposure to histologic chorioamnionitis which complicates 40-70% of preterm pregnancies...
March 13, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Sammy M Tabbah, Catalin S Buhimschi, Katherine Rodewald-Millen, Christopher R Pierson, Vineet Bhandari, Philip Samuels, Irina A Buhimschi
OBJECTIVE:  Hepcidin, a mediator of innate immunity, binds the iron exporter ferroportin, leading to functional hypoferremia through intracellular iron sequestration. We explored hepcidin-ferroportin interactions in neonates clinically diagnosed with early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). STUDY DESIGN:  Hepcidin and interleukin (IL)-6 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 92 paired cord blood-maternal blood samples in the following groups: "Yes" EONS ( n  = 41, gestational age [GA] 29 ± 1 weeks) and "No" EONS ( n  = 51, GA 26 ± 1 weeks)...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Safaa I Tayel, Shimaa E Soliman, Hanan M Elsayed
BACKGROUND AND AIM: increasing prevalence of neonatal sepsis in recent years catch attention to early prevention and management. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism can modulate VDR expression level that greatly influences immunity and susceptibility to microbial infections. We aimed to investigate the association of VDR polymorphism at FokI, rs2228570 T/C, and TaqI, rs731236 C/T gene with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and risk of neonatal sepsis. METHODS: This work carried on 160 subjects classified into 80 cases (40 mothers and their 40 septic neonates) and 80 healthy controls (40 volunteer mothers and their 40 healthy neonates)...
March 9, 2018: Steroids
Archana Singh, Deepti Jain, Chetna Tyagi, Sujata Singh, Sumit Kumar, Indrakant K Singh
Plants are endowed with an innate immune system, which enables them to protect themselves from pest and pathogen. The participation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins is one of the most crucial events of inducible plant defense response. Herein, we report the characterization of CaHaPR-4, a Helicoverpa-inducible class II PR-4 protein from chickpea. Bioinformatic analysis of CaHaPR-4 protein indicated the presence of a signal peptide, barwin domain but it lacks the chitin-binding site/hevein domain. The recombinant CaHaPR-4 is bestowed with RNase and bivalent ion-dependent DNase activity...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Haiyan Zeng, Jumei Zhang, Qingping Wu, Wenjing He, Haoming Wu, Yingwang Ye, Chengsi Li, Na Ling, Moutong Chen, Juan Wang, Shuzhen Cai, Tao Lei, Yu Ding, Liang Xue
Cronobacter strains harboring the CRISPR-Cas system are important foodborne pathogens causing serious neonatal infections. However, the specific role of the CRISPR-Cas system in bacterial evolution remains relatively unexplored. In this study, we investigated the impact of CRISPR-Cas in Cronobacter evolution and obtained 137 new whole-genome sequences of Cronobacter by next-generation sequencing technology. Among the strains examined (n=240), 90.6% (193/213) of prevalent species Cronobacter sakazakii , Cronobacter malonaticus , and Cronobacter dublinensis strains had intact CRISPR-Cas systems...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Kathryn A Patras, Victor Nizet
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonizes the gastrointestinal and vaginal epithelium of a significant percentage of healthy women, with potential for ascending intrauterine infection or transmission during parturition, creating a risk of serious disease in the vulnerable newborn. This review highlights new insights on the bacterial virulence determinants, host immune responses, and microbiome interactions that underpin GBS vaginal colonization, the proximal step in newborn infectious disease pathogenesis. From the pathogen perspective, the function GBS adhesins and biofilms, β-hemolysin/cytolysin toxin, immune resistance factors, sialic acid mimicry, and two-component transcriptional regulatory systems are reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Theo van den Broek, José A M Borghans, Femke van Wijk
Naive T cells have long been regarded as a developmentally synchronized and fairly homogeneous and quiescent cell population, the size of which depends on age, thymic output and prior infections. However, there is increasing evidence that naive T cells are heterogeneous in phenotype, function, dynamics and differentiation status. Current strategies to identify naive T cells should be adjusted to take this heterogeneity into account. Here, we provide an integrated, revised view of the naive T cell compartment and discuss its implications for healthy ageing, neonatal immunity and T cell reconstitution following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation...
March 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
Rachel D Brownlee, Amir Ardeshir, Michael D Becker, April M Wagner, David G Besselsen
The influence of mouse strain, immune competence and age on the pathogenesis of a field strain of minute virus of mice (MVMm) was examined in BALB/c, C3H, C57BL/6 and SCID mice experimentally infected as neonates, weanlings and adults. Sera, bodily excretions and tissues were harvested at 7, 14, 28 and 56 days after inoculation and evaluated by serology, quantitative PCR and histopathology. Seroconversion to recombinant viral capsid protein 2 was consistently observed in all immunocompetent strains of mice, regardless of the age at which they were inoculated, while seroconversion to the viral nonstructural protein 1 was only consistently detected in neonate inoculates...
March 8, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Ameer Hamza, Eleftherios Vouyoukas, Ian Jacob Anderson, Martha Jaye Higgins
Teratomas are one of the most frequent tumors in the pediatric population. They occur anywhere along the midline of the body, following the course of the embryonic germ cell ridge. In the mediastinal location, they exert space occupying effects, leading to a myriad of complications, including non-immune hydrops fetalis. We describe a fatal case of an immature thymic teratoma in a neonate presenting with hydrops fetalis. This case emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and surgical intervention in such cases...
January 2018: Autopsy & Case Reports
Rajadas Sam Ebenezer, Umesh D Gupta, Pushpa Gupta, Harshavardhan Shakila
Background & objectives: : Immune complexes (ICs) play a crucial role which can either be beneficial or pathological to the host. Involvement of circulating immune complexes (CICs) has been shown in tuberculosis (TB) cases (adults and neonates form), but its immunomodulatory effect has not been studied in vivo. Hence, this study was carried out to understand and explore the prognostic therapeutic potential of CICs on the host immune system in guinea pigs animal TB model. Methods: In this study, the guinea pigs (group I) were immunized with in vitro synthesized antigen excess IC (AgX-IC), group II with antibody excess IC (AbX-IC) and group III with phosphate-buffered saline...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Shogo Tanabe, Toshihide Yamashita
During brain development, the immune system mediates neurogenesis, gliogenesis and synapse formation. However, it remains unclear whether peripheral lymphocytes contribute to brain development. Here we identified the subtypes of lymphocytes that are present in neonatal mouse brains and investigated their functions. We found that B-1a cells, a subtype of B cells, were abundant in the neonatal mouse brain and infiltrated into the brain in a CXCL13-CXCR5-dependent manner. B-1a cells promoted the proliferation of oligodendrocyte-precursor cells (OPCs) in vitro, and depletion of B-1a cells from developing brains resulted in a reduction of numbers of OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes...
March 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Gianluca Lista, Fabio Meneghin, Ilia Bresesti, Francesca Castoldi
The development of a proper neonatal microbiota is of great importance, especially for the effects that dysbiosis has in acute and chronic diseases' onset. The microbiota, particularly the intestinal one, plays a crucial role in maintaining the health of the host, preventing colonization by pathogenic bacteria and significantly influencing the development and maturation of a normal gastrointestinal mucosal immunity. Several factors may interfere with the physiological development of microbiota, such as diseases during pregnancy, type of delivery, maternal nutrition, type of neonatal feeding, use of antibiotics, exposition to hospital environment (e...
December 22, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
Silas F Eto, Dayanne C Fernandes, Alessandra C Moraes, Ed Johnny R Prado, Amanda C Baldassi, Wilson G Manrique, Ives C Silva, Andrea S R Medeiros, Marco A A Belo, Tiago S Balbuena, Samir I Samara, João M Pizauro
Streptococcus agalactiae (Sta), which belongs to Lancefield group B, causes sepsis, endocarditis and bacterial meningitis in human neonates and Nile tilapia. Because the pathophysiology of Sta infection is partially similar in both species, the identification of biomarkers for the diagnosis and study of this disease is of importance for human and animal health. Therefore, in the present study, we produced an immunoglobulin Y (IgY) by immunizing laying hens with Sta proteins and evaluated its ability to detect Sta in paraffinized tilapia brain and cardiac tissue by direct immunofluorescence (IMF) and indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
March 1, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
X Hong, H Yu, B Wang
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the severe pathogenic bacteria during the perinatal period, both on pregnant women and newborns. GBS infection may lead to pneumonia, septicemia, meningitis or other severe disease, even death in neonates. Although only 1%-2% infections will develop into GBS disease among the neonates, the etiological mechanism of which is worth researching. This review summarizes the possible factors related to GBS infection or occurrence of the disease, including the risk in gestation period (for example, colonization of GBS on vagina of pregnant women, preterm birth or premature rupture of fetal membranes and so on), related pathogens (bacteria strains, loads or virulence), immune level (inflammatory factor or neutralizing anticytokine auto-Abs), gene defect or primary immunodeficiencies of the hosts...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Marisa N Spann, Catherine Monk, Dustin Scheinost, Bradley S Peterson
Prenatal maternal immune activation (MIA) is associated with altered brain development and risk of psychiatric disorders in offspring. Translational human studies of MIA are few in number. Alterations of the salience network has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the same psychiatric disorders associated with MIA. If MIA is pathogenic, then associated abnormalities in the salience network should be detectable in neonates immediately after birth. We tested the hypothesis that 3rd trimester MIA of adolescent women who are at risk for high stress and inflammation, is associated with the strength of functional connectivity in the salience network of their neonate...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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