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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022569/syphilis
#1
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, David Mabey, Mary L Kamb, Xiang-Sheng Chen, Justin D Radolf, Adele S Benzaken
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum) causes syphilis via sexual exposure or via vertical transmission during pregnancy. T. pallidum is renowned for its invasiveness and immune-evasiveness; its clinical manifestations result from local inflammatory responses to replicating spirochaetes and often imitate those of other diseases. The spirochaete has a long latent period during which individuals have no signs or symptoms but can remain infectious. Despite the availability of simple diagnostic tests and the effectiveness of treatment with a single dose of long-acting penicillin, syphilis is re-emerging as a global public health problem, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income and middle-income countries...
October 12, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993767/genomic-programming-of-human-neonatal-dendritic-cells-in-congenital-systemic-and-in-vitro-cytomegalovirus-infection-reveal-plastic-and-robust-immune-pathway-biology-responses
#2
Widad Dantoft, Pablo Martínez-Vicente, James Jafali, Lara Pérez-Martínez, Kim Martin, Konstantinos Kotzamanis, Marie Craigon, Manfred Auer, Neil T Young, Paul Walsh, Arnaud Marchant, Ana Angulo, Thorsten Forster, Peter Ghazal
Neonates and especially premature infants are highly susceptible to infection but still can have a remarkable resilience that is poorly understood. The view that neonates have an incomplete or deficient immune system is changing. Human neonatal studies are challenging, and elucidating host protective responses and underlying cognate pathway biology, in the context of viral infection in early life, remains to be fully explored. In both resource rich and poor settings, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983991/neonatal-overfeeding-by-small-litter-rearing-sensitizes-hippocampal-microglial-responses-to-immune-challenge-reversal-with-neonatal-repeated-injections-of-saline-as-well-as-minocycline
#3
Simone N De Luca, Ilvana Ziko, Kshitija Dhuna, Luba Sominsky, Mary Tolcos, Leanne Stokes, Sarah J Spencer
The early life period is extremely vulnerable to programming effects from the environment, many of which persist into adulthood. We have previously demonstrated that adult rats that were overfed as neonates have hypothalamic microglia that are hyper-responsive to an immune challenge and hippocampal microglia that respond less efficiently to learning. We therefore hypothesized that neonatal overfeeding would alter the ability of hippocampal microglia to respond to an immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and that concomitant minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic that suppresses microglial activity, could restore these responses...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981980/conditional-reprogramming-of-pediatric-airway-epithelial-cells-a-new-human-model-to-investigate-early-life-respiratory-disorders
#4
Seth Wolf, Geovanny F Perez, Lana Mukharesh, Nataliza Isaza, Diego Preciado, Robert J Freishtat, Dinesh Pillai, Mary C Rose, Gustavo Nino
BACKGROUND: Airway epithelial cells (AEC) are quite difficult to access in newborns and infants. It is critically important to develop robust life-extended models to conduct translational studies in this age group. We propose the use of a recently described cell-culture technology (conditionally reprogrammed cells - CRC) to generate continuous primary cell cultures from nasal and bronchial AEC of young children. METHODS: We collected nasal and/or bronchial AEC from a total of 23 subjects of different ages including newborns/infants/toddlers (0-2 years; N=9), school age children (4-11 years; N=6), and a group of adolescent/adult donors (N=8)...
October 5, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972799/immune-function-a-missing-link-in-the-gender-disparity-in-preterm-neonatal-outcomes
#5
David N O'Driscoll, Catherine M Greene, Eleanor J Molloy
In neonatology, males exhibit a more severe disease course and poorer prognosis in many pathological states when compared to females. Perinatal brain injury, respiratory morbidity, and sepsis, among other complications, preferentially affect males. Preterm neonates (born <37 weeks gestation) display a particularly marked sexual disparity in pathology, especially at the borders of viability. The sex biases in preterm neonatal outcomes and underlying multifactorial mechanisms have been incompletely explored...
November 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972091/cd8-t-cells-prevent-lethality-from-neonatal-murine-roseolovirus-infection
#6
Swapneel J Patel, Wayne M Yokoyama
A recently described mouse homolog of the human roseoloviruses, murine roseolovirus (MRV), causes loss of peripheral and thymic CD4(+) cells during neonatal infection of BALB/c mice. Despite significant disruptions to the normal adaptive immune response, infected BALB/c mice reproducibly recover from infection, consistent with prior studies on a related virus, mouse thymic virus. In this article, we show that, in contrast to published studies on mouse thymic virus, MRV appears to robustly infect neonatal C57BL/6 (B6) mice, causing severe depletion of thymocytes and peripheral T cells...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966622/protection-against-pertussis-in-humans-correlates-to-elevated-serum-antibodies-and-memory-b-cells
#7
Valentina Marcellini, Eva Piano Mortari, Giorgio Fedele, Francesco Gesualdo, Elisabetta Pandolfi, Fabio Midulla, Pasqualina Leone, Paola Stefanelli, Alberto Eugenio Tozzi, Rita Carsetti
Pertussis is a respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis that may be particularly severe and even lethal in the first months of life when infants are still too young to be vaccinated. Adults and adolescents experience mild symptoms and are the source of infection for neonates. Adoptive maternal immunity does not prevent pertussis in the neonate. We compared the specific immune response of mothers of neonates diagnosed with pertussis and mothers of control children. We show that women have pre-existing pertussis-specific antibodies and memory B cells and react against the infection with a recall response increasing the levels specific serum IgG, milk IgA, and the frequency of memory B cells of all isotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964823/are-amniotic-fluid-neutrophils-in-women-with-intraamniotic-infection-and-or-inflammation-of-fetal-or-maternal-origin
#8
Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Roberto Romero, Yi Xu, Yaozhu Leng, Valeria Garcia-Flores, Derek Miller, Suzanne M Jacques, Sonia S Hassan, Jonathan Faro, Adham Alsamsam, Ali Alhousseini, Hunter Gomez-Roberts, Bogdan Panaitescu, Lami Yeo, Eli Maymon
BACKGROUND: Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cells found in the amniotic cavity of women with intraamniotic infection and/or inflammation. The current belief is that these neutrophils are of fetal origin. However, abundant neutrophils have been found in the amniotic fluid of women with a severe acute maternal inflammatory response but without a fetal inflammatory response in the placenta, suggesting that these innate immune cells can also be of maternal origin or a mixture of both fetal and maternal neutrophils...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959067/hepatitis-b-virus-surface-antigen-and-antibody-markers-in-children-at-a-major-paediatric-hospital-after-the-pentavalent-dtp-hbv-hib-vaccination
#9
Thomas Apiung, Thomas A Ndanu, Julius Aa Mingle, Kwamena Wc Sagoe
OBJECTIVES: The knowledge about outcomes of infant vaccination against HBV infections using the DPT-HepB-Hib vaccine in Ghana is limited. This study therefore investigated the levels of immunity to HBV among children who received the DPT-HepB-Hib vaccine and HBsAg carriage in non-responders. Correlates for non-response or poor response were also investigated. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. A major paediatric hospital in Accra. Four hundred and twenty four children between the ages of 5 to 32 months who had completed the full vaccination schedule for the DPT-HepB-Hib vaccine...
March 2017: Ghana Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956000/accurate-clinical-genetic-testing-for-autoinflammatory-diseases-using-the-next-generation-sequencing-platform-miseq
#10
Manabu Nakayama, Hirotsugu Oda, Kenji Nakagawa, Takahiro Yasumi, Tomoki Kawai, Kazushi Izawa, Ryuta Nishikomori, Toshio Heike, Osamu Ohara
Autoinflammatory diseases occupy one of a group of primary immunodeficiency diseases that are generally thought to be caused by mutation of genes responsible for innate immunity, rather than by acquired immunity. Mutations related to autoinflammatory diseases occur in 12 genes. For example, low-level somatic mosaic NLRP3 mutations underlie chronic infantile neurologic, cutaneous, articular syndrome (CINCA), also known as neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID). In current clinical practice, clinical genetic testing plays an important role in providing patients with quick, definite diagnoses...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955177/modeling-a-superorganism-considerations-regarding-the-use-of-dirty-mice-in-biomedical-research%C3%A2
#11
Aaron C Ericsson, Daniel R Montonye, Cierra R Smith, Craig L Franklin
An ever-expanding body of evidence in both humans and animal models demonstrates the influence of the resident gut microbiota on host health and disease susceptibility. However, as unwanted bacterial, viral, protozoal, and parasitic agents have gradually been eliminated from colonies of purpose-bred laboratory mice, the resident microbiota has lost richness and complexity. Recent studies have shown that the ultra-hygienic environment of traditional laboratory mice and lack of antigenic exposure during development results in mice with an immune system more akin to that of a neonate than an adult human...
September 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953534/neonatal-exposure-to-hepatitis-c-virus-antigens-in-uninfected-children-born-to-infected-mothers
#12
Afrodite Psaros Einberg, Erwin Daniel Brenndörfer, Lars Frelin, Lena Hallberg, Matti Sällberg, Björn Fischler
OBJECTIVES: Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is uncommon and occurs in around 5% of births from HCV infected mothers. The reason for the low transmission rate is unclear. We aimed to investigate if there is evidence of HCV exposure also in the non-infected children born to HCV infected mothers by the presence of a detectable immune response. METHODS: Serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 9 HCV vertically infected children, 32 uninfected children born to HCV infected mothers, and 15 HCV chronically infected mothers, were analyzed...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950816/maternal-immunomodulation-therapy-for-prevention-of-preterm-birth-and-prematurity-related-morbidity-the-new-era-of-immuno-perinatology
#13
Shriddha Nayak, Jared Welling, Irina Burd
Preterm birth and associated prematurity-related morbidity can significantly affect neonatal health and outcomes. While the mechanisms of preterm labor are yet to be fully understood, there is a need for prenatal therapeutic interventions to treat these conditions. As it is recognized from literature, the immune mechanisms responsible for preterm labor may be different from those responsible for prematurity-related conditions in the neonate. Differentiating the mechanisms for these two processes is yet to be addressed, and steps need to be taken to move forward the new field of immune-perinatology...
September 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947540/in-utero-exposure-to-histological-chorioamnionitis-primes-the-exometabolomic-profiles-of-preterm-cd4-t-lymphocytes
#14
Poojitha Matta, Stacy D Sherrod, Christina C Marasco, Daniel J Moore, John A McLean, Joern-Hendrik Weitkamp
Histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) is an intrauterine inflammatory condition that increases the risk for preterm birth, death, and disability because of persistent systemic and localized inflammation. The immunological mechanisms sustaining this response in the preterm newborn remain unclear. We sought to determine the consequences of HCA exposure on the fetal CD4(+) T lymphocyte exometabolome. We cultured naive CD4(+) T lymphocytes from HCA-positive and -negative preterm infants matched for gestational age, sex, race, prenatal steroid exposure, and delivery mode...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940186/an-r848-adjuvanted-influenza-vaccine-promotes-early-activation-of-b-cells-in-the-draining-lymph-node-of-nonhuman-primate-neonates
#15
Beth C Holbrook, S Tyler Aycock, Emily Machiele, Elene Clemens, Danielle Gries, Matthew J Jorgensen, Mallinath B Hadimani, S Bruce King, Martha A Alexander-Miller
Impaired immune responsiveness is a significant barrier to vaccination of neonates. By way of example, the low seroconversion observed following influenza vaccination has led to restriction of its use to infants over 6 months of age, leaving younger infants vulnerable to infection. Our previous studies using a nonhuman primate neonate model demonstrated that the immune response elicited following vaccination with inactivated influenza virus could be robustly increased by inclusion of the TLR agonist flagellin or R848, either delivered individually or in combination...
September 22, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938051/pregnancy-disorders-in-africa-and-the-obstetric-dilemma
#16
Annettee Nakimuli, Ashley Moffett
The high neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality associated with the extremes of birth weight is referred to as the obstetric dilemma. Pre-eclampsia and other conditions that lead to low birth weight are considered as the Great Obstetrical Syndromes (GOS). At the other extreme is high birth weight resulting in obstructed labour. Fetal weight largely depends on placental function and defective placentation is a common feature of the GOS. There is evidence that the local uterine immune system (KIR and HLA-C) regulates placentation, with racial differences noted...
December 1, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936210/novel-mutations-of-the-tetratricopeptide-repeat-domain-7a-gene-and-phenotype-genotype-comparison
#17
Reyin Lien, Yung-Feng Lin, Min-Wei Lai, Hui-Ying Weng, Ren-Chin Wu, Tang-Her Jaing, Jing-Long Huang, Shih-Feng Tsai, Wen-I Lee
The gastrointestinal tract contains the largest lymphoid organ to react with pathogenic microorganisms and suppress excess inflammation. Patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) can suffer from refractory diarrhea. In this study, we present two siblings who began to suffer from refractory diarrhea with a poor response to aggressive antibiotic and immunosuppressive treatment after surgical release of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Their lymphocyte proliferation was low, but superoxide production and IL-10 signaling were normal...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933267/neonatal-plasticity-of-the-nociceptive-system-mechanisms-effects-and-treatment-of-repetitive-painful-procedures-during-nicu-admittance
#18
N J Van den Hoogen, J Patijn, D Tibboel, E A Joosten
INTRODUCTION: In Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), prematurely born infants undergo a range of skin breaking and painful procedures. At the same time, the spinal nociceptive system is in a sensitive developmental stage. Both neonatal repetitive painful procedures and their treatment can induce plasticity of the neonatal spinal nociceptive system, causing long-lasting alterations to pain processing and pain reactivity. METHODS: This review focuses on developmental processes related to the nociceptive network in the spinal dorsal horn and more specifically at mechanisms related to 1...
September 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920101/potential-therapeutic-targets-in-nrf2-dependent-protection-against-neonatal-respiratory-distress-disease-predicted-by-cdna-microarray-analysis-and-bioinformatics-tools
#19
Hye-Youn Cho, Xuting Wang, Jianying Li, Douglas A Bell, Steven R Kleeberger
Hyperoxia exposure of newborn rodents has served as a model for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) phenotypes found in a sub-population of human premature infants. We previously demonstrated that Nrf2 modulates molecular events during saccular-to-alveolar lung maturation and also has a protective role in the pathogenesis of hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury, mortality, arrest of saccular-to-alveolar transition, and lung injury, using Nrf2-deficient and wild-type neonate mice. In this review, we describe how whole-genome transcriptome analyses can identify the means through which Nrf2 transcriptionally modulates organ injury and morphology, cellular growth/proliferation, vasculature development, and immune response during BPD-like pathogenesis...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917991/enhanced-expression-of-pd-l1-and-ifn-%C3%AE-on-dendritic-cells-is-associated-with-bcg-induced-th2-inhibition
#20
A C C Gouveia, F G Braga, M Mota, F M C Silva, A S S Brugiolo, E E Oliveira, M C Ayupe, H C Teixeira, A P Ferreira
Accumulating evidence indicates that the exposure to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prevents the development of allergy and the airway dendritic cells (DCs) may be involved in this protective effect. However, studies to better characterize the specific interactions between BCG and DCs and their role in this mycobacteria-mediated Th2 cell suppression are still ongoing. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the neonatal BCG vaccination in the innate immune response in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation...
September 14, 2017: Cytokine
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