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neonatal immune response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454023/interaction-between-hypothermia-and-delayed-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#1
Josephine Herz, Christian Köster, Barbara S Reinboth, Mark Dzietko, Wiebke Hansen, Hemmen Sabir, Cindy van Velthoven, Ivo Bendix, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser
Acute hypothermia treatment (HT) is the only clinically established intervention following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. However, almost half of all cooled infants still die or suffer from long-lasting neurological impairments. Regenerative therapies, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) appear promising as adjuvant therapy. In the present study, we hypothesized that HT combined with delayed MSC therapy results in augmented protection, improving long-term neurological outcome. Postnatal day 9 (P9) C57BL/6 mice were exposed to hypoxia-ischemia followed by 4 hours HT...
February 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445376/investigating-relationships-between-reproduction-immune-defenses-and-cortisol-in-dall-sheep
#2
Cynthia J Downs, Brianne V Boan, Thomas D Lohuis, Kelley M Stewart
Life-history theory is fundamental to understanding how animals allocate resources among survival, development, and reproduction, and among traits within these categories. Immediate trade-offs occur within a short span of time and, therefore, are more easily detected. Trade-offs, however, can also manifest across stages of the life cycle, a phenomenon known as carryover effects. We investigated trade-offs on both time scales in two populations of Dall sheep ( Ovis dalli dalli ) in Southcentral Alaska. Specifically, we (i) tested for glucocorticoid-mediated carryover effects from the breeding season on reproductive success and immune defenses during parturition and (ii) tested for trade-offs between immune defenses and reproduction within a season...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445124/efficacy-of-mucosal-polyanhydride-nanovaccine-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-the-neonatal-calf
#3
Jodi L McGill, Sean M Kelly, Pankaj Kumar, Savannah Speckhart, Shannon L Haughney, Jamie Henningson, Balaji Narasimhan, Randy E Sacco
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and children worldwide. Bovine RSV (BRSV) is closely related to HRSV and a significant cause of morbidity in young cattle. BRSV infection in calves displays many similarities to RSV infection in humans, including similar age dependency and disease pathogenesis. Polyanhydride nanoparticle-based vaccines (i.e., nanovaccines) have shown promise as adjuvants and vaccine delivery vehicles due to their ability to promote enhanced immunogenicity through the route of administration, provide sustained antigen exposure, and induce both antibody- and cell-mediated immunity...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444212/loss-of-function-mutations-in-ephb4-are-responsible-for-vein-of-galen-aneurysmal-malformation
#4
Alexandre Vivanti, Augustin Ozanne, Cynthia Grondin, Guillaume Saliou, Loic Quevarec, Helène Maurey, Patrick Aubourg, Alexandra Benachi, Marta Gut, Ivo Gut, Jelena Martinovic, Marie Victoire Sénat, Marcel Tawk, Judith Melki
Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation is a congenital anomaly of the cerebral vasculature representing 30% of all paediatric vascular malformations. We conducted whole exome sequencing in 19 unrelated patients presenting this malformation and subsequently screened candidate genes in a cohort of 32 additional patients using either targeted exome or Sanger sequencing. In a cohort of 51 patients, we found five affected individuals with heterozygous mutations in EPHB4 including de novo frameshift (p.His191Alafs*32) or inherited deleterious splice or missense mutations predicted to be pathogenic by in silico tools...
February 9, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442290/the-optimisation-of-the-expression-of-recombinant-surface-immunogenic-protein-of-group-b-streptococcus-in-escherichia-coli-by-response-surface-methodology-improves-humoral-immunity
#5
Diego A Díaz-Dinamarca, José I Jerias, Daniel A Soto, Jorge A Soto, Natalia V Díaz, Yessica Y Leyton, Rodrigo A Villegas, Alexis M Kalergis, Abel E Vásquez
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal meningitis and a common pathogen in livestock and aquaculture industries around the world. Conjugate polysaccharide and protein-based vaccines are under development. The surface immunogenic protein (SIP) is a conserved protein in all GBS serotypes and has been shown to be a good target for vaccine development. The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli cells has been shown to be useful in the development of vaccines, and the protein purification is a factor affecting their immunogenicity...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438471/severity-of-chagasic-cardiomyopathy-is-associated-with-response-to-a-novel-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-trypanosoma-cruzi-tcii-v-vi
#6
Tapan Bhattacharyya, Louisa A Messenger, Caryn Bern, Pascal Mertens, Quentin Gilleman, Nicolas Zeippen, Bruno C Bremer Hinckel, Niamh Murphy, Robert H Gilman, Michael A Miles
Background: Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease in the Americas. Outcome of infection ranges from lifelong asymptomatic status to severe disease. Understanding how history of T. cruzi lineage (TcI-TcVI) infection relates to clinical prognosis is challenging. We previously described peptide-based lineage-specific ELISA with Trypomastigote Small Surface Antigen (TSSA). Methods: A novel rapid diagnostic test (Chagas Sero K-SeT) incorporating a peptide corresponding to the TSSA-II/V/VI common epitope was developed, and validated by comparison with ELISA...
February 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436479/the-ontogeny-of-a-neutrophil-mechanisms-of-granulopoiesis-and-homeostasis
#7
REVIEW
Shelley M Lawrence, Ross Corriden, Victor Nizet
Comprising the majority of leukocytes in humans, neutrophils are the first immune cells to respond to inflammatory or infectious etiologies and are crucial participants in the proper functioning of both innate and adaptive immune responses. From their initial appearance in the liver, thymus, and spleen at around the eighth week of human gestation to their generation in large numbers in the bone marrow at the end of term gestation, the differentiation of the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell into a mature, segmented neutrophil is a highly controlled process where the transcriptional regulators C/EBP-α and C/EBP-ε play a vital role...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432383/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-seven-dosing-regimens-of-the-candidate-rts-s-as01e-malaria-vaccine-integrated-within-an-expanded-program-on-immunization-regimen-a-phase-ii-single-center-open-controlled-trial-in-infants-in-malawi
#8
Desiree Witte, Nigel A Cunliffe, Ann M Turner, Edward Ngulube, Opokua Ofori-Anyinam, Johan Vekemans, Philips Chimpeni, Marc Lievens, Trevor P Wilson, Jenala Njiramʼmadzi, Yolanda Guerra Mendoza, Amanda Leach
BACKGROUND: In a phase III trial, the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine produced lower anti-circumsporozoite (CS) antibody titres when co-administered with Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccines (0,1,2-month schedule) at 6-12 weeks compared to 5-17 months at first vaccination. Alternative infant immunisation schedules within the EPI were investigated. METHODS: This phase II, open, single site (Blantyre, Malawi) trial was conducted in infants aged 1-7 days. Subjects were equally randomised across seven groups to receive three doses of RTS,S/AS01E at time points that included ≤7 days, 6, 10, 14, 26 weeks, and 9 months...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423318/pregnancy-and-infection-using-disease-pathogenesis-to-inform-vaccine-strategy
#9
REVIEW
Meghan S Vermillion, Sabra L Klein
Vaccination is the mainstay of preventative medicine for many infectious diseases. Pregnant women, unborn fetuses, and neonates represent three at-risk populations that can be simultaneously protected by strategic vaccination protocols. Because the pathogenesis of different infectious microbes varies based on tissue tropism, timing of infection, and host susceptibility, the goals of immunization are not uniform across all vaccines. Mechanistic understanding of infectious disease pathogenesis and immune responses is therefore essential to inform vaccine design and the implementation of appropriate immunization protocols that optimize protection of pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423029/recombinant-frizzled1-protein-attenuated-cardiac-hypertrophy-after-myocardial-infarction-via-the-canonical-wnt-signaling-pathway
#10
Jingjing Fan, Lin Qiu, Hongyang Shu, Ben Ma, Marco Hagenmueller, Johannes H Riffel, Soeren Meryer, Min Zhang, Stefan E Hardt, Lin Wang, Dao Wen Wang, Hongyu Qiu, Ning Zhou
Postinfarct cardiac hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for heart failure and sudden death. Regression of cardiac hypertrophy has emerged as a promising strategy in the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). Here we hypothesized that frizzled1 (FZD1), a receptor of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is a novel mediator of ischemia-associated cardiac hypertrophy. MI was induced in mice by left anterior descending (LAD) coronary occlusion. One week after MI, the expression of FZD1 was found to be notably increased in the left ventricles (LVs) of the MI-mice compared to shams...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416539/adjuvant-effect-of-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-on-hepatitis-b-vaccine-immunogenicity-in-the-preterm-and-term-newborn
#11
Annette Scheid, Francesco Borriello, Carlo Pietrasanta, Helen Christou, Joann Diray-Arce, Matthew A Pettengill, Sweta Joshi, Ning Li, Ilana Bergelson, Tobias Kollmann, David J Dowling, Ofer Levy
Immunization is key to protecting term and preterm infants from a heightened risk of infection. However, preterm immunity is distinct from that of the term, limiting its ability to effectively respond to vaccines routinely given at birth, such as hepatitis B vaccine (HBV). As part of the Expanded Program on Immunization, HBV is often given together with the live-attenuated vaccine Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), known to activate multiple pattern-recognition receptors. Of note, some clinical studies suggest BCG can enhance efficacy of other vaccines in term newborns...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415180/neonatal-bcg-vaccination-influences-cytokine-responses-to-toll-like-receptor-ligands-and-heterologous-antigens
#12
B Freyne, S Donath, S Germano, K Gardiner, D Casalaz, R M Robins-Browne, N Amenyogbe, N L Messina, M G Netea, K L Flanagan, T Kollmann, N Curtis
Background: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination is associated with a reduction in all-cause infant mortality in high-mortality settings. The underlying mechanisms remain uncertain but long-term modulation of the innate immune response (trained immunity) may be involved. Methods: Whole blood, collected 7 days post randomisation from 212 neonates enrolled in a randomised trial of neonatal BCG vaccination, was stimulated with killed pathogens and Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands to interrogate cytokine responses...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405832/beyond-sepsis-staphylococcus-epidermidis-is-an-underestimated-but-significant-contributor-to-neonatal-morbidity
#13
Ying Dong, Christian P Speer, Kirsten Glaser
Staphylococcus epidermidis accounts for the majority of cases of neonatal sepsis. Moreover, it has been demonstrated to be associated with neonatal morbidities, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), white matter injury (WMI), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which affect short-term and long-term neonatal outcome. Imbalanced inflammation has been considered to be a major underlying mechanism of each entity. Conventionally regarded as a harmless commensal on human skin, S...
February 6, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401325/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-3-formulations-of-an-investigational-respiratory-syncytial-virus-vaccine-in-non-pregnant-women-results-from-two-phase-ii-trials
#14
Jiri Beran, Jason D Lickliter, Tino F Schwarz, Casey Johnson, Laurence Chu, Joseph B Domachowske, Pierre Van Damme, Kanchanamala Withanage, Laurence A Fissette, Marie-Pierre David, Koen Maleux, Alexander C Schmidt, Marta Picciolato, Ilse Dieussaert
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes bronchiolitis and pneumonia in neonates and infants. RSV vaccination during pregnancy could boost pre-existing neutralizing antibody titers, providing passive protection to newborns. Methods: Two observer-blind, controlled studies (RSV F-020 [NCT02360475], RSV F-024 [NCT02753413]) evaluated immunogenicity and safety of an investigational RSV vaccine in healthy, non-pregnant 18-45-year-old women. Both studies used licensed Tdap vaccine as control...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399656/severe-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia-in-crigler-najjar-syndrome-model-mice-can-be-reversed-with-zinc-protoporphyrin
#15
Ryoichi Fujiwara, Ryo Mitsugi, Asuka Uemura, Tomoo Itoh, Robert H Tukey
Neurotoxic bilirubin is solely conjugated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1. Due to an inadequate function of UGT1A1, human neonates develop mild to severe physiological hyperbilirubinemia. Accumulation of bilirubin in the brain leads to the onset of irreversible brain damage called kernicterus. Breastfeeding is one of the most significant factors that increase the risk of developing kernicterus in infants. Why does the most natural way of feeding increase the risk of brain damage or even death? This question leads to the hypothesis that breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia might bring certain benefits to the body...
October 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398273/the-choice-of-linker-for-conjugating-r848-to-inactivated-influenza-virus-determines-the-stimulatory-capacity-for-innate-immune-cells
#16
Marlena M Westcott, Elene A Clemens, Beth C Holbrook, S Bruce King, Martha A Alexander-Miller
Inactivated influenza vaccines are not approved for use in infants less than 6 months of age due to poor immunogenicity in that population. While the live attenuated influenza vaccine has the potential to be more immunogenic, it is not an option for infants and other vulnerable populations, including the elderly and immunocompromised individuals due to safety concerns. In an effort to improve the immunogenicity of the inactivated vaccine for use in vulnerable populations, we have used an approach of chemically crosslinking the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonist R848 directly to virus particles...
February 2, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396934/long-term-protection-against-the-hepatitis-b-virus-detected-through-an-early-response-to-a-booster-dose-injection
#17
Hiva Saffar, Ali-Reza Khalilian, Mohammed-Jafar Saffar, Abolghasem Ajami
OBJECTIVE: To determine the duration of protection conferred by the hepatitis B (HB) vaccination and the necessity of a booster dose. METHODS: Immediately after the initial blood sampling, 252 youths (aged 18.8-20.5 years, 52% females) with a history of neonatal HB vaccination with one dose of the HB vaccine received a booster. Serum concentrations of antibodies against the HB surface antigen were assessed in samples collected before and 10-14 days after the booster...
January 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389970/decreased-production-of-class-switched-antibodies-in-neonatal-b-cells-is-associated-with-increased-expression-of-mir-181b
#18
Stephanie Glaesener, Christine Jaenke, Anika Habener, Robert Geffers, Petra Hagendorff, Katrin Witzlau, Esther Imelmann, Andreas Krueger, Almut Meyer-Bahlburg
The increased susceptibility to infections of neonates is caused by an immaturity of the immune system as a result of both qualitative and quantitative differences between neonatal and adult immune cells. With respect to B cells, neonatal antibody responses are known to be decreased. Accountable for this is an altered composition of the neonatal B cell compartment towards more immature B cells. However, it remains unclear whether the functionality of individual neonatal B cell subsets is altered as well. In the current study we therefore compared phenotypical and functional characteristics of corresponding neonatal and adult B cell subpopulations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389020/cd71-erythroid-cells-from-neonates-born-to-women-with-preterm-labor-regulate-cytokine-and-cellular-responses
#19
Derek Miller, Roberto Romero, Ronald Unkel, Yi Xu, Felipe Vadillo-Ortega, Sonia S Hassan, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez
Neonatal CD71+ erythroid cells are thought to have immunosuppressive functions. Recently, we demonstrated that CD71+ erythroid cells from neonates born to women who underwent spontaneous preterm labor (PTL) are reduced to levels similar to those of term neonates; yet, their functional properties are unknown. Herein, we investigated the functionality of CD71+ erythroid cells from neonates born to women who underwent spontaneous preterm or term labor. CD71+ erythroid cells from neonates born to women who underwent PTL displayed a similar mRNA profile to that of those from term neonates...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385753/a-mouse-model-of-enterovirus-d68-infection-for-assessment-of-the-efficacy-of-inactivated-vaccine
#20
Chao Zhang, Xueyang Zhang, Wenlong Dai, Qingwei Liu, Pei Xiong, Shuxia Wang, Lanlan Geng, Sitang Gong, Zhong Huang
In recent years, enterovirus D68 (EVD68) has been reported increasingly to be associated with severe respiratory tract infections and acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) in children all over the world. Yet, no effective vaccines or antiviral drugs are currently available for EVD68. Although several experimental animal models have been developed, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of inactivated EVD68 vaccines has not been fully evaluated. To promote the development of vaccines, we established an Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) suckling mouse model of EVD68 infection in this study...
January 30, 2018: Viruses
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