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neonatal immune response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225605/the-state-of-cellular-adoptive-immunotherapy-for-neuroblastoma-and-other-pediatric-solid-tumors
#1
Thanh-Phuong Le, To-Ha Thai
Research on adult cancer immunotherapy is proceeding at a rapid pace resulting in an impressive success rate exemplified by a few high profile cases. However, this momentum is not readily extended to pediatric immunotherapy, and it is not for lack of trying. Though reasons for the slower advance are not apparent, some issues can be raised. Pediatric cancer patients represent a distinct demographic group whose immune system is inherently different from that of mature adults. Treating pediatric patients with immunotherapy designed for adults may not yield objective clinical responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213269/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-malaria-vectored-vaccines-given-with-routine-expanded-program-on-immunization-vaccines-in-gambian-infants-and-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Victorine A Mensah, Sophie Roetynck, Ebrima K Kanteh, Georgina Bowyer, Amy Ndaw, Francis Oko, Carly M Bliss, Ya Jankey Jagne, Riccardo Cortese, Alfredo Nicosia, Rachel Roberts, Flavia D'Alessio, Odile Leroy, Babacar Faye, Beate Kampmann, Badara Cisse, Kalifa Bojang, Stephen Gerry, Nicola K Viebig, Alison M Lawrie, Ed Clarke, Egeruan B Imoukhuede, Katie J Ewer, Adrian V S Hill, Muhammed O Afolabi
Background: Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding multiple epitope string thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (ME-TRAP) has shown acceptable safety and promising immunogenicity in African adult and pediatric populations. If licensed, this vaccine could be given to infants receiving routine childhood immunizations. We therefore evaluated responses to ChAd63 MVA ME-TRAP when co-administered with routine Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccines...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211057/neonatal-neutrophils-stimulated-by-group-b-streptococcus-induce-a-proinflammatory-t-helper-cell-bias
#3
Jianguo Lin, Seema Haridas, Stephen J Barenkamp, Larissa Chioquetta Lorenset, Ashley Sang Eun Lee, Benjamin T Schroeder, Guangyong Peng, Joyce M Koenig
BackgroundGroup B Streptococcus (GBS) infection causes inflammatory comorbidities in newborns. While the mechanisms remain unclear, evidence suggests that impaired innate-adaptive immune interactions may be contributory. We hypothesized that GBS-stimulated neonatal neutrophils provide a milieu that may drive proinflammatory T-helper (Th) cell programming.MethodsNeutrophils were stimulated with Type III GBS (COH1); supernatants or intact neutrophils were cocultured with CD4+ T cells or regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
December 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211052/maternal-vaccination-immunization-of-sows-during-pregnancy-against-etec-infections
#4
REVIEW
Jose Matías, Melibea Berzosa, Yadira Pastor, Juan M Irache, Carlos Gamazo
The immunology of pregnancy is an evolving consequence of multiple reciprocal interactions between the maternal and the fetal-placental systems. The immune response must warrant the pregnancy outcome (including tolerance to paternal antigens), but at the same time, efficiently respond to pathogenic challenges. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of illness and death in neonatal and recently weaned pigs. This review aims to give an overview of the current rationale on the maternal vaccination strategies for the protection of the newborn pig against ETEC...
December 6, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209308/program-cell-death-receptor-1-mediated-invariant-natural-killer-t-cell-control-of-peritoneal-macrophage-modulates-survival-in-neonatal-sepsis
#5
Eleanor A Fallon, Tristen T Chun, Whitney A Young, Chyna Gray, Alfred Ayala, Daithi S Heffernan
We have shown that invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells mediate sepsis-induced end-organ changes and immune responses, including macrophage bacterial phagocytosis, a finding regulated by the check point protein program cell death receptor-1 (PD-1). Furthermore, PD-1 mediates mortality in both adult and neonatal murine sepsis as well as in surgical patients. Given our previous findings, we hypothesize that iNKT cells will also modulate neonatal sepsis survival, and that this effect is regulated in part through PD-1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203321/lipopolysaccharide-impairs-mucin-secretion-and-stimulated-mucosal-immune-stress-response-in-respiratory-tract-of-neonatal-chicks
#6
Xiaoxiao Fan, Hongchao Jiao, Jingpeng Zhao, Xiaojuan Wang, Hai Lin
The chicken immune system is immature at the time of hatching. The development of the respiratory immune system after hatching is vital to young chicks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LPS on respiratory mucin and IgA production in chicks. In this study, we selected 7days old AA broilers of similar weigh randomly; LPS atomized at 1mg/kg body weigh dose in the confined space of 1 cubic meter. The chickens exposed for 2h. Then collect samples after 4h and 8h respectively. Compared to control, LPS inhibited mucus production in BALF, caused a rising trend of the concentration of IgA in serum and BALF, and increased the protein expression of IgA in lung tissue...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197124/breast-milk-cells-trafficking-induces-microchimerism-mediated-immune-system-maturation-in-the-infant
#7
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Molès, Edouard Tuaillon, Chipepo Kankasa, Anne-Sophie Bedin, Nicolas Nagot, Arnaud Marchant, Joann M McDermid, Philippe Van de Perre
Initiating breastfeeding within the first hour of life confers an important benefit in terms of child mortality and severe morbidity. Intestinal permeability to ingested macromolecules and immunoglobulins is limited to the first days of human life. These exchanges cease in the very early post-partum period but may increase beyond the neonatal period in response to local inflammation or introduction of a weaning food. From animal- and limited human-based observations, compelling evidence points out to breast milk cells also trafficking from mother to infant mucosal tissues and participating to the maternal microchimerism...
December 2, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194835/oxidative-stress-diseases-unique-to-the-perinatal-period-a-window-into-the-developing-innate-immune-response
#8
Robert M Dietz, Clyde J Wright
The innate immune system has evolved to play an integral role in the normally developing lung and brain. However, in response to oxidative stress, innate immunity, mediated by specific cellular and molecular programs and signaling, contributes to pathology in these same organ systems. Despite opposing drivers of oxidative stress, namely hyperoxia in neonatal lung injury and hypoxia/ischemia in neonatal brain injury, similar pathways-including toll-like receptors, NFκB and MAPK cascades-have been implicated in tissue damage...
November 30, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184555/innate-immunity-to-respiratory-infection-in-early-life
#9
REVIEW
Laura Lambert, Fiona J Culley
Early life is a period of particular susceptibility to respiratory infections and symptoms are frequently more severe in infants than in adults. The neonatal immune system is generally held to be deficient in most compartments; responses to innate stimuli are weak, antigen-presenting cells have poor immunostimulatory activity and adaptive lymphocyte responses are limited, leading to poor immune memory and ineffective vaccine responses. For mucosal surfaces such as the lung, which is continuously exposed to airborne antigen and to potential pathogenic invasion, the ability to discriminate between harmless and potentially dangerous antigens is essential, to prevent inflammation that could lead to loss of gaseous exchange and damage to the developing lung tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183807/neonatal-overfeeding-increases-capacity-for-catecholamine-biosynthesis-from-the-adrenal-gland-acutely-and-long-term-in-the-male-rat
#10
Luba Sominsky, Lin Kooi Ong, Ilvana Ziko, Phillip W Dickson, Sarah J Spencer
A poor nutritional environment during early development has long been known to increase disease susceptibility later in life. We have previously shown that rats that are overfed as neonates (i.e. suckled in small litters (4 pups) relative to control conditions (12 pups)) show dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to immune stress in adulthood, particularly due to an altered capacity of the adrenal to respond to an immune challenge. Here we hypothesised that neonatal overfeeding similarly affects the sympathomedullary system, testing this by investigating the biochemical function of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine synthesis...
November 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180294/homeopathic-treatment-as-an-alternative-prophylactic-to-minimize-bacterial-infection-and-prevent-neonatal-diarrhea-in-calves
#11
Bruno F Fortuoso, Andreia Volpato, Luana Rampazzo, Patrícia Glombowsky, Luiz Gustavo Griss, Gabriela M Galli, Lenita M Stefani, Matheus D Baldissera, Emanuel B Ferreira, Gustavo Machado, Aleksandro S da Silva
Bovine neonatal diarrhea is common due low immunity in newborn calves, poor management (or absence) of sanitary barriers, and other factors. Newborn calves with diarrhea in the first days of life suffer failure to thrive and may die if left untreated. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether prophylactic administration of a homeopathic product (Dia 100®) can control bovine neonatal diarrhea in calves born on a farm with substantial sanitary challenges. We counted total bacteria and protozoan parasites in fecal samples...
November 24, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180044/cell-intrinsic-characteristics-of-human-cord-blood-na%C3%A3-ve-cd4t-cells
#12
Ramiah D Jacks, Taylor J Keller, Alexander Nelson, Michael Nishimura, Paula White, Makio Iwashima
It has been generally considered that the perinatal immune system is less inflammatory compared to the adult system and type 2 responses predominate perinatal immune responses against antigens. Indeed, previous studies in mice showed that there are cell-intrinsic differences between neonatal and adult CD4T cells. However, studies on human cord blood and infant blood demonstrated that human perinatal T cells do not produce elevated levels of Th2 cytokines with the exception of IL-13. These data raise the question if human T cells in the perinatal blood fundamentally differ from adult T cells...
November 24, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178652/mutations-in-fetal-genes-involved-in-innate-immunity-and-host-defense-against-microbes-increase-risk-of-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes-pprom
#13
Bhavi P Modi, Maria E Teves, Laurel N Pearson, Hardik I Parikh, Hannah Haymond-Thornburg, John L Tucker, Piya Chaemsaithong, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Timothy P York, Roberto Romero, Jerome F Strauss
BACKGROUND: Twin studies have revealed a significant contribution of the fetal genome to risk of preterm birth. Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is the leading identifiable cause of preterm delivery. Infection and inflammation of the fetal membranes is commonly found associated with PPROM. METHODS: We carried out whole exome sequencing (WES) of genomic DNA from neonates born of African-American mothers whose pregnancies were complicated by PPROM (76) or were normal term pregnancies (N = 43) to identify mutations in 35 candidate genes involved in innate immunity and host defenses against microbes...
November 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178588/early-barriers-to-neonatal-porcine-islet-engraftment-in-a-dual-transplant-model
#14
K P Samy, R P Davis, Q Gao, B M Martin, M Song, J Cano, A B Farris, A McDonald, E K Gall, C R Dove, F V Leopardi, T How, K D Williams, G R Devi, B H Collins, A D Kirk
Porcine islet xenografts have the potential to provide an inexhaustible source of islets for β cell replacement. Proof-of-concept has been established in nonhuman primates. However, significant barriers to xenoislet transplantation remain, including, the poorly understood instant blood mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR), and a thorough understanding of early xeno-specific immune responses. A paucity of data exist comparing xeno-specific immune responses to allo-islet responses in primates. We recently developed a dual islet transplant model, which enables direct histological comparison of early engraftment immunobiology...
November 25, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176872/para-hydroxyphenylpyruvate-inhibits-the-pro-inflammatory-stimulation-of-macrophage-preventing-lps-mediated-nitro-oxidative-unbalance-and-immunometabolic-shift
#15
Rosella Scrima, Marta Menga, Consiglia Pacelli, Francesca Agriesti, Olga Cela, Claudia Piccoli, Antonella Cotoia, Alessandra De Gregorio, Julia V Gefter, Gilda Cinnella, Nazzareno Capitanio
Targeting metabolism is emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy for modulation of the immune response in human diseases. In the presented study we used the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated activation of RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cell line as a model to investigate changes in the metabolic phenotype and to test the effect of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (pHPP) on it. pHPP is an intermediate of the PHE/TYR catabolic pathway, selected as analogue of the ethyl pyruvate (EP), which proved to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174411/gestational-intermittent-hypoxia-increases-susceptibility-to-neuroinflammation-and-alters-respiratory-motor-control-in-neonatal-rats
#16
REVIEW
Stephen M Johnson, Karanbir S Randhawa, Jenna J Epstein, Ellen Gustafson, Austin D Hocker, Adrianne G Huxtable, Tracy L Baker, Jyoti J Watters
Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during pregnancy are growing health concerns because these conditions are associated with adverse outcomes for newborn infants. SDB/OSA during pregnancy exposes the mother and the fetus to intermittent hypoxia. Direct exposure of adults and neonates to IH causes neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis, and exposure to IH during gestation (GIH) causes long-term deficits in offspring respiratory function. However, the role of neuroinflammation in CNS respiratory control centers of GIH offspring has not been investigated...
November 22, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166972/long-term-sex-differential-effects-of-neonatal-vitamin-a-supplementation-on-in-vitro-cytokine-responses
#17
Kristoffer J Jensen, Mia J Søndergaard, Andreas Andersen, Cesario Martins, Christian Erikstrup, Peter Aaby, Katie L Flanagan, Christine Stabell Benn
High-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) may affect mortality to infectious diseases in a sex-differential manner. Here, we analysed the long-term immunological effects of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) in 247 children, who had been randomly allocated to 50 000 or 25 000 IU vitamin A (15mg and 7·5mg retinol equivalents, respectively) or placebo at birth. At 4-6 months of age, we assessed bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) scarification, and we analysed in vitro responses of TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ in whole blood stimulations to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), purified protein derivative (PPD), tetanus toxoid and lipopolysaccharide...
November 23, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164142/pathogenesis-molecular-genetics-and-genomics-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-the-etiologic-agent-of-johne-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Govardhan Rathnaiah, Denise K Zinniel, John P Bannantine, Judith R Stabel, Yrjö T Gröhn, Michael T Collins, Raúl G Barletta
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in ruminants causing chronic diarrhea, malnutrition, and muscular wasting. Neonates and young animals are infected primarily by the fecal-oral route. MAP attaches to, translocates via the intestinal mucosa, and is phagocytosed by macrophages. The ensuing host cellular immune response leads to granulomatous enteritis characterized by a thick and corrugated intestinal wall. We review various tissue culture systems, ileal loops, and mice, goats, and cattle used to study MAP pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162133/humoral-response-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-targets-neural-precursor-cells-in-the-central-nervous-system-of-naive-rodents
#19
Evangelia Kesidou, Olga Touloumi, Roza Lagoudaki, Evangelia Nousiopoulou, Paschalis Theotokis, Kyriaki-Nepheli Poulatsidou, Marina Boziki, Evangelia Kofidou, Nickoleta Delivanoglou, Fani Minti, Georgios Hadjigeorgiou, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Constantina Simeonidou
BACKGROUND: Neural precursor cells (NPCs) located in the subventricular zone (SVZ), a well-defined NPC niche, play a crucial role in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. Moreover, NPCs are involved in the endogenous reparative process both in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the possibility that NPCs may be vulnerable to immune-related components may not be ruled out. Therefore, we investigated the potential affinity of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced humoral response(s) to NPCs...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158374/maternal-igg-immune-complexes-induce-food-allergen-specific-tolerance-in-offspring
#20
Asa Ohsaki, Nicholas Venturelli, Tess M Buccigrosso, Stavroula K Osganian, John Lee, Richard S Blumberg, Michiko K Oyoshi
The role of maternal immune responses in tolerance induction is poorly understood. To study whether maternal allergen sensitization affects offspring susceptibility to food allergy, we epicutaneously sensitized female mice with ovalbumin (OVA) followed by epicutaneous sensitization and oral challenge of their offspring with OVA. Maternal OVA sensitization prevented food anaphylaxis, OVA-specific IgE production, and intestinal mast cell expansion in offspring. This protection was mediated by neonatal crystallizable fragment receptor (FcRn)-dependent transfer of maternal IgG and OVA immune complexes (IgG-IC) via breast milk and induction of allergen-specific regulatory T (T reg) cells in offspring...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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