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neonatal immune response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820654/locus-specific-dna-methylation-in-the-placenta-is-associated-with-levels-of-pro-inflammatory-proteins-in-cord-blood-and-they-are-both-independently-affected-by-maternal-smoking-during-pregnancy
#1
Sanne D van Otterdijk, Alexandra M Binder, Karin B Michels
We investigated the impact of maternal smoking during pregnancy on placental DNA methylation and how this may mediate the association between maternal smoking and pro-inflammatory proteins in cord blood. The study population consisted of 27 individuals exposed to maternal smoking throughout pregnancy, 32 individuals exposed during a proportion of the pregnancy, and 61 unexposed individuals. Methylation of 11 regions within 6 genes in placenta tissue was assessed by pyrosequencing. Levels of 7 pro-inflammatory proteins in cord blood were assessed by electrochemiluminescence...
August 18, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817583/dextran-sodium-sulfate-dss-induces-necrotizing-enterocolitis-like-lesions-in-neonatal-mice
#2
Marco Ginzel, Xiaoyan Feng, Joachim F Kuebler, Christian Klemann, Yi Yu, Reinhard von Wasielewski, Joon-Keun Park, Mathias W Hornef, Gertrud Vieten, Benno M Ure, Torsten Kaussen, Jan Hendrik Gosemann, Steffi Mayer, Anne Suttkus, Martin Lacher
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory bowel disease of preterm human newborns with yet unresolved etiology. An established neonatal murine model for NEC employs oral administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) combined with hypoxia/hypothermia. In adult mice, feeding dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) represents a well-established model for experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Here we investigated the effect of DSS administration on the neonatal murine intestine in comparison with the established NEC model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814408/intrinsic-maturational-neonatal-immune-deficiencies-and-susceptibility-to-group-b-streptococcus-infection
#3
REVIEW
Michelle L Korir, Shannon D Manning, H Dele Davies
Although a normal member of the gastrointestinal and vaginal microbiota, group B Streptococcus (GBS) can also occasionally be the cause of highly invasive neonatal disease and is an emerging pathogen in both elderly and immunocompromised adults. Neonatal GBS infections are typically transmitted from mother to baby either in utero or during passage through the birth canal and can lead to pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis within the first few months of life. Compared to the adult immune system, the neonatal immune system has a number of deficiencies, making neonates more susceptible to infection...
October 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813518/changes-in-the-incidence-of-pneumonia-bacterial-meningitis-and-infant-mortality-5-years-following-introduction-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-a-3-0-schedule
#4
Sylvia Becker-Dreps, Bryan Blette, Rafaela Briceño, Jorge Alemán, Michael G Hudgens, Gilberto Moreno, Ana Ordoñez, Julio Rocha, David J Weber, Erick Amaya
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae causes about 826,000 deaths of children in the world each year and many health facility visits. To reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, many nations have added pneumococcal conjugate vaccines to their national immunization schedules. Nicaragua was the first country eligible for GAVI Alliance funding to introduce the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 2010, provided to infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. The goal of this study was to evaluate the population impact of the first five years of the program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813466/comprehensive-comparison-of-neonate-and-adult-human-platelet-transcriptomes
#5
Eva Caparrós-Pérez, Raúl Teruel-Montoya, Mª José López-Andreo, Mª Carmen Llanos, José Rivera, Verónica Palma-Barqueros, Jose E Blanco, Vicente Vicente, Constantino Martínez, Francisca Ferrer-Marín
Understanding the underlying mechanisms of the well-substantiated platelet hyporeactivity in neonates is of interest given their implications for the clinical management of newborns, a population at higher bleeding risk than adults (especially sick and preterm infants), as well as for gaining insight into the regulatory mechanisms of platelet biology. Transcriptome analysis is useful in identifying mRNA signatures affecting platelet function. However, human fetal/neonatal platelet transcriptome analysis has never before been reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812000/diagnostic-imaging-features-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-narrative-review
#6
REVIEW
Francesco Esposito, Rosanna Mamone, Marco Di Serafino, Carmela Mercogliano, Valerio Vitale, Gianfranco Vallone, Patrizia Oresta
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory process, characterized by intestinal necrosis of variable extension, leading to perforation, generalized peritonitis and death. The classical pathogenetic theory focuses on mucosal damage related to a stress induced intestinal ischemia leading to mucosal injury and bacterial colonization of the wall. A more recent hypothesis emphasizes the role of immaturity of gastrointestinal and immune system, particularly of the premature, responsible of bowel wall vulnerability and suffering...
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809557/in-silico-and-in-vitro-interactions-between-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-human-histone-deacetylases
#7
Rou Hui Ho, James Chun Yip Chan, Hao Fan, Dorinda Yan Qin Kioh, Bee Wah Lee, Eric Chun Yong Chan
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are postulated to modulate the immune development of neonates via epigenetic regulations such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition. In the context of atopic diseases, the inhibition of HDAC maintains T-cell homeostasis and induces naïve T-cell differentiation into adaptive Treg, which regulates the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of Th2 immune responses. We investigated the structure-inhibition relationships of SCFAs with class I HDAC3 and class IIa HDAC7 using in silico docking simulation and in vitro human recombinant HDAC inhibition assay...
August 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805798/repeated-aav-mediated-gene-transfer-by-serotype-switching-enables-long-lasting-therapeutic-levels-of-hugt1a1-enzyme-in-a-mouse-model-of-crigler-najjar-syndrome-type-i
#8
L Bočkor, G Bortolussi, A Iaconcig, G Chiaruttini, C Tiribelli, M Giacca, F Benvenuti, L Zentilin, A F Muro
Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy is a promising strategy to treat liver-based monogenic diseases. However, two major obstacles limit its success: first, vector dilution in actively dividing cells, such as hepatocytes in neonates/children, due to the non-integrating nature of the vector; second, development of an immune response against the transgene and/or viral vector. Crigler-Najjar Syndrome Type I (CNSI) is a rare monogenic disease with neonatal onset, caused by mutations in the liver-specific UGT1 gene, with toxic accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin in plasma, tissues and brain...
August 14, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800747/bovine-cryptosporidiosis-impact-host-parasite-interaction-and-control-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Sarah Thomson, Carly A Hamilton, Jayne C Hope, Frank Katzer, Neil A Mabbott, Liam J Morrison, Elisabeth A Innes
Gastrointestinal disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the most important diseases of young ruminant livestock, particularly neonatal calves. Infected animals may suffer from profuse watery diarrhoea, dehydration and in severe cases death can occur. At present, effective therapeutic and preventative measures are not available and a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions is required. Cryptosporidium parvum is also an important zoonotic pathogen causing severe disease in people, with young children being particularly vulnerable...
August 11, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798335/cd71-erythroid-suppressor-cells-impair-adaptive-immunity-against-bordetella-pertussis
#10
Afshin Namdar, Petya Koleva, Shima Shahbaz, Stacy Strom, Volker Gerdts, Shokrollah Elahi
Infant's immune system cannot control infection or respond to vaccination as efficiently as older individuals, a phenomenon that has been attributed to immunological immaturity. Recently, we challenged this notion and proposed the presence of actively immunosuppressive and physiologically enriched CD71(+) erythroid cells in neonates. Here we utilized Bordetella pertussis, a common neonatal respiratory tract pathogen, as a proof of concept to investigate the role of these cells in adaptive immunity. We observed that CD71(+) cells have distinctive immunosuppressive properties and prevent recruitment of immune cells to the mucosal site of infection...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794456/activated-nk-cells-cause-placental-dysfunction-and-miscarriages-in-fetal-alloimmune-thrombocytopenia
#11
Issaka Yougbaré, Wei-She Tai, Darko Zdravic, Brigitta Elaine Oswald, Sean Lang, Guangheng Zhu, Howard Leong-Poi, Dawei Qu, Lisa Yu, Caroline Dunk, Jianhong Zhang, John G Sled, Stephen J Lye, Jelena Brkić, Chun Peng, Petter Höglund, B Anne Croy, S Lee Adamson, Xiao-Yan Wen, Duncan J Stewart, John Freedman, Heyu Ni
Miscarriage and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are devastating complications in fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). We previously reported the mechanisms for bleeding diatheses, but it is unknown whether placental, decidual immune cells or other abnormalities at the maternal-fetal interface contribute to FNAIT. Here we show that maternal immune responses to fetal platelet antigens cause miscarriage and IUGR that are associated with vascular and immune pathologies in murine FNAIT models...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794027/hiv-dna-adenovirus-multiclade-envelope-vaccine-induces-gp41-antibody-immunodominance-in-rhesus-macaques
#12
Qifeng Han, Wilton B Williams, Kevin O Saunders, Kelly E Seaton, Kevin J Wiehe, Nathan Vandergrift, Tarra Von Holle, Ashley M Trama, Robert J Parks, Kan Luo, Thaddeus C Gurley, Thomas B Kepler, Dawn J Marshall, David C Montefiori, Laura L Sutherland, Munir S Alam, John F Whitesides, Cindy Bowman, Sallie R Permar, Barney S Graham, John R Mascola, Patrick C Seed, Koen K A Van Rompay, Georgia D Tomaras, Michael A Moody, Barton F Haynes
Dominant antibody responses in vaccinees who received the multiclade (A, B and C) envelope (Env) DNA/rAd5 vaccine studied in the HIV-1 vaccine trials network (HVTN) efficacy trial 505 (HVTN 505), targeted Env gp41 and cross-reacted with microbial antigens. In this study, we asked if the DNA/rAd5 vaccine induced a similar antibody response in rhesus macaques (RMs) that are commonly used as an animal model for human HIV-1 infections and for testing candidate HIV-1 vaccines. We also asked if gp41 immunodominance could be avoided by immunization of neonatal RMs during the early stages of microbial colonization...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783687/group-b-streptococcus-circumvents-neutrophils-and-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-during-amniotic-cavity-invasion-and-preterm-labor
#13
Erica Boldenow, Claire Gendrin, Lisa Ngo, Craig Bierle, Jay Vornhagen, Michelle Coleman, Sean Merillat, Blair Armistead, Christopher Whidbey, Varchita Alishetti, Veronica Santana-Ufret, Jason Ogle, Michael Gough, Sengkeo Srinouanprachanh, James W MacDonald, Theo K Bammler, Aasthaa Bansal, H Denny Liggitt, Lakshmi Rajagopal, Kristina M Adams Waldorf
Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) is associated with most early preterm births, the temporal events that occur during MIAC and preterm labor are not known. Group B streptococci (GBS) are β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacteria, which commonly colonize the vagina but have been recovered from the amniotic fluid in preterm birth cases. To understand temporal events that occur during MIAC, we used a chronically catheterized nonhuman primate model that closely emulates human pregnancy...
October 14, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780644/immunopotentiator-thymosin-alpha-1-promotes-neurogenesis-and-cognition-in-the-developing-mouse-via-a-systemic-th1-bias
#14
Ge Wang, Fen He, Yunlong Xu, Yuwei Zhang, Xiao Wang, Chunhua Zhou, Yihong Huang, Juntao Zou
In early life, the immune system plays an essential role in brain development. In our study, the immunopotentiator thymosin alpha-1 (Ta1) was peripherally administered to neonatal mice to explore whether the peripheral immunopotentiator affects neurodevelopment and cognition, and to further investigate the relevant mechanism. Compared with the control group, the Ta1 mice displayed better cognitive abilities in early life. The numbers of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)+, nestin+, T-box transcription factor 2 (Tbr2)+, BrdU+/doublecortin (DCX)+, BrdU+/ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)+, and BrdU+/neuronal nuclei (NeuN)+ cells in the hippocampus were increased in the Ta1 group, accompanied by increased interleukin-4 (IL-4), interferon-gamma, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 as well as decreased IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α...
August 5, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774571/activation-of-neonatal-microglia-can-be-influenced-by-other-neural-cells
#15
Alexandra Turano, Jennifer H Lawrence, Jaclyn M Schwarz
During development, microglial progenitor cells migrate into the brain from the periphery, a process critical to the maturation of the developing brain. Although they perform functions similar to mature, adult microglia, immature microglia are distinct from mature microglia. Activation of immature microglia, via an early-life immune challenge, can lead to persistent changes in microglial function, resulting in long-term neuronal and cognitive dysfunction. Early-life immune activation is associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, ADHD, schizophrenia, and cerebral palsy - disorders with known or suspected immune etiologies, and strong sex biases for males...
July 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761416/neurological-consequences-of-systemic-inflammation-in-the-premature-neonate
#16
REVIEW
Aparna Patra, Hong Huang, John A Bauer, Peter J Giannone
Despite substantial progress in neonatal care over the past two decades leading to improved survival of extremely premature infants, extreme prematurity continues to be associated with long term neurodevelopmental impairments. Cerebral white matter injury is the predominant form of insult in preterm brain leading to adverse neurological consequences. Such brain injury pattern and unfavorable neurologic sequelae is commonly encountered in premature infants exposed to systemic inflammatory states such as clinical or culture proven sepsis with or without evidence of meningitis, prolonged mechanical ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis and chorioamnionitis...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760885/the-neonatal-fc-receptor-and-complement-fixation-facilitate-prophylactic-vaccine-mediated-humoral-protection-against-viral-infection-in-the-ocular-mucosa
#17
Derek J Royer, Meghan M Carr, Hem R Gurung, William P Halford, Daniel J J Carr
The capacity of licensed vaccines to protect the ocular surface against infection is limited. Common ocular pathogens, such as HSV-1, are increasingly recognized as major contributors to visual morbidity worldwide. Humoral immunity is an essential correlate of protection against HSV-1 pathogenesis and ocular pathology, yet the ability of Ab to protect against HSV-1 is deemed limited due to the slow IgG diffusion rate in the healthy cornea. We show that a live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine elicits humoral immune responses that are unparalleled by a glycoprotein subunit vaccine vis-à-vis Ab persistence and host protection...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753580/gnp-gapdh1-22-nanovaccines-prevent-neonatal-listeriosis-by-blocking-microglial-apoptosis-and-bacterial-dissemination
#18
Ricardo Calderon-Gonzalez, Elisabet Frande-Cabanes, Hector Teran-Navarro, José María Marimon, Javier Freire, David Salcines-Cuevas, M Carmen Fariñas, Claudia Gonzalez-Rico, Marco Marradi, Isabel Garcia, Mirian Alkorta-Gurrutxaga, Aida San Nicolas-Gomez, Ana Castañeda-San Pedro, Sonsoles Yañez-Diaz, Soledad Penades, Carmen Punzon, Javier Gomez-Roman, Fernando Rivera, Manuel Fresno, Carmen Alvarez-Dominguez
Clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis are associated with brain disease and fetal loss due to complications in early or late pregnancy, which suggests that microglial function is altered. This is believed to be the first study to link microglial apoptosis with neonatal listeriosis and listeriosis-associated brain disease, and to propose a new nanovaccine formulation that reverses all effects of listeriosis and confers Listeria monocytogenes (LM)-specific immunity. We examined clinical cases of neonatal listeriosis in 2013-2015 and defined two useful prognostic immune biomarkers to design listeriosis vaccines: high anti-GAPDH1-22 titres and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/interleukin (IL)-6 ratios...
July 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751453/maternal-modifiers-of-the-infant-gut-microbiota-metabolic-consequences
#19
Christopher M Mulligan, Jacob E Friedman
Transmission of metabolic diseases from mother to child is multifactorial and includes genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences. Evidence in rodents, humans and non-human primates support the scientific premise that exposure to maternal obesity or high-fat diet during pregnancy creates a long-lasting metabolic signature on the infant innate immune system and the juvenile microbiota which predisposes the offspring to obesity and metabolic diseases. In neonates, gastrointestinal microbes introduced through the mother are noted for their ability to serve as direct inducers/regulators of the infant immune system...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747343/the-development-of-steady-state-activation-hubs-between-adult-lti-ilc3s-and-primed-macrophages-in-small-intestine
#20
Adam K Savage, Hong-Erh Liang, Richard M Locksley
Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are important for intestinal health, particularly in controlling inflammation in response to epithelial dysregulation, but their role during homeostasis remains less well understood. We generated IL-22 reporter mice to assess production of this key cytokine by ILC3s in the small intestine during development and under basal conditions. Although IL-22 is produced by a variety of lymphocyte populations, constitutively high IL-22 expression was limited to lymphoid-tissue inducer (LTi) cells residing in lymph node-like structures in the gut called solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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