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neonatal immune response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908639/animal-models-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#1
Geraldine Taylor
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalisation of infants, worldwide, and is also responsible for significant morbidity in adults and excess deaths in the elderly. There is no licensed hRSV vaccine or effective therapeutic agent. However, there are a growing number of hRSV vaccine candidates that have been developed targeting different populations at risk of hRSV infection. Animal models of hRSV play an important role in the preclinical testing of hRSV vaccine candidates and although many have shown efficacy in preclinical studies, few have progressed to clinical trials or they have had only limited success...
November 29, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899925/increased-risk-of-group-b-streptococcus-invasive-infection-in-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-infants-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Nicolas Dauby, Mustapha Chamekh, Pierrette Melin, Amy L Slogrove, Tessa Goetghebuer
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895172/pulmonary-dendritic-cell-subsets-shape-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-specific-cd8-t-cell-immunodominance-hierarchy-in-neonates
#3
Allison M W Malloy, Tracy J Ruckwardt, Kaitlyn M Morabito, Annie W Lau-Kilby, Barney S Graham
Young infants are generally more susceptible to viral infections and experience more severe disease than do adults. CD8(+) T cells are important for viral clearance, and although often ineffective in neonates they can be protective when adequately stimulated. Using a murine CB6F1/J hybrid model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, we previously demonstrated that the CD8(+) T cell immunodominance hierarchy to two RSV-derived epitopes, K(d)M282-90 and D(b)M187-195, was determined by the age at infection...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894717/hepatitis-b-vaccine-alone-may-be-enough-for-preventing-hepatitis-b-virus-transmission-in-neonates-of-hbsag-hbeag-mothers
#4
Ying Lu, Xiao-Feng Liang, Fu-Zhen Wang, Ling Yan, Rong-Cheng Li, Yan-Ping Li, Feng-Cai Zhu, Xiang-Jun Zhai, Jie Li, Hui Zhuang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To prospectively evaluate the efficacy of vaccine alone compared with vaccine plus HBIG for preventing HBV transmission in neonates of HBsAg (+)/HBeAg (-) mothers. METHODS: Combined immunization is currently recommended for neonates of HBsAg (+) mothers in China. As a result, a randomized design is infeasible due to ethical reasons. In practice, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Jiangsu Province implement vaccine alone and vaccine plus HBIG strategies for neonates born to HBsAg (+)/HBeAg (-) mothers, respectively...
November 25, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890233/establishing-tolerance-to-commensal-skin-bacteria-timing-is-everything
#5
REVIEW
Tiffany C Scharschmidt
Commensal bacteria live intimately and in constant dialogue with skin immune cells. Regulating our immune response to these bacteria is critical for skin homeostasis. Using a new murine model to track Staphylococcus epidermidis-specific T cells, we found that colonization during neonatal but not adult life led to S.epidermidis-specific immune tolerance. This tolerance protected against skin inflammation and was mediated by a wave of regulatory T cells entering neonatal skin. These findings provide new insight into how we establish a healthy symbiosis with commensal microbes and highlight avenues for future research to identify novel therapies for inflammatory skin disease...
January 2017: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885575/administration-of-huperzia-quadrifariata-extract-a-cholinesterase-inhibitory-alkaloid-mixture-has-neuroprotective-effects-in-a-rat-model-of-cerebral-hypoxia-ischemia
#6
F K Odorcyk, E F Sanches, F C Nicola, J Moraes, L F Pettenuzzo, J Kolling, C Siebert, A Longoni, E L Konrath, A Wyse, C A Netto
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is an etiologic component of several neurologic pathologies associated to cognitive impairment. The mechanisms involved in HI-induced tissue damage start immediately after HI and extend for days. Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and exerts a protector effect on tissue damage by modulating inflammation, and cholinesterase inhibitors have shown neuroprotective properties and their action are often attributed to inhibition of the immune response...
November 24, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884010/less-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-in-term-newborns-than-in-adults
#7
Patrick Lipp, Johanna Ruhnau, Anja Lange, Antje Vogelgesang, Alexander Dressel, Matthias Heckmann
BACKGROUND: Newborns are prone to infections, which are independent predictors of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are structures composed of chromatin and antimicrobial molecules that capture and kill pathogens. NETs may play an important role in the innate immune system and, thus, might be associated with impaired neonatal immune function. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare NET formation between term neonates and healthy adults...
November 25, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871914/neonatal-levels-of-adiponectin-interleukin-10-and-interleukin-12-are-associated-with-the-risk-of-developing-type-1-diabetes-in-childhood-and-adolescence-a-nationwide-danish-case-control-study
#8
Steffen U Thorsen, Christian B Pipper, Stefanie Eising, Kristin Skogstrand, David M Hougaard, Jannet Svensson, Flemming Pociot
BACKGROUND/AIM: An in-depth understanding of the early phase of type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis is important for targeting primary prevention. We examined if 14 preselected mediators of immune responses differed in neonates that later developed T1D compared to control neonates. METHODS: The study is a case-control study with a 1:2 matching. The individuals were born between 1981 through 2002. Cases were validated using the National Patient Register and the Danish Childhood Diabetes Register...
November 15, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870876/reduced-picd-in-monocytes-mounts-altered-neonate-immune-response-to-candida-albicans
#9
Stephan Dreschers, Peter Saupp, Mathias Hornef, Andrea Prehn, Christopher Platen, Joachim Morschhäuser, Thorsten W Orlikowsky
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections with Candida albicans (C. albicans) occur frequently in extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants and are associated with poor outcome. Phagocytosis of C.albicans initializes apoptosis in monocytes (phagocytosis induced cell death, PICD). PICD is reduced in neonatal cord blood monocytes (CBMO). HYPOTHESIS: Phagocytosis of C. albicans causes PICD which differs between neonatal monocytes (CBMO) and adult peripheral blood monocytes (PBMO) due to lower stimulation of TLR-mediated immune responses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870827/augmented-th17-type-immune-responses-in-preterm-neonates-exposed-to-histologic-chorioamnionitis
#10
Daniel C Rito, Luke T Viehl, Paula M Buchanan, Seema Haridas, Joyce M Koenig
BACKGROUND: Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) is a placental inflammatory disorder that frequently precedes preterm delivery. HCA increases risk for long-standing inflammatory injury and may influence immune programming, particularly in preterm (PT) neonates. We hypothesized that HCA exposure is associated with an increased circulating frequency of pro-inflammatory, Th17-type responses. METHODS: Placental cord blood was collected from HCA-exposed or control neonates (23-41 weeks gestation)...
November 21, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869384/-atypical-mucocutaneous-manifestations-in-neonates-and-infants-with-chikungunya-fever-in-the-municipalities-of-c%C3%A3%C2%BAcuta-los-patios-and-villa-del-rosario-norte-de-santander-colombia-2014
#11
Claudia Marcela Muñoz, José Orlando Castillo, Daniela Salas, Milena Alexandra Valderrama, Claudia Teresa Rangel, Heiddy Patricia Vargas, Diana Carolina Silva
INTRODUCTION: Atypical clinical manifestations have been observed in newborns and infants suffering from fever caused by the chikungunya virus. Objective: To describe the cases of fever caused by the chikungunya virus in newborns and infants with atypical mucocutaneous lesions. Materials and methods: We reviewed the clinical records, as well as lab tests and histopathological results, of newborns and infants diagnosed with Chikungunya virus and atypical mucocutaneous lesions in three regional hospitals...
September 1, 2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865947/immune-responses-in-perinatal-brain-injury
#12
Jacqueline C Y Lai, Eridan Rocha-Ferreira, C Joakim Ek, Xiaoyang Wang, Henrik Hagberg, Carina Mallard
The perinatal period has often been described as immune deficient. However, it has become clear that immune responses in the neonate following exposure to microbes or as a result of tissue injury may be substantial and play a role in perinatal brain injury. In this article we will review the immune cell composition under normal physiological conditions in the perinatal period, both in the human and rodent. We will summarize evidence of the inflammatory responses to stimuli and discuss how neonatal immune activation, both in the central nervous system and in the periphery, may contribute to perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury...
November 16, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863538/in-vivo-relevance-of-polymorphic-interleukin-8-promoter-haplotype-for-the-systemic-immune-response-to-lps-in-holstein-friesian-calves
#13
Bojan Stojkovic, Rachel M McLoughlin, Kieran G Meade
Interleukin 8, also known as CXC chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), is a critical chemokine in the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of infection and is a potent mediator of inflammation. We previously discovered 29 polymorphic sites in the promoter region of the bovine Interleukin 8 gene, which segregate into two distinct haplotypes, denoted IL8-h1 and IL8-h2. Population genetic analysis of these two haplotypes showed significant inter-breed differences in haplotype frequency, which is suggestive of selection acting at this locus...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863161/hla-dr-polymorphisms-influence-in-vivo-responses-to-staphylococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-toxin-1-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model
#14
A Krogman, A Tilahun, C S David, V R Chowdhary, M P Alexander, G Rajagopalan
Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) is a potent superantigen produced by Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to menstrual and nonmenstrual toxic shock syndromes, TSST-1 is also implicated in the immunopathogenesis of pneumonia, infective endocarditis, neonatal exanthematous disease, and atopic dermatitis among others. Superantigens first bind to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and then activate a large proportion of T cells by cross-linking their T cell receptor. As binding to MHC class II molecules is a critical step in the robust activation of the immune system by TSST-1 and other superantigens, polymorphic variations between different HLA-DR alleles could potentially influence the magnitude of immune activation and immunopathology caused by TSST-1...
November 15, 2016: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861499/maternal-filarial-infection-influences-the-development-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-children-from-infancy-to-early-childhood
#15
Madhusmita Bal, Manoranjan Ranjit, K Gopinath Achary, Ashok K Satapathy
BACKGROUND: Children born from filarial infected mothers are comparatively more susceptible to filarial infection than the children born to uninfected mothers. But the mechanism of such increased susceptibility to infection in early childhood is not exactly known. Several studies have shown the association of active filarial infection with T cell hypo-responsiveness which is mediated by regulatory T cells (Tregs). Since the Tregs develop in the thymus from CD4+ CD25hi thymocytes at an early stage of the human fetus, it can be hypothesized that the maternal infection during pregnancy affects the development of Tregs in children at birth as well as early childhood...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859498/the-srl-peptide-of-rhesus-rotavirus-vp4-protein-governs-cholangiocyte-infection-and-the-murine-model-of-biliary-atresia
#16
Sujit K Mohanty, Bryan Donnelly, Inna Lobeck, Ashley Walther, Phylicia Dupree, Abigail Coots, Jaroslaw Meller, Monica McNeal, Karol Sestak, Greg Tiao
: Biliary atresia (BA) is a neonatal obstructive cholangiopathy which progresses to end stage liver disease, often requiring transplantation. The murine model of BA, employing rhesus rotavirus (RRV), parallels human disease and has been used to elucidate mechanistic aspects of a virus induced biliary cholangiopathy. We previously reported that RRV VP4 gene plays an integral role in activating the immune system and induction of BA. Utilizing rotavirus binding and blocking assays, this study elucidated how RRV VP4 protein governs cholangiocyte susceptibility to infection both in vitro and in vivo in the murine model of BA...
November 17, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855206/zika-prvabc59-infection-is-associated-with-t-cell-infiltration-and-neurodegeneration-in-cns-of-immunocompetent-neonatal-c57bl-6-mice
#17
Mohanraj Manangeeswaran, Derek D C Ireland, Daniela Verthelyi
The recent spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its association with increased rates of Guillain Barre and other neurological disorders as well as congenital defects that include microcephaly has created an urgent need to develop animal models to examine the pathogenesis of the disease and explore the efficacy of potential therapeutics and vaccines. Recently developed infection models for ZIKV utilize mice defective in interferon responses. In this study we establish and characterize a new model of peripheral ZIKV infection using immunocompetent neonatal C57BL/6 mice and compare its clinical progression, virus distribution, immune response, and neuropathology with that of C57BL/6-IFNAR KO mice...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851975/cd8-t-cells-from-human-neonates-are-biased-toward-an-innate-immune-response
#18
Ariel O Galindo-Albarrán, Oscar H López-Portales, Darely Y Gutiérrez-Reyna, Otoniel Rodríguez-Jorge, José Antonio Sánchez-Villanueva, Oscar Ramírez-Pliego, Aurélie Bergon, Béatrice Loriod, Hélène Holota, Jean Imbert, Armando Hernández-Mendoza, Pierre Ferrier, Enrique Carrillo-de Santa Pau, Alfonso Valencia, Salvatore Spicuglia, M Angélica Santana
To better understand why human neonates show a poor response to intracellular pathogens, we compared gene expression and histone modification profiles of neonatal naive CD8(+) T cells with that of their adult counterparts. We found that neonatal lymphocytes have a distinct epigenomic landscape associated with a lower expression of genes involved in T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and cytotoxicity and a higher expression of genes involved in the cell cycle and innate immunity. Functional studies corroborated that neonatal CD8(+) T cells are less cytotoxic, transcribe antimicrobial peptides, and produce reactive oxygen species...
November 15, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833043/efficient-generation-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-like-cells-from-the-mouse-gallbladder
#19
Yuhan Wang, Feorillo Galivo, Carl Pelz, Annelise Haft, Jonghyeob Lee, Seung K Kim, Markus Grompe
Direct reprogramming is a promising approach for the replacement of β cells in diabetes. Reprogramming of cells originating from the endodermal lineage, such as acinar cells in the pancreas, liver cells and gallbladder cells has been of particular interest because of their developmental proximity to β cells. Our previous work showed that mouse gallbladder epithelium can be partially reprogrammed in vitro to generate islet-like cells (rGBC1). Here, the reprogramming protocol was substantially improved, yielding cells (rGBC2) closer to functional β cells than the 1st generation method with higher conversion efficiency and insulin expression...
October 27, 2016: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830761/delayed-development-of-systemic-immunity-in-preterm-pigs-as-a-model-for-preterm-infants
#20
Duc Ninh Nguyen, Pingping Jiang, Hanne Frøkiær, Peter M H Heegaard, Thomas Thymann, Per T Sangild
Preterm neonates are highly sensitive to systemic infections in early life but little is known about systemic immune development following preterm birth. We hypothesized that preterm neonates have immature systemic immunity with distinct developmental trajectory for the first several weeks of life, relative to those born at near-term or term. Using pigs as a model, we characterized blood leukocyte subsets, antimicrobial activities and TLR-mediated cytokine production during the first weeks after preterm birth...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
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