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neonatal immune response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648878/protective-effect-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-dsm-17938-against-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis-is-mediated-by-toll-like-receptor-2
#1
Thomas K Hoang, Baokun He, Ting Wang, Dat Q Tran, Jon Marc Rhoads, Yuying Liu
Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (LR 17938) has been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). It is unclear if preventing NEC by LR 17938 is mediated by toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which is known to mediate pro-inflammatory responses to bacterial cell wall components. NEC was induced in newborn TLR2-/- or WT mice by the combination of gavage-feeding cow milk-based formula and exposure to hypoxia and cold stress. Treatment groups were administered formula supplemented with LR 17938 or placebo (MRS media)...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642829/-infecting-glial-cells-with-antimony-resistant-leishmania-tropica-a-new-ex-vivo-model
#2
Orçun Zorbozan, Mehmet Harman, Vedat Evren, Mümin Alper Erdoğan, Aslı Kılavuz, Varol Tunalı, İbrahim Çavuş, Özlem Yılmaz, Ahmet Özbilgin, Nevin Turgay
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that shows different clinical features like cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral and viscerotropic forms. The protocols used in the treatment of leishmaniasis are toxic and have many limitations during administration. One of the limitations of treatment is the resistance against the protocols in practice. There is also a need to define new treatment options especially for resistant patients. Ex-vivo models using primary cell cultures may be a good source for evaluating new drug options in patients with antimony resistance, in addition to in-vitro and in-vivo studies...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615676/silent-infection-of-human-dendritic-cells-by-african-and-asian-strains-of-zika-virus
#3
Nathalie J Vielle, Beatrice Zumkehr, Obdulio García-Nicolás, Fabian Blank, Miloš Stojanov, Didier Musso, David Baud, Artur Summerfield, Marco P Alves
While Zika virus (ZIKV) circulated for decades (African lineage strains) without report of outbreaks and severe complications, its emergence in French Polynesia and subsequently in the Americas (Asian lineage strains) was associated with description of severe neurological defects in newborns/neonates and adults. With the aim to identify virus lineage-dependent factors, we compared cell susceptibility, virus replication, cell death and innate immune responses following infection with two African and three contemporary Asian lineage strains of ZIKV...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601943/lung-injury-depresses-glutamatergic-synaptic-transmission-in-the-nucleus-tractus-solitarii-via-discrete-age-dependent-mechanisms-in-neonatal-rats
#4
David G Litvin, Thomas E Dick, Corey B Smith, Frank J Jacono
Transition periods (TPs) are brief stages in CNS development where neural circuits can exhibit heightened vulnerability to pathologic conditions such as injury or infection. This susceptibility is due in part to specialized mechanisms of synaptic plasticity, which may become activated by inflammatory mediators released under pathologic conditions. Thus, we hypothesized that the immune response to lung injury (LI) mediated synaptic changes through plasticity-like mechanisms that depended on whether LI occurred just before or after a TP...
March 27, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590206/worldwide-increased-prevalence-of-human-adenovirus-type-3-hadv-3-respiratory-infections-is-well-correlated-with-heterogeneous-hypervariable-regions-hvrs-of-hexon
#5
Ezazul Haque, Urmila Banik, Tahmina Monwar, Leela Anthony, Arun Kumar Adhikary
Human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3) respiratory infections occurs worldwide in both children and adults, leading to severe morbidity and mortality, particularly in the paediatric age group and especially in neonates. During HAdV infection, neutralizing antibodies are formed against the epitopes located in the hyper variable regions (HVRs) of the hexon protein. These neutralizing antibodies provide protection against reinfection by viruses of the same type. Therefore it is reasonable to speculate that variations of HAdV-3 in the HVRs could impair the immunity acquired by previous infection with a different strain with variation in its HVRs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587528/diet-dependent-changes-in-the-intestinal-dna-methylome-after-introduction-of-enteral-feeding-in-preterm-pigs
#6
Xiaoyu Pan, Desheng Gong, Fei Gao, Per Torp Sangild
AIM: To examine how enteral feeding affects the intestinal epigenome and gene expression just after preterm birth. MATERIALS & METHODS: Intestinal tissue from preterm pigs, modeling preterm infants, was collected at birth and 5 days after gradual introduction of infant formula or bovine colostrum. The intestinal tissue was analyzed by reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and real-time qPCR. RESULTS: Relative to colostrum, formula increased bacterial epithelial adherence and LBP (lipopolysaccharide binding protein) expression, which was regulated by promoter methylation...
March 28, 2018: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577494/placenta-immune-infiltrates-and-perinatal-outcomes
#7
Maide Ozen, Christopher Novak, Irina Burd
Pregnancy is a state of immunotolerance and loss of this immunotolerance may lead to fetal rejection, pregnancy complications, and neonatal complications. Immunobiology of pregnancy is complex and involves unique immune cell populations specific to pregnancy, changes in mucosal immune cells and peripheral immune system, and reciprocal adaptations between the mother and the fetus. The mechanisms required for sustaining a healthy feto-placental barrier and a healthy pregnancy such as activation of regulatory immune responses with a predominance of regulatory T cells lead to immune evasion and propagation of cancer...
March 25, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573878/long-term-immunity-to-hepatitis-b-following-vaccination-in-infancy-real-world-data-analysis
#8
Gil Klinger, Gabriel Chodick, Itzhak Levy
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination has decreased the prevalence of chronic HBV infections and their sequelae. However, whether vaccination at birth provides lifelong protection is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term immunity following neonatal HBV immunization in a large population-based cohort. METHODS: Using the database of a 2 million member sick fund in Israel, we identified all subjects born after introduction of universal HBV vaccination in Israel (January 1992 through December 2014), that were tested for hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs Ab's)...
April 19, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569542/innate-differences-and-colostrum-induced-alterations-of-jejunal-mucosal-proteins-in-piglets-with-intra-uterine-growth-restriction
#9
Xiaoqiu Wang, Yuhua Zhu, Cuiping Feng, Gang Lin, Guoyao Wu, Defa Li, Junjun Wang
Mammalian neonates undergo rapid transitions from a sterile uterine environment with a continuous intravenous supply of nutrients to a microbe-rich environment with intermittent ingesting of colostrum/milk via the gut. Currently, little is known about the colostrum-induced alterations of intestinal mucosal proteins in piglets with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). In this study, we sought to investigate the innate differences and effects of colostrum on alterations in small-intestinal proteomes of IUGR piglets...
April 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562949/the-developing-gut-microbiota-and-its-consequences-for-health
#10
M-J Butel, A-J Waligora-Dupriet, S Wydau-Dematteis
The developmental origin of health and disease highlights the importance of the period of the first 1000 days (from the conception to the 2 years of life). The process of the gut microbiota establishment is included in this time window. Various perinatal determinants, such as cesarean section delivery, type of feeding, antibiotics treatment, gestational age or environment, can affect the pattern of bacterial colonization and result in dysbiosis. The alteration of the early bacterial gut pattern can persist over several months and may have long-lasting functional effects with an impact on disease risk later in life...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558521/ureaplasma-isolates-stimulate-pro-inflammatory-cc-chemokines-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-in-neonatal-and-adult-monocytes
#11
Kirsten Glaser, Christine Silwedel, Markus Fehrholz, Birgit Henrich, Ana Maria Waaga-Gasser, Heike Claus, Christian P Speer
Being generally regarded as commensal bacteria, the pro-inflammatory capacity of Ureaplasma species has long been debated. Recently, we confirmed Ureaplasma-driven pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and a disturbance of cytokine equilibrium in primary human monocytes in vitro. The present study addressed the expression of CC chemokines and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in purified term neonatal and adult monocytes stimulated with serovar 8 of Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) and serovar 3 of U. parvum (Up)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555549/neonatal-porcine-blood-derived-dendritic-cells-subsets-show-activation-after-tlr2-or-tlr9-stimulation
#12
Sandra Vreman, Gael Auray, Huub F J Savelkoul, Annemarie Rebel, Artur Summerfield, Norbert Stockhofe-Zurwieden
The present study investigated the innate immune response in vitro to determine porcine neonate responses with Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 ligand (Pam3Cys) or TLR9 ligand (CpG) and compare these with adults. We identified the same phenotypically defined dendritic cells (DC) subsets and DC proportions in porcine neonate and adult blood by flow cytometry, which were plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs): CD14- CD4+ CD172a+ CADM1- ) and conventional DCs (cDCs), the latter being further divided into a cDC1 (CD14- CD4- CD172alow CADM1+ ) and a cDC2 (CD14- CD4- CD172a+ CADM1+ ) subset...
March 16, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552016/-in-utero-exposure-to-exosomal-and-b-cell-alloantigens-lessens-alloreactivity-of-recipients-lymphocytes-rather-than-confers-allograft-tolerance
#13
Jeng-Chang Chen, Liang-Shiou Ou, Cheng-Chi Chan, Ming-Ling Kuo, Li-Yun Tseng, Hsueh-Ling Chang
According to actively acquired tolerance, antigen exposure before full immune development in fetal or early neonatal life will cause tolerance to this specific antigen. In this study, we aimed to examine whether allogeneic tolerance could be elicited by in utero exposure to surface MHC antigens of allogenic cells or soluble form of MHC exosomes. Gestational day 14 FVB/N fetuses were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exosomes or highly enriched B-cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543547/a-phase-4-multicentre-randomized-single-blind-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-the-immunogenicity-of-the-live-attenuated-oral-rotavirus-vaccine-116e-rotavac%C3%A2-administered-simultaneously-with-or-without-the-buffering-agent-in-healthy-infants-in-india
#14
Raches Ella, Radhika Bobba, Sanjay Muralidhar, Sudhir Babji, Krishna Mohan Vadrevu, Maharaj Kishan Bhan
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends that rotavirus vaccines should be included in all national immunization programs. Some currently licensed oral rotavirus vaccines contain a buffering agent (either as part of a ready-to-use liquid formulation or added during reconstitution) to reduce possible degradation of the vaccine virus in the infant gut, which poses several programmatic challenges (the large dose volume or the reconstitution requirement) during vaccine administration...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541075/overcoming-the-neonatal-limitations-of-inducing-germinal-centers-through-liposome-based-adjuvants-including-c-type-lectin-agonists-trehalose-dibehenate-or-curdlan
#15
Maria Vono, Christiane Sigrid Eberhardt, Elodie Mohr, Floriane Auderset, Dennis Christensen, Mirco Schmolke, Rhea Coler, Andreas Meinke, Peter Andersen, Paul-Henri Lambert, Beatris Mastelic-Gavillet, Claire-Anne Siegrist
Neonates and infants are more vulnerable to infections and show reduced responses to vaccination. Consequently, repeated immunizations are required to induce protection and early life vaccines against major pathogens such as influenza are yet unavailable. Formulating antigens with potent adjuvants, including immunostimulators and delivery systems, is a demonstrated approach to enhance vaccine efficacy. Yet, adjuvants effective in adults may not meet the specific requirements for activating the early life immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540670/decreased-autophagy-induced-by-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptor-autoantibodies-contributes-to-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis
#16
Li Wang, Yang Li, Na Ning, Jin Wang, Zi Yan, Suli Zhang, Xiangying Jiao, Xiaohui Wang, Huirong Liu
It has been recognized that myocardial apoptosis is one major factor in the development of heart dysfunction and autophagy has been shown to influence the apoptosis. In previous studies, we reported that anti-β1 -adrenergic receptor autoantibodies (β1 -AABs) decreased myocardial autophagy, but the role of decreased autophagy in cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains unclear. In the present study, we used a β1 -AAB-immunized rat model to investigate the role of decreased autophagy in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. We reported that the level of autophagic flux increased early and then decreased in an actively β1 -AAB-immunized rat model...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533486/exposure-to-chorioamnionitis-alters-the-monocyte-transcriptional-response-to-the-neonatal-pathogen-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#17
Emma de Jong, David G Hancock, Christine Wells, Peter Richmond, Karen Simmer, David Burgner, Tobias Strunk, Andrew J Currie
Preterm infants are uniquely susceptible to late-onset sepsis that is frequently caused by the skin commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis. Innate immune responses, particularly from monocytes, are a key protective mechanism. Impaired cytokine production by preterm infant monocytes is well described, but few studies have comprehensively assessed the corresponding monocyte transcriptional response. Innate immune responses in preterm infants may be modulated by inflammation such as prenatal exposure to histologic chorioamnionitis which complicates 40-70% of preterm pregnancies...
March 13, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532452/hepcidin-an-iron-regulatory-hormone-of-innate-immunity-is-differentially-expressed-in-premature-fetuses-with-early-onset-neonatal-sepsis
#18
Sammy M Tabbah, Catalin S Buhimschi, Katherine Rodewald-Millen, Christopher R Pierson, Vineet Bhandari, Philip Samuels, Irina A Buhimschi
OBJECTIVE:  Hepcidin, a mediator of innate immunity, binds the iron exporter ferroportin, leading to functional hypoferremia through intracellular iron sequestration. We explored hepcidin-ferroportin interactions in neonates clinically diagnosed with early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS). STUDY DESIGN:  Hepcidin and interleukin (IL)-6 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 92 paired cord blood-maternal blood samples in the following groups: "Yes" EONS ( n  = 41, gestational age [GA] 29 ± 1 weeks) and "No" EONS ( n  = 51, GA 26 ± 1 weeks)...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524486/in-silico-prediction-of-active-site-and-in-vitro-dnase-and-rnase-activities-of-helicoverpa-inducible-pathogenesis-related-4-protein-from-cicer-arietinum
#19
Archana Singh, Deepti Jain, Chetna Tyagi, Sujata Singh, Sumit Kumar, Indrakant K Singh
Plants are endowed with an innate immune system, which enables them to protect themselves from pest and pathogen. The participation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins is one of the most crucial events of inducible plant defense response. Herein, we report the characterization of CaHaPR-4, a Helicoverpa-inducible class II PR-4 protein from chickpea. Bioinformatic analysis of CaHaPR-4 protein indicated the presence of a signal peptide, barwin domain but it lacks the chitin-binding site/hevein domain. The recombinant CaHaPR-4 is bestowed with RNase and bivalent ion-dependent DNase activity...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520354/group-b-streptococcal-maternal-colonization-and-neonatal-disease-molecular-mechanisms-and-preventative-approaches
#20
REVIEW
Kathryn A Patras, Victor Nizet
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonizes the gastrointestinal and vaginal epithelium of a significant percentage of healthy women, with potential for ascending intrauterine infection or transmission during parturition, creating a risk of serious disease in the vulnerable newborn. This review highlights new insights on the bacterial virulence determinants, host immune responses, and microbiome interactions that underpin GBS vaginal colonization, the proximal step in newborn infectious disease pathogenesis. From the pathogen perspective, the function GBS adhesins and biofilms, β-hemolysin/cytolysin toxin, immune resistance factors, sialic acid mimicry, and two-component transcriptional regulatory systems are reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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