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neonatal immune response

Pooja Arora, Monika Malik, Ruchi Sachdeva, Latika Saxena, Joy Das, Vishnampettai G Ramachandran, Rahul Pal
While apoptotic debris is believed to constitute the original antigenic insult in lupus (which is characterized by a time-dependent diversification of autoreactivity), whether such debris and autoantibodies specifically recognizing its constituents, mediate differential effects on innate and humoral responses in lupus-prone mice is currently unknown. Apoptotic blebs (as opposed to cellular lysate), preferentially enhanced the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) from bone marrow precursors drawn from lupus-prone mice...
October 26, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
M M Broadney, N Chahal, K A Michels, A C McLain, A Ghassabian, D A Lawrence, E H Yeung
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Maternal obesity may influence neonatal and childhood morbidities through increased inflammation and/or altered immune response. Less is known about paternal obesity. We hypothesized that excessive parental weight contributes to elevated inflammation and altered immunoglobulin (Ig) profiles in neonates. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In the Upstate KIDS Study maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was obtained from vital records and paternal BMI from maternal report...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Wang-Dong Zhang, Wen-Hui Wang, Shu-Xian Li, Shuai Jia, Xue-Feng Zhang, Ting-Ting Cao
BACKGROUND: The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays a crucial role in transporting IgG and associated antigens across polarized epithelial barriers in mucosal immunity. However, it was not clear that FcRn expression in aggregated lymphoid nodules area (ALNA) in abomasum, a unique and important mucosal immune structure discovered only in Bactrian camels. In the present study, 27 Alashan Bactrian camels were divided into the following five age groups: fetus (10-13 months of gestation), young (1-2 years), pubertal (3-5 years), middle-aged (6-16 years) and old (17-20 years)...
October 20, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Akimune Kaga, Hiroshi Watanabe, Hiroki Miyabayashi, Takaya Metoki, Setsuko Kitaoka, Satoru Kumaki
Neonatal toxic shock syndrome-like exanthematous disease (NTED) is a newly recognized neonatal infectious disease, caused by the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). TSST-1 is mainly produced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the immune responses to TSST-1 are known to cause toxic shock syndrome, a life-threatening infectious disease. The clinical symptoms of NTED are skin rash, fever, and thrombocytopenia, but severe thrombocytopenia is rare in term infants with NTED. Although the cause of NTED is the same as that of toxic shock syndrome, the clinical symptoms of NTED are milder than toxic shock syndrome...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Jan Bonhoeffer, Sonali Kochhar, Steven Hirschfeld, Paul T Heath, Christine E Jones, Jorgen Bauwens, Ángel Honrado, Ulrich Heininger, Flor M Muñoz, Linda Eckert, Mark Steinhoff, Steven Black, Michael Padula, Miriam Sturkenboom, Jim Buttery, Robert Pless, Patrick Zuber
Immunization in pregnancy provides a promising contribution to globally reducing neonatal and under-five childhood mortality and morbidity. Thorough assessment of benefits and risks for the primarily healthy pregnant women and their unborn babies is required. The GAIA project was formed in response to the call of the World Health Organization for a globally concerted approach to actively monitor the safety of vaccines and immunization in pregnancy programs. GAIA aims to improve the quality of outcome data from clinical vaccine trials in pregnant women with a specific focus on the needs and requirements for safety monitoring in LMIC...
October 14, 2016: Vaccine
Siyang Yan, Amanda C Kentner
Exposure to painful procedures and/or stressors during the early neonatal period can reprogram the underlying neurocircuitry involved in nociception and neuropathic pain perception. The reprogramming of these systems can result in an enduring elevation in sensitivity towards mechanical and thermal stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to mild inflammatory mediators during the neonatal period can induce similar pain responses in both adolescent and adult rats. Therefore, we sought to profile changes in the expression of several genes across brain areas involved in the active modulation of nociception and neuropathic pain using a well-recognized model of neonatal inflammation...
October 11, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Fiona Brigid McDonald, Kumaran Chandrasekharan, Richard J A Wilson, Shabih U Hasan
Maternal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure exhibits a strong epidemiological association with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome but other environmental stressors, including infection, hyperthermia and hypoxia have also been postulated as important risk factors. This study examines if maternal CS exposure causes maladaptations within homeostatic control networks by influencing the response to lipopolysaccharide, heat stress and/or hypoxia in neonatal rats. Pregnant dams were exposed to CS or parallel sham treatments daily for the length of gestation...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Diptika Tiwari, Purabi Deka Bose, Rizwana Sultana, Chandana Ray Das, Sujoy Bose
Preterm delivery (PTD) is one of the potent contributor of neonatal mortality and morbidity, and the underlying cause in some situation is elusive. This study attempts to delineate the association of deregulation in progesterone receptor (PR) pathway and deleterious immune responses in predisposing patients to PTD in Northeast India, a region with high rate of PTD cases. A total of 109 cases of PTD and 100 term delivery cases were enrolled with all clinical details. The PTD cases were stratified based on gestation age at delivery...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Mary Prahl, Prasanna Jagannathan, Tara I McIntyre, Ann Auma, Lila Farrington, Samuel Wamala, Mayimuna Nalubega, Kenneth Musinguzi, Kate Naluwu, Esther Sikyoma, Rachel Budker, Hilary Vance, Pamela Odorizzi, Patience Nayebare, John Ategeka, Abel Kakuru, Diane V Havlir, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Margaret E Feeney
BACKGROUND: In malaria-endemic areas, the first exposure to malaria antigens often occurs in utero when the fetal immune system is poised towards the development of tolerance. Children exposed to placental malaria have an increased risk of clinical malaria in the first few years of life compared to unexposed children. Recent work has suggested the potential of pregnancy-associated malaria to induce immune tolerance in children living in malaria-endemic areas. A study was completed to evaluate the effect of malaria exposure during pregnancy on fetal immune tolerance and effector responses...
October 7, 2016: Malaria Journal
Maria E Stålhammar, Lena Douhan Håkansson, Anders Jonzon, Richard Sindelar
BACKGROUND: A prerequisite for an effective innate immunity is the migrative ability of neutrophils to respond to inflammatory and infectious agents such as the intermediate interleukin (IL)-8 and the end-target formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) chemoattractants. The aim was to study the chemotactic capacity of neutrophils from newborn infants and adults in response to IL-8 and the bacterial peptide fMLP. METHODS: In the under-agarose cell migration assay, isolated leukocytes from healthy adults and from cord blood of healthy term newborn infants were studied with dose responses towards IL-8 and fMLP...
October 3, 2016: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
Claire Dossier, Agnès Jamin, Georges Deschênes
Steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome is marked by a massive proteinuria and loss of podocytes foot processes. The mechanism of the disease remains debated but recent publications suggest a primary role of EBV. EBV replication in the peripheral blood is found in 50% of patients during the first flare of the disease. The genetic locus of steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome was also identified as influencing antibodies directed against EBNA1. EBV is able to establish, latent benign infection in memory B cells that display phenotypes similar to antigen-selected memory B cells...
September 28, 2016: Pediatric Research
Zachary M Parker, Tracy Jo Pasieka, George A Parker, David A Leib
: The interferon (IFN) response to viral pathogens is critical for host survival. In humans and mouse models, defects in IFN responses can result in lethal herpes simplex type-1 (HSV-1) infections, usually from encephalitis. Although rare, HSV-1 can also cause fulminant hepatic failure which is often fatal. While herpes simplex encephalitis has been extensively studied, HSV-1 generalized infections and subsequent acute liver failure are less well understood. We previously demonstrated that IFNαβγR(-/-) mice are exquisitely susceptible to liver infection following corneal infection with HSV-1...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
Jennifer R Bermick, Nathalie J Lambrecht, Aaron D denDekker, Steven L Kunkel, Nicholas W Lukacs, Cory M Hogaboam, Matthew A Schaller
BACKGROUND: Neonates have dampened expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and difficulty clearing pathogens. This makes them uniquely susceptible to infections, but the factors regulating neonatal-specific immune responses are poorly understood. Epigenetics, including histone modifications, can activate or silence gene transcription by modulating chromatin structure and stability without affecting the DNA sequence itself and are potentially modifiable. Histone modifications are known to regulate immune cell differentiation and function in adults but have not been well studied in neonates...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Qianjin Feng, Yaqing He, Jiahai Lu
BACKGROUND Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the main causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), and the development of a safe and effective vaccine has been a top priority among CA16 researchers. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, we developed a Pichia pastoris yeast system for secretory expression of the virus-like particles (VLPs) for CA16 by co-expression of the P1 and 3CD proteins of CA16. SDS-PAGE, Western blot, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed to identify the formation of VLPs...
September 23, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Bettina Mavrommatis, Lucie Baudino, Prisca Levy, Julia Merkenschlager, Urszula Eksmond, Tiziano Donnarumma, George Young, Jonathan Stoye, George Kassiotis
Elucidation of the immune requirements for control or elimination of retroviral infection remains an important aim. We studied the induction of adaptive immunity to neonatal infection with a murine retrovirus, under conditions leading to immunological tolerance. We found that the absence of either maternal or offspring adaptive immunity permitted efficient vertical transmission of the retrovirus. Maternal immunodeficiency allowed the retrovirus to induce central Th cell tolerance in the infected offspring. In turn, this compromised the offspring's ability to mount a protective Th cell-dependent B cell response...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Holger W Unger, Per Ashorn, Jordan E Cates, Kathryn G Dewey, Stephen J Rogerson
BACKGROUND: In low-resource settings, malaria and macronutrient undernutrition are major health problems in pregnancy, contributing significantly to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. Affected pregnancies may result in stillbirth and neonatal death, and surviving children are at risk of poor growth and infection in infancy, and of non-communicable diseases in adulthood. Populations exposed to macronutrient undernutrition frequently reside in malaria-endemic areas, and seasonal peaks of low food supply and malaria transmission tend to coincide...
2016: BMC Medicine
Celine S Lages, Julia Simmons, Avery Maddox, Keaton Jones, Rebekah Karns, Rachel Sheridan, Shiva Kumar Shanmukhappa, Sujit Mohanty, Matthew Kofron, Pierre Russo, Yui-Hsi Wang, Claire Chougnet, Alexander G Miethke
: Biliary atresia is a fibroinflammatory obstruction of the extrahepatic biliary tree in neonates. While intrahepatic bile duct proliferation is universal at diagnosis, bile duct paucity develops later. We hypothesized that polarized T helper lymphocyte responses orchestrate progression of intrahepatic biliary injury in this disease. IL-17A-GFP, CD11c/DTR and IL17RA-/- mice were used to examine T-lymphocyte polarization, inflammatory leukocyte recruitment and biliary injury in rhesus-rotavirus induced biliary atresia...
September 19, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Kathene C Johnson-Henry, Thomas R Abrahamsson, Richard You Wu, Philip M Sherman
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease in preterm infants characterized by barrier disruption, intestinal microbial dysbiosis, and persistent inflammation of the colon, which results in high mortality rates. Current strategies used to manage this disease are not sufficient, although the use of human breast milk reduces the risk of NEC. Mother's milk is regarded as a fundamental nutritional source for neonates, but pasteurization of donor breast milk affects the composition of bioactive compounds...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Lars H Nelson, Kathryn M Lenz
Microglia, the innate immune cells of the central nervous system, regulate brain development by promoting cell genesis, pruning synapses, and removing dying, newly-born or progenitor cells. However, the role of microglia in the early life programming of behavior under normal conditions is not well characterized. We used central infusion of liposomal clodronate to selectively deplete microglia from the neonatal rat brain and subsequently assessed the impact of microglial depletion on programming of juvenile and adult motivated behaviors...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Lucía Maffey, Celina G Vega, Samuel Miño, Lorena Garaicoechea, Viviana Parreño
Species A Rotaviruses (RVA) remain a leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years of age. Current treatment options are limited. We assessed the efficacy of two VP6-specific llama-derived heavy chain antibody fragments (VHH) -2KD1 and 3B2- as an oral prophylactic and therapeutic treatment against RVA-induced diarrhea in a neonatal mouse model inoculated with virulent murine RVA (ECw, G16P[16]I7). Joint therapeutic administration of 2KD1+3B2 (200 μg/dose) successfully reduced diarrhea duration, RVA infection severity and virus shedding in feces...
2016: PloS One
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