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neonatal immune response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103319/an-hsv-2-trivalent-vaccine-is-immunogenic-in-rhesus-macaques-and-highly-efficacious-in-guinea-pigs
#1
Sita Awasthi, Lauren M Hook, Carolyn E Shaw, Bapi Pahar, Jacob A Stagray, David Liu, Ronald S Veazey, Harvey M Friedman
A genital herpes vaccine is urgently needed to prevent pain and suffering, reduce the incidence of neonatal herpes, and decrease the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission that accompanies genital infection. We evaluated a trivalent HSV-2 subunit antigen vaccine administered with CpG and alum in rhesus macaques and guinea pigs. The vaccine contains glycoproteins C, D and E (gC2, gD2, gE2) to block virus entry by gD2 and immune evasion by gC2 and gE2. In rhesus macaques, the trivalent vaccine induced plasma and mucosa neutralizing antibodies, antibodies that block gC2 and gE2 immune evasion activities, and stimulated CD4 T cell responses...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102058/neonatal-immune-state-is-influenced-by-maternal-allergic-rhinitis-and-associated-with-regulatory-t-cells
#2
Lu Tan, Jing Ou, Zezhang Tao, Yonggang Kong, Yu Xu
PURPOSE: Maternal influences contribute to the origin of allergic diseases, but the mechanisms are not clear. The current literature prompted the role of epigenetics in the development of allergic diseases. We sought to investigate the roles of regulatory T (Treg) cells and Forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) DNA methylation in the process of maternal transmission of allergic rhinitis (AR) susceptibility. METHODS: BALB/c female mice (AR mother) were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 1 on day 1 and 7...
March 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097694/serial-cytokine-alterations-and-abnormal-neuroimaging-in-newborn-infants-with-encephalopathy
#3
Fiona M O'Hare, R William G Watson, Amanda O'Neill, Ricardo Segurado, Deirdre Sweetman, Paul Downey, Eoghan Mooney, John Murphy, Veronica Donoghue, Eleanor J Molloy
AIM: Inflammatory cytokines may play a role in the final common pathway in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischaemic injury in experimental models. We aimed to profile the systemic pro- and anti-inflammatory response over the first week of life in term infants at risk of neonatal encephalopathy. METHOD: In a tertiary referral university neonatal intensive care unit, serial blood samples were analysed from 41 term infants (requiring resuscitation at birth) in this prospective observational pilot study...
January 17, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086957/regulatory-t-cells-and-il10-suppress-pulmonary-host-defense-during-early-life-exposure-to-radical-containing-combustion-derived-ultrafine-particulate-matter
#4
Sridhar Jaligama, Jordy Saravia, Dahui You, Nikki Yadav, Greg I Lee, Bishwas Shrestha, Stephania A Cormier
BACKGROUND: Exposure to elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory tract viral infections in infants. Recent identification of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in the PM from a variety of combustion sources suggests its role in the enhancement of disease severity of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Our previous studies demonstrated that acute exposure to EPFRs induces pulmonary immunosuppression allowing for enhanced influenza disease severity...
January 13, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060871/a-neonatal-murine-model-of-mrsa-pneumonia
#5
Elizabeth A Fitzpatrick, Dahui You, Bishwas Shrestha, David Siefker, Vivek S Patel, Nikki Yadav, Sridhar Jaligama, Stephania A Cormier
Pneumonia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants particularly following lower respiratory tract viral infections such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). However, the mechanisms by which co-infection of infants by MRSA and RSV cause increased lung pathology are unknown. Because the infant immune system is qualitatively and quantitatively different from adults we developed a model of infant MRSA pneumonia which will allow us to investigate the effects of RSV co-infection on disease severity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060792/expression-of-x-linked-toll-like-receptor-4-signalling-genes-in-female-versus-male-neonates
#6
David N O'Driscoll, Chiara DeSanti, Paul J McKiernan, Victoria McEneaney, Eleanor J Molloy, Catherine M Greene
BACKGROUND: Male neonates display poorer disease prognosis and outcomes compared to females. Immune genes which exhibit higher expression in umbilical cord blood (UCB) of females may contribute to the female immune advantage during infection and inflammation. The aim of this study was to quantify expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signalling genes encoded on the X-chromosome in UCB from term female versus male neonates. METHODS: UCB samples were collected from term neonates (n=26) born by elective Caesarean section and whole blood was collected from adults (n=20)...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059609/rotavirus-specific-maternal-antibodies-and-immune-response-to-rv3-bb-neonatal-rotavirus-vaccine-in-new-zealand
#7
Mee-Yew Chen, Carl D Kirkwood, Julie Bines, Daniel Cowley, Daniel Pavlic, Katherine J Lee, Francesca Orsini, Emma Watts, Graeme Barnes, Margaret Danchin
Background Maternal antibodies, acquired passively via placenta and/or breast milk, may contribute to the reduced efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccine observed in children in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus specific maternal antibodies on the serum IgA response or stool excretion of vaccine virus after any dose of an oral rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, in parallel to a Phase IIa clinical trial conducted at Dunedin Hospital, New Zealand. At the time of the study rotavirus vaccines had not been introduced in New Zealand and the burden of rotavirus disease was evident...
January 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045974/neonatal-immunization-with-a-single-il-4-antigen-dose-induces-increased-antibody-responses-after-challenge-infection-with-equine-herpesvirus-type-1-ehv-1-at-weanling-age
#8
Bettina Wagner, Gillian Perkins, Susanna Babasyan, Heather Freer, Alison Keggan, Laura B Goodman, Amy Glaser, Sigurbjorg Torsteinsdóttir, Vilhjálmur Svansson, Sigríður Björnsdóttir
Neonatal foals respond poorly to conventional vaccines. These vaccines typically target T-helper (Th) cell dependent B-cell activation. However, Th2-cell immunity is impaired in foals during the first three months of life. In contrast, neonatal basophils are potent interleukin-4 (IL-4) producers. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel vaccine triggering the natural capacity of neonatal basophils to secrete IL-4 and to evaluate if vaccination resulted in B-cell activation and antibody production against EHV-1 glycoprotein C (gC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044966/-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-mif-a-regulator-of-neonatal-innate-immune-response
#9
Éric Giannoni, Anina Schneider, Thierry Calandra, Thierry Roger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044379/the-lack-of-natural-processes-of-delivery-and-neonatal-intensive-care-treatment-lead-to-impaired-cytokine-responses-later-in-life
#10
Maria-Viola Martikainen, Leea Keski-Nisula, Hermina Jakupović, Anne M Karvonen, Juha Pekkanen, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Marjut Roponen
PROBLEM: Birth-related factors and neonatal treatments could affect the maturation of immune system and thus have lasting effects on immune responses. We investigated the effect of obstetric factors other than being born by cesarean section on immune responses later in life. METHOD OF STUDY: Regulatory, inflammatory, TH1 and TH2 cytokines, and a chemokine were analyzed in unstimulated and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2-, 3-, and 4-stimulated PBMCs of teenagers born by cesarean delivery (CD; N=79)...
January 3, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041661/constant-light-exposure-impairs-immune-tolerance-development-in-mice
#11
Hiromi Mizutani, Risa Tamagawa-Mineoka, Yoichi Minami, Kazuhiro Yagita, Norito Katoh
BACKGROUND: An intrinsic daily physiological rhythm called circadian rhythm has been indicated to affect the immune system and its related diseases. Immune tolerance development is closely associated with the onset of immunological disorders. However, the effect of circadian rhythm in the mechanisms of immune tolerance development has not yet been fully understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of circadian rhythm disruption on the development of immune tolerance by the perturbation of light environment, using a mouse model of neonatally induced cutaneous tolerance...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028481/brain-transcriptomes-of-harbor-seals-demonstrate-gene-expression-patterns-of-animals-undergoing-a-metabolic-disease-and-a-viral-infection
#12
Stephanie M Rosales, Rebecca L Vega Thurber
Diseases of marine mammals can be difficult to diagnose because of their life history and protected status. Stranded marine mammals have been a particularly useful resource to discover and comprehend the diseases that plague these top predators. Additionally, advancements in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) has contributed to the discovery of novel pathogens in marine mammals. In this study, we use a combination of HTS and stranded harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) to better understand a known and unknown brain disease...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028291/contaminated-milk-is-a-common-cause-of-necrotising-enterocolitis-a-hypothesis
#13
N Y Boo
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is the most commonly acquired gastrointestinal disease of neonates, particularly the very preterm (gestation <32 weeks) and/or very low birth weight (<1500g). It is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Despite improvement in neonatal care and increased use of expressed breast milk (EBM), the incidence remains high in many neonatal intensive care units (NICU), and even shows increasing trend in some countries. Numerous studies have pointed to the infective nature of NEC...
December 2016: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019029/hla-drb3-01-01-is-a-predictor-of-immunization-against-human-platelet-antigen-1a-but-not-of-the-severity-of-fetal-and-neonatal-alloimmune-thrombocytopenia
#14
Sandra Wienzek-Lischka, Inke R König, Eva-Maria Papenkort, Holger Hackstein, Sentot Santoso, Ulrich J Sachs, Gregor Bein
BACKGROUND: Most cases of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) are caused by maternal alloantibodies against human platelet antigen-1a (HPA-1a). Alloimmunization mainly occurs in HPA-1a-negative mothers who are carriers of the HLA-DRB3*01:01 allele. Recently, it has been reported that the combined presence of HLA-DRB3*01:01 and HLA-DRB4*01:01P was associated with severity of FNAIT. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing a large cohort of cases and controls. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In total, 101 mothers with a history of FNAIT caused by anti-HPA-1a were investigated...
December 26, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018179/temporal-characterization-of-microglia-macrophage-phenotypes-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#15
Nina Hellström Erkenstam, Peter L P Smith, Bobbi Fleiss, Syam Nair, Pernilla Svedin, Wei Wang, Martina Boström, Pierre Gressens, Henrik Hagberg, Kelly L Brown, Karin Sävman, Carina Mallard
Immune cells display a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, which may facilitate their participation in both the progression and resolution of injury-induced inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal expression of genes associated with classical and alternative polarization phenotypes described for macrophages and to identify related cell populations in the brain following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). HI was induced in 9-day old mice and brain tissue was collected up to 7 days post-insult to investigate expression of genes associated with macrophage activation...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013100/the-impact-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-on-obstetric-conditions-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Hannah M Sebitloane, Dhayendre Moodley
HIV is the leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in resource constrained countries. Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) initiated in pregnancy has now almost eliminated mother to child transmission of the virus, and is beginning to show the desired effect of reducing HIV related maternal mortality. By modulating host immunological responses HAART has the potential to alter infections during pregnancy, in addition to modifying clinical conditions such as preeclampsia. There is increasing evidence of the benefits of HAART given to pregnant women, however there is paucity of data that distinguishes HIV or HAART as the cause or exacerbation of pre-existing medical conditions or conditions specific to pregnancy...
December 9, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012568/improved-survival-after-induction-of-sepsis-by-cecal-slurry-in-pd-1-knockout-murine-neonates
#17
Whitney A Young, Eleanor A Fallon, Daithi S Heffernan, Philip A Efron, William G Cioffi, Alfred Ayala
BACKGROUND: Sepsis and the ensuing immune dysfunction continue to be major contributors to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Neonatal sepsis also is associated with profound immune dysfunction. We have recently identified a role for a family of coinhibitory molecules that are altered in murine sepsis and in critically ill adult patients, which may be a target for development of novel therapies. There is, however, a paucity of data pertaining to the role of coinhibitory checkpoint proteins in the control and modulation of neonatal sepsis...
December 21, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011791/maternal-smoking-and-newborn-cytokine-and-immunoglobulin-levels
#18
Nikhita Chahal, Alexander C McLain, Akhgar Ghassabian, Kara A Michels, Erin M Bell, David A Lawrence, Edwina H Yeung
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal smoking exposure may lead to permanent changes in neonatal inflammation and immune response that have lifelong implications, including increased risks for atopy and respiratory disorders. METHODS: The effect of maternal smoking on neonatal biomarkers of inflammation and immune response was assessed among 3459 singletons and twins in the Upstate KIDS Study. The following inflammatory biomarkers were measured using newborn dried blood spots (DBSs): interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-8, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor alpha...
December 23, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008331/a-meningococcal-outer-membrane-vesicle-vaccine-incorporating-genetically-attenuated-endotoxin-dissociates-inflammation-from-immunogenicity
#19
David J Dowling, Holly Sanders, Wing Ki Cheng, Sweta Joshi, Spencer Brightman, Ilana Bergelson, Carlo Pietrasanta, Simon D van Haren, Sandra van Amsterdam, Jeffrey Fernandez, Germie P J M van den Dobbelsteen, Ofer Levy
BACKGROUND: Group B Neisseria meningitidis, an endotoxin-producing Gram-negative bacterium, causes the highest incidence of group B meningococcus (MenB) disease in the first year of life. The Bexsero vaccine is indicated in Europe from 8 weeks of age. Endotoxin components of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) or soluble lipopolysaccharide (LPS) represent a potential source of inflammation and residual reactogenicity. The purpose of this study was to compare novel candidate MenB vaccine formulations with licensed vaccines, including Bexsero, using age-specific human in vitro culture systems...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997265/plasma-lactoferrin-levels-in-newborn-preterm-infants-with-sepsis
#20
Lidia Decembrino, Mara DeAmici, Annalisa De Silvestri, Paolo Manzoni, Piermichele Paolillo, Mauro Stronati
INTRODUCTION: Lactoferrin (Lf) is one of the major proteins of all exocrine secretions with a role in the antinfective process. Our aim was to evaluate how plasma Fl levels may change in response to infection in newborn preterm infants. METHODS: A total of 15 (8 females, 7 males) newborn preterm infants with a postnatal age >72 h of life, underwent to blood culture and others markers of infection, for suspected sepsis, were enrolled in the study. RESULTS: We found that Lf serum concentration was significantly lowest in four neonates (26...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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