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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087318/etiologies-of-community-onset-urinary-tract%C3%A2-infections-requiring-hospitalization-and%C3%A2-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-of%C3%A2-causative-microorganisms
#1
Chih-Chien Chiu, Tzu-Chao Lin, Rui-Xin Wu, Ya-Sung Yang, Po-Jen Hsiao, Yi Lee, Jung-Chung Lin, Feng-Yee Chang
BACKGROUND: Community-onset urinary tract infections (CoUTIs) are the most common bacterial infections, and a decline in antibiotic susceptibility causes many clinical challenges. Adequate empiric antibiotic treatment can decrease unnecessary hospital stays and complications, while reducing the antimicrobial resistance progression. METHODS: From October 2014 to April 2015, we retrospectively enrolled patients who were at least 18 years old and required hospitalization for CoUTIs...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086793/methicillin-resistance-and-virulence-genes-in-invasive-and-nasal-staphylococcus-epidermidis-isolates-from-neonates
#2
Vivian Carolina Salgueiro, Natalia Lopes Pontes Iorio, Marcelle Cristina Ferreira, Raiane Cardoso Chamon, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen involved in hospital-acquired infections, particularly in those related to medical devices. This study characterized 50 genetically unrelated S. epidermidis isolates from bloodstream infections (BSIs, n = 31) and nares (n = 19) of neonates in relation to staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type, biofilm production and associated genes, and the arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACME), in order to detect virulence factors that could discriminate a potential invasiveness isolate or predict an increasing pathogenicity...
January 13, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081385/catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-in-adults-receiving-home-parenteral-nutrition
#3
Siri Tribler, Christopher F Brandt, Mark Hvistendahl, Michael Staun, Per Brøbech, Claus E Moser, Palle B Jeppesen
BACKGROUND: A common complication in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). The CRBSI incidence has been advocated as an outcome parameter assessing the quality of care. This study aimed to illustrate how the use of different CRBSI definitions affects the reported incidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an observational study based on the Copenhagen intestinal failure database, all clinically reported CRBSIs from 2002-2013 were compared with data from the affiliated microbiological database according to recommended CRBSI criteria...
January 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076388/risk-factors-for-multi-drug-resistant-pathogens-and-failure-of-empiric-first-line-therapy-in-acute-cholangitis
#4
Philipp A Reuken, Dorian Torres, Michael Baier, Bettina Löffler, Christoph Lübbert, Norman Lippmann, Andreas Stallmach, Tony Bruns
BACKGROUND: Acute cholangitis (AC) requires the immediate initiation of antibiotic therapy in addition to treatment for biliary obstruction. Against a background of an increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, the risk factors for the failure of empiric therapy must be defined. METHODS: Using a pathogen-based approach, 1764 isolates from positive bile duct cultures were retrospectively analyzed to characterize the respective pathogen spectra in two German tertiary centers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072922/the-relationship-between-parenteral-nutrition-and-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections
#5
Gabriela Fonseca, Marissa Burgermaster, Elaine Larson, David S Seres
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition (PN) administered via central venous catheter has been identified as an independent risk factor for central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). The aim of this study was to provide an updated description of the relationship between PN and CLABSI and assess temporal trends in CLABSI rates for individuals who received PN from 2009-2014, after the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid declared CLABSI a "never event." METHODS: Using data obtained from all adult patient discharges between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014, from 2 affiliated hospitals in a large health system in New York City, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the relationship between PN and CLABSIs as well as temporal trends...
January 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070309/bacterial-etiology-of-bloodstream-infections-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-dhaka-bangladesh-2005-2014
#6
Dilruba Ahmed, Md Ausrafuggaman Nahid, Abdullah Bashar Sami, Farhana Halim, Nasrin Akter, Tuhin Sadique, Md Sohel Rana, Md Shahriar Bin Elahi, Md Mahbubur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections due to bacterial pathogens are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh and other developing countries. In these countries, most patients are treated empirically based on their clinical symptoms. Therefore, up to date etiological data for major pathogens causing bloodstream infections may play a positive role in better healthcare management. The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial pathogens causing major bloodstream infections in Dhaka, Bangladesh and determine their antibiotic susceptibility pattern...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069652/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-results-from-four-years-2012-2015-of-the-international-network-for-optimal-resistance-monitoring-inform-program-in-the-united-states
#7
Helio S Sader, Michael D Huband, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm
Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a major cause of health-care associated infections, and inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The International Network for Optimal Resistance Monitoring (INFORM) program monitors the in vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam and many comparators agents. We evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of 7,452 P. aeruginosa isolates collected from 79 USA medical centers in 2012-2015. The isolates were collected and tested consecutively for susceptibility by broth microdilution method...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065330/impact-of-personalized-report-cards-on-nurses-managing-central-lines
#8
Theresa Morrison, Jacqueline Raffaele, Laura Brennaman
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this quality improvement project was to determine the effect of providing feedback to managers and bedside nurses on the nurses' central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) contributing factors, found on visual and documentation audits. METHODS: This nonexperimental, quality improvement project was conducted in a 715-bed, 2-campus acute care community hospital health care system in Southwest Florida. The intervention consisted of providing confidential feedback on central line audits deviations, through the systematic delivery of unit case reports and personalized nurse report cards...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063456/normal-saline-versus-heparin-for-patency-of-central-venous-catheters-in-adult-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Lei Zhong, Hai-Li Wang, Bo Xu, Yao Yuan, Xin Wang, Ying-Ying Zhang, Li Ji, Zi-Mu Pan, Zhan-Sheng Hu
BACKGROUND: Heparin saline (HS) is theoretically superior to normal saline (NS) for maintaining the patency of central venous catheters (CVCs), but the comparative efficacy of them remains controversial. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of NS versus HS in the maintenance of the patency of CVCs in adult patients. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the use of NS vs...
January 8, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063000/evaluation-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-for-the-rapid-identification-of-bacteria-and-resistance-determinants-in-positive-blood-cultures
#10
J Rödel, J A Bohnert, S Stoll, L Wassill, B Edel, M Karrasch, B Löffler, W Pfister
The use of molecular assays to rapidly identify pathogens and resistance genes directly from positive blood cultures (BCs) contribute to shortening the time required for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections. In this work, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays have been examined for their potential use in BC diagnosis. Three different assays were applied. The commercially available eazyplex® MRSA test detects Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, mecA, and mecC. Two in-house assays [Gram-positive (GP) and Gram-negative (GN)] have been developed for the detection of streptococci, enterococci, vanA, vanB, Pseudomonas spp...
January 6, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062685/development-and-validation-of-the-increment-esbl-predictive-score-for-mortality-in-patients-with-bloodstream-infections-due-to-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#11
Zaira Raquel Palacios-Baena, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Marina De Cueto, Pierluigi Viale, Mario Venditti, Alicia Hernández-Torres, Antonio Oliver, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Esther Calbo, Vicente Pintado, Oriol Gasch, Benito Almirante, José Antonio Lepe, Johann Pitout, Murat Akova, Carmen Peña-Miralles, Mitchell J Schwaber, Mario Tumbarello, Evelina Tacconelli, Julia Origüen, Nuria Prim, German Bou, Helen Giamarellou, Joaquín Bermejo, Axel Hamprecht, Federico Pérez, Manuel Almela, Warren Lowman, Po-Ren Hsueh, Carolina Navarro-San Francisco, Julián Torre-Cisneros, Yehuda Carmeli, Robert A Bonomo, David L Paterson, Álvaro Pascual, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are frequent yet outcome prediction rules for clinical use have not been developed. The objective was to define and validate a predictive risk score for 30 day mortality. METHODS: A multinational retrospective cohort study including consecutive episodes of BSI due to ESBL-E was performed; cases were randomly assigned to a derivation cohort (DC) or a validation cohort (VC)...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062319/nanomechanical-sensor-applied-to-blood-culture-pellets-a-fast-approach-to-determine-the-antibiotic-susceptibility-against-agents-of-bloodstream-infections
#12
Petar Stupar, Onya Opota, Giovanni Longo, Guy Prod'hom, Giovanni Dietler, Gilbert Greub, Sandor Kasas
OBJECTIVES: The management of bloodstream infection, a life-threatening disease, largely relies on early detection of infecting microorganisms and accurate determination of their antibiotic susceptibility, to reduce both mortality and morbidity. Recently, we developed a new technique based on atomic force microscopy, capable of detecting movements of biological samples at the nanoscale. Such sensor is able to monitor the response of bacteria to antibiotic's pressure, allowing a fast and versatile susceptibility test...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056818/infectious-tenosynovitis-with-bloodstream-infection-caused-by-erysipelothrix-rhusiopathiae-a-case-report-on-an-occupational-pathogen
#13
Kristine Hofseth, Håvard Dalen, Leif Kibsgaard, Solrun Nebb, Angela Kümmel, Arne Mehl
BACKGROUND: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is an established animal pathogen, which may cause infections in humans. It is a gram-positive rod and found in the tonsils or the digestive tracts of animals. The bacterium is occupationally related, as usually only people with frequent animal contacts are infected. We report a case of a patient who was admitted with an infectious tenosynovitis with bloodstream infection due to E. rhusiopathiae, and to our knowledge, this is the first report of a tenosynovitis with systemic manifestation associated with this bacterium...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052769/elasto-inertial-microfluidics-for-bacteria-separation-from-whole-blood-for-sepsis-diagnostics
#14
Muhammad Asim Faridi, Harisha Ramachandraiah, Indradumna Banerjee, Sahar Ardabili, Sergey Zelenin, Aman Russom
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) remain a major challenge with high mortality rate, with an incidence that is increasing worldwide. Early treatment with appropriate therapy can reduce BSI-related morbidity and mortality. However, despite recent progress in molecular based assays, complex sample preparation steps have become critical roadblock for a greater expansion of molecular assays. Here, we report a size based, label-free, bacteria separation from whole blood using elasto-inertial microfluidics...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049348/invasive-mrsa-infections-in-neurosurgical-patients-a-decade-of-progress
#15
Mairéad Skally, Caoimhe Finn, David O'Brien, Fidelma Fitzpatrick, Karen Burns, Elaine McFadden, Margaret Fitzpatrick, Edmond Smyth, Hilary Humphreys
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of bloodstream infection (BSI), which is declining in many countries, including Ireland. However, it also causes other invasive infections, such as meningitis in neurosurgical patients. It is unclear whether the decline in MRSA BSI is reflected in other invasive infections and in specialist units. AIM: To investigate trends in the incidence of MRSA invasive infection in a national neurosurgical centre over a 10-year period...
January 3, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049254/peripherally-inserted-central-venous-catheter-associated-complications-exert-negative-effects-on-body-weight-gain-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units
#16
Jie Wen, Qun Yu, Haiyan Chen, Niannian Chen, Shourong Huang, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The placement of a peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) is an essential procedure in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The aim of this study was to determine the risk of PICC complications in NICU, and further identify the effects of PICC complications on body weight gain in premature infants. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 304 premature infants who had a PICC inserted in NICU were enrolled in this study. The weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) at the time of PICC insertion and removal were calculated, and changes of WAZ in different groups were compared using a t-test...
January 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049149/rela-mutant-enterococcus-faecium-with-multiantibiotic-tolerance-arising-in-an-immunocompromised-host
#17
Erin S Honsa, Vaughn S Cooper, Mohammed N Mhaissen, Matthew Frank, Jessica Shaker, Amy Iverson, Jeffrey Rubnitz, Randall T Hayden, Richard E Lee, Charles O Rock, Elaine I Tuomanen, Joshua Wolf, Jason W Rosch
: Serious bacterial infections in immunocompromised patients require highly effective antibacterial therapy for cure, and thus, this setting may reveal novel mechanisms by which bacteria circumvent antibiotics in the absence of immune pressure. Here, an infant with leukemia developed vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) bacteremia that persisted for 26 days despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. Sequencing of 22 consecutive VRE isolates identified the emergence of a single missense mutation (L152F) in relA, which constitutively activated the stringent response, resulting in elevated baseline levels of the alarmone guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp)...
January 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044296/microfluidic-based-bacteria-isolation-from-whole-blood-for-diagnostics-of-blood-stream-infection
#18
Sergey Zelenin, Harisha Ramachandraiah, Asim Faridi, Aman Russom
Bacterial blood stream infection (BSI) potentially leads to life-threatening clinical conditions and medical emergencies such as severe sepsis, septic shock, and multi organ failure syndrome. Blood culturing is currently the gold standard for the identification of microorganisms and, although it has been automated over the decade, the process still requires 24-72 h to complete. This long turnaround time, especially for the identification of antimicrobial resistance, is driving the development of rapid molecular diagnostic methods...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038498/risk-for-health-care-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-pediatric-oncology-patients-with-various-malignancies
#19
Cara B Thurman, Maura Abbott, Jinfang Liu, Elaine Larson
This was a retrospective cohort study to identify the rates, predictors, and outcomes of health care-associated bloodstream infections (HA-BSI) among children with solid tumors, lymphoma, lymphoid leukemia, and myeloid leukemia. The study population included 4500 children ≤18 years old at a pediatric hospital in New York City from 2006 to 2014. A total of 147 HA-BSI cases were identified; using multivariable logistic regression modeling, children with a hematologic diagnosis (lymphoma, lymphoid leukemia, myeloid leukemia) were at greater risk for HA-BSI than those with a solid tumor diagnosis (all P values <...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036312/antimicrobial-resistance-of-selected-invasive-bacteria-in-a-tertiary-care-center-results-of-a-prospective-surveillance-study
#20
Olivera Djuric, Snezana Jovanovic, Branka Stosovic, Tanja Tosic, Milica Jovanovic, Ljiljana Markovic-Denic
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to report the distribution and resistance patterns of eight invasive clinically relevant bacteria surveyed in the Clinical Center of Serbia (CCS) in Belgrade. METHODOLOGY: A total of 477 clinical blood stream isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter spp. were collected in the period from January to December 2013...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
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