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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534703/chlorhexidine-and-silver-sulfadiazine-coating-on-central-venous-catheters-is-not-sufficient-for-protection-against-catheter-related-infection-simulation-based-laboratory-research-with-clinical-validation
#1
Yoon Ji Choi, Jae Kwan Lim, Jeong Jun Park, Hyub Huh, Dong-Joo Kim, Chang-Hoon Gong, Seung Zhoo Yoon
Objective The efficacy of chlorhexidine- and silver sulfadiazine-coated central venous catheters (CSS-CVC) against catheter-related infection remains controversial. We hypothesized that the loss of silver nanoparticles may reduce the antibacterial efficacy of CSS-CVCs and that this loss could be due to the frictional force between the surface of the CVC and the bloodstream. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the antimicrobial effect of CSS-CVCs decreases with increasing exposure time in a bloodstream model and quantitatively assay the antimicrobial effect of CSS-CVCs compared with polyurethane and antiseptic-impregnated CVCs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533166/risk-factors-for-30-day-mortality-in-patients-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bloodstream-infections
#2
Pedro Ayau, Ana C Bardossy, Guillermo Sanchez, Ricardo Ortiz, Daniela Moreno, Pamela Hartman, Khulood Rizvi, Tyler C Prentiss, Mary B Perri, Meredith Mahan, Vanthida Huang, Katherine Reyes, Marcus J Zervos
OBJECTIVES: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) blood stream infections (BSI) are a major health care problem accounting for a large percentage of nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with 30-day mortality in patients with MRSA BSI. METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed in Southeast Michigan. Over a 9- year period, total of 1,168 patients were identified with MRSA BSI. Patient demographics and clinical data were retrieved and evaluated using electronic medical health records...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529091/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bacteraemia-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies-risk-factors-treatment-and-outcome
#3
Polydoros Tofas, Michael Samarkos, Evangelia-Theophano Piperaki, Christos Kosmidis, Ioanna-Dionysia Triantafyllopoulou, Maria Kotsopoulou, Aggeliki Pantazatou, Stavroula Perlorentzou, Anastasia Poulli, Maria Vagia, George L Daikos
Our aims were to identify factors associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) bloodstream infection (BSI) in patients with hematological malignancies and evaluate the outcome of the affected patients. Consecutive patients with hematological malignancies who developed PA BSI were identified. Subsequently, two case-control studies were performed to evaluate the risk factors (i) for PA BSI and (ii) for carbapenem resistant (CR) PA BSI. Patients' outcome was evaluated at 28 days after the onset of bacteraemia. A total of 64 patients with PA BSI (45 caused by CS and 19 by CR organisms) and 128 without PA BSI were enrolled...
May 11, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526171/chlorhexidine-gluconate-or-polyhexamethylene-biguanide-disc-dressing-to-reduce-the-incidence-of-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-a-feasibility-randomized-controlled-trial-the-clabsi-trial
#4
J Webster, E Larsen, N Marsh, A Choudhury, P Harris, C M Rickard
BACKGROUND: A number of antimicrobial-impregnated discs to prevent central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) are marketed but it is unclear which disc is most effective. AIM: To investigate the feasibility and safety of comparing two antimicrobial-impregnated discs to prevent CLABSI. METHODS: A single-centre, parallel group, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a 929-bed tertiary referral hospital. Hospital inpatients requiring a peripherally inserted central catheter were randomized to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) or polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) disc dressing group...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525644/risk-factors-and-clinical-outcomes-of-breakthrough-yeast-bloodstream-infections-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-in-the-era-of-newer-antifungal-agents
#5
Si-Hyun Kim, Jae-Ki Choi, Sung-Yeon Cho, Hyo-Jin Lee, Sun Hee Park, Su-Mi Choi, Dong-Gun Lee, Jung-Hyun Choi, Jin-Hong Yoo, Jong-Wook Lee
Although yeast bloodstream infections (BSIs) are increasingly being reported in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing antifungal therapy, clinical information regarding breakthrough infections is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for and clinical outcomes of breakthrough yeast BSIs in patients with hematological malignancies in the era of newer antifungal agents. Between 2011 and 2014, all consecutive patients with hematological malignancies who developed yeast BSIs were included in a case-control study wherein breakthrough infections (cases) and de novo infections (controls) were compared...
May 19, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522363/a-bloodstream-infection-by-ruminococcus-gnavus-in-a-patient-with-a-gall-bladder-perforation
#6
Young Jin Kim, Hee Yoon Kang, Yujin Han, Mi Suk Lee, Hee Joo Lee
Ruminococcus gnavus is frequently found among human gut microbiome. However, human bloodstream infections by R. gnavus have been reported only three times. Clinical details were lacking for one case; the other two cases with concurrent bacteremia in patients with diverticulitis. We report a case of R. gnavus bloodstream infection in a patient with a gall bladder perforation suggesting its association with damage to the gastrointestinal tract. R. gnavus was misidentified using biochemical test but 16S rRNA sequencing and Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were useful for correct identification...
May 15, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522323/in-vivo-imaging-of-pathogen-homing-to-the-host-tissues
#7
Joana Tavares, David M Costa, Ana Rafaela Teixeira, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Rogerio Amino
Hematogenous dissemination followed by tissue tropism is a characteristic of the infectious process of many pathogens including those transmitted by blood-feeding vectors. After entering into the blood circulation, these pathogens must arrest in the target organ before they infect a specific tissue. Here, we describe a non-invasive method to visualize and quantify the homing of pathogens to the host tissues. By using in vivo bioluminescence imaging we quantify the accumulation of luciferase-expressing parasites in the host organs during the first minutes following their intravascular inoculation in mice...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514979/determination-of-a-cutoff-time-point-for-prophylactic-exchange-of-central-venous-catheters-for-prevention-of-central-venous-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies
#8
Enrico Schalk, Lena M Biehl, Jacqueline Färber, Dirk Schlüter, Maria J G T Vehreschild, Thomas Fischer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514306/unusual-case-of-rapid-growing-intraabdominal-abscess-caused-by-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-after-laparoscopic-appendectomy-due-to-perforated-appendicitis-a-case-report
#9
Dae Ro Lim, Jung Cheol Kuk, Taehyung Kim, Eung Jin Shin
INTRODUCTION: An intraabdominal abscess due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S maltophilia) infection is a very rare clinical manifestation. S maltophilia is a glucose nonfermentative, aerobic, gram-negative, mobile, and biofilm-forming bacterium. It is an opportunistic pathogen and uncommon cause of infection. Respiratory tract infections (pneumonia) and bloodstream infections (bacteremia) are the most common clinical manifestations of S maltophilia infection. CONCLUSIONS: This case report describes an unusual case of a rapidly growing, extremely large intraabdominal abscess (within 1 week during antibiotic therapy), which was detected 2 weeks after a laparoscopic appendectomy was performed for perforated appendicitis and was caused by multidrug-resistant S maltophilia infection...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512683/messenger-rna-transport-in-the-opportunistic-fungal-pathogen-candida-albicans
#10
REVIEW
Anne E McBride
Candida albicans, a common commensal fungus, can cause disease in immunocompromised hosts ranging from mild mucosal infections to severe bloodstream infections with high mortality rates. The ability of C. albicans cells to switch between a budding yeast form and an elongated hyphal form is linked to pathogenicity in animal models. Hyphal-specific proteins such as cell-surface adhesins and secreted hydrolases facilitate tissue invasion and host cell damage, but the specific mechanisms leading to asymmetric protein localization in hyphae remain poorly understood...
May 16, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512628/dysplasia-of-granulocytes-in-a-patient-with-hpv-disease-recurrent-infections-and-b-lymphopenia-a-novel-variant-of-whim-syndrome
#11
Giusella M F Moscato, Erica Giacobbi, Lucia Anemona, Silvia Di Cesare, Gigliola Di Matteo, Massimo Andreoni, Alessandro Mauriello, Viviana Moschese
WHIM syndrome is a condition in which affected persons have chronic peripheral neutropenia, lymphopenia, abnormal susceptibility to human papilloma virus infection, and myelokathexis. Myelokathexis refers to the retention of mature neutrophils in the bone marrow (BM), which accounts for degenerative changes and hypersegmentation. Most patients present heterozygous autosomal dominant mutations of the gene encoding CXCR4. Consequently, aberrant CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling impairs the receptor downregulation causing hyperactivation (gain-of-function) that affects BM homing for myelopoiesis and lymphopoiesis and the release of neutrophils in the bloodstream...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509133/denosumab-for-treatment-of-immobilization-related-hypercalcemia-in-a-patient-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#12
Atsuko Uehara, Masahiko Yazawa, Atsumi Kawata, Rina Hachisuka, Yugo Shibagaki
The efficacy and safety of denosumab for the treatment of immobilization-related hypercalcemia in end-stage renal disease remain uncertain. We describe the case of a hemodialysis patient with immobilization-related hypercalcemia who was successfully treated with denosumab. A 79-year-old man admitted for hemodialysis after sustaining an acute kidney injury developed immobilization-related hypercalcemia due to the impairment resulting from an acute myocardial infarction, acute heart failure, and catheter-related bloodstream infection...
May 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507105/reduced-vancomycin-susceptibility-of-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-no-significant-impact-on-mortality-but-increase-in-complicated-infection
#13
Sean B Sullivan, Eloise D Austin, Stephania Stump, Barun Mathema, Susan Whittier, Franklin D Lowy, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann
Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bloodstream infections (BSIs) often lead to severe complications despite the availability of effective antibiotics. It remains unclear whether elevated vancomycin MICs are associated with worse outcomes.We conducted a 2-year retrospective cohort study (n=252) of patients with MSSA BSIs at a tertiary care hospital. We defined reduced vancomycin susceptibility (RVS) as a Microscan MIC of 2 mg/L. All strains were genotyped (spa) and assessed for agr functionality...
May 15, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506673/high-frequency-of-silver-resistance-genes-in-invasive-isolates-of-enterobacter-and-klebsiella-species
#14
S Sütterlin, M Dahlö, C Tellgren-Roth, W Schaal, Å Melhus
BACKGROUND: Silver-based products have been marketed as an alternative to antibiotics, and their consumption has increased. Bacteria may, however, develop resistance to silver. AIM: To study the presence of genes encoding silver resistance (silE, silP, silS) over time in three clinically important Enterobacteriaceae genera. METHODS: Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 752 bloodstream isolates from the years 1990-2010 were investigated. Age, gender, and ward of patients were registered, and the susceptibility to antibiotics and silver nitrate was tested...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506349/-relationship-between-fever-degree-and-prognosis-in-children-with-bacterial-bloodstream-infection
#15
Tao Zhang, Jiu-Jun Li, Chun-Feng Liu, Zhi-Jie Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between the degree of fever within 48 hours of admission and the prognosis in children with bacterial bloodstream infection. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of all patients diagnosed with sepsis who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Shengjing Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University between September 2008 and September 2016. The children with bacterial bloodstream infection were classified into 5 groups according to the maximum temperature within 48 hours of admission: <36...
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504925/comparative-diagnostic-test-evaluation-of-serum-procalcitonin-and-c-reactive-protein-in-suspected-bloodstream-infections-in-children-with-cancer
#16
Swapna R Nath, Sabeena Jayapalan, Harikumaran Nair, P Kusumakumary, N S Prema, T Priyakumari, K Rajamohanan
PURPOSE: To compute diagnostic test properties of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels in bloodstream infections in children with cancer and suspected sepsis, in comparison with blood culture as the gold standard. METHODOLOGY: Consecutive paediatric cancer patients, aged ≤14 years, with clinically suspected bloodstream infections were evaluated with blood culture and assay of PCT and CRP levels. Blood culture was taken as the gold standard for comparison...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504620/identification-of-a-distinctive-phenotype-for-endocarditis-associated-clonal-complex-22-mrsa-isolates-with-reduced-vancomycin-susceptibility
#17
Helene Marbach, Eve Boakes, Steven Lynham, Malcolm Ward, Jonathan A Otter, Jonathan D Edgeworth
PURPOSE: We previously identified an association between CC22 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection isolates with an elevated vancomycin MIC (V-MIC) in the susceptible range (1.5-2 mg l-1) and endocarditis. This study explores whether these isolates have a specific phenotype consistent with the clinical findings. METHODOLOGY: CC22 and CC30 MRSA isolates with high (1.5-2 mg l-1) and low (≤0.5 mg l-1) V-MICs were tested for fibrinogen and fibronectin binding, virulence in a Galleria mellonella caterpillar model, phenol soluble modulin production and accessory gene regulator (agr) expression...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502638/oncology-nurses-knowledge-of-guidelines-for-preventing-catheter-related-bloodstream-infections
#18
Mohammad Al Qadire
This descriptive cross-sectional survey evaluated Jordanian oncology nurses' knowledge of the guidelines for preventing central venous catheter-associated infection. Poor knowledge was evident from the very low mean total scores and the low percentage of correct answers for each item in the questionnaire.
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501098/alterations-in-intestinal-microbiota-relate-to-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-and-central-line-infections
#19
Panliang Wang, Ying Wang, Lina Lu, Weihui Yan, Yijing Tao, Kejun Zhou, Jie Jia, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays a vital role in modulating the metabolic and immune functions of the intestines. We aimed to analyze the dysbiosis of microbiota in infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) with different complications. PROCEDURE: We included 26 fecal samples from 18 infants with SBS during parenteral nutrition. The samples were categorized into three groups: asymptomatic, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD), and central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500792/changing-trends-in-the-aetiology-treatment-and-outcomes-of-bloodstream-infection-occurring-in-the-first-year-after-solid-organ-transplantation-a-single-centre-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Isabel Oriol, Núria Sabé, Antonella F Simonetti, Laura Lladó, Anna Manonelles, Jose González, Fe Tubau, Jordi Carratalà
To analyse trends in the aetiology, treatment and outcomes of BSI within the first year post-transplant over the last 10-year period, we prospectively recorded all episodes of BSI occurring in SOT recipients during the first year post-transplant from 2007 to 2016. Trends of factors were analysed by 2-year periods. Of 475 consecutive episodes of BSI, 218 occurred within a year of SOT in 178 SOT recipients. Gram-positive BSI decreased over time (40.5% to 2.2%). In contrast, there was a steady increase in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) BSI (54...
May 13, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
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