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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907284/working-memory-in-very-low-birthweight-children-at-the-age-of-11-years
#1
Satu Korpela, Anna Nyman, Petriina Munck, Annarilla Ahtola, Jaakko Matomäki, Tapio Korhonen, Riitta Parkkola, Leena Haataja
The aim of this study is to investigate the working memory (WM) of very-low-birthweight (VLBW, ≤ 1500 g) children at the age of 11 years using Baddeley's WM model. A regional cohort of 95 VLBW children was assessed for the domains of the WM model (central executive [CE], visuospatial sketchpad [VS], and phonological loop [PL]) using subtests from the Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). VLBW children were categorized into three groups according to their degree of brain pathology (normal, minor, or major) in neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging at the term age, and the WM performance was compared between groups to test norms...
December 1, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631161/beyond-aphasia-altered-eeg-connectivity-in-broca-s-patients-during-working-memory-task
#2
Veronika Rutar Gorišek, Vlasta Zupanc Isoski, Aleš Belič, Christina Manouilidou, Blaž Koritnik, Jure Bon, Nuška Pečarič Meglič, Matej Vrabec, Janez Žibert, Grega Repovš, Janez Zidar
Broca's region and adjacent cortex presumably take part in working memory (WM) processes. Electrophysiologically, these processes are reflected in synchronized oscillations. We present the first study exploring the effects of a stroke causing Broca's aphasia on these processes and specifically on synchronized functional WM networks. We used high-density EEG and coherence analysis to map WM networks in ten Broca's patients and ten healthy controls during verbal WM task. Our results demonstrate that a stroke resulting in Broca's aphasia also alters two distinct WM networks...
September 12, 2016: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622923/phonetic-detail-and-lateralization-of-reading-related-inner-speech-and-of-auditory-and-somatosensory-feedback-processing-during-overt-reading
#3
Christian A Kell, Maritza Darquea, Marion Behrens, Lorenzo Cordani, Christian Keller, Susanne Fuchs
Phonetic detail and lateralization of inner speech during covert sentence reading as well as overt reading in 32 right-handed healthy participants undergoing 3T fMRI were investigated. The number of voiceless and voiced consonants in the processed sentences was systematically varied. Participants listened to sentences, read them covertly, silently mouthed them while reading, and read them overtly. Condition comparisons allowed for the study of effects of externally versus self-generated auditory input and of somatosensory feedback related to or independent of voicing...
September 13, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614274/working-memory-studies-among-individuals-with-intellectual-disability-an-integrative-research-review
#4
Hefziba Lifshitz, Esther Kilberg, Eli Vakil
BACKGROUND: Integrative research review infers generalizations about a substantive subject, summarizes the accumulated knowledge that research has left unresolved and generates a new framework on these issues. Due to methodological issues emerging from working memory (WM) studies in the population with non-specific intellectual disability (NSID) (N=64) between 1990-2014, it is difficult to conclude on WM performance in this population. AIM: This integrative research review aimed to resolve literature conflicts on WM performance among individuals with NSID and to identify the conditions/moderators that govern their WM performance compared to controls with Typical development...
August 23, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567244/the-importance-of-working-memory-for-school-achievement-in-primary-school-children-with-intellectual-or-learning-disabilities
#5
Claudia Maehler, Kirsten Schuchardt
BACKGROUND: Given the well-known relation between intelligence and school achievement we expect children with normal intelligence to perform well at school and those with intelligence deficits to meet learning problems. But, contrary to these expectations, some children do not perform according to these predictions: children with normal intelligence but sub-average school achievement and children with lower intelligence but average success at school. Yet, it is an open question how the unexpected failure or success can be explained...
November 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414184/age-related-cognitive-decline-as-a-function-of-daytime-testing
#6
Andrei Alexandru Puiu
The current study investigates the effects of age, cognitive load, optimal time-of-day testing, and irrelevant background noise suppression on mental processing. One hundred and seventy-eight young (M = 22.97 years) and 114 old adults (M = 56.38 years) were assessed for implicit learning and speed of information processing under irrelevant sound interference early during daytime (7AM-2.30PM) or in the afternoons (3PM-midnight). No direct effect of irrelevant speech effect was found on implicit learning...
July 14, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303287/modeling-interactions-between-speech-production-and-perception-speech-error-detection-at-semantic-and-phonological-levels-and-the-inner-speech-loop
#7
Bernd J Kröger, Eric Crawford, Trevor Bekolay, Chris Eliasmith
Production and comprehension of speech are closely interwoven. For example, the ability to detect an error in one's own speech, halt speech production, and finally correct the error can be explained by assuming an inner speech loop which continuously compares the word representations induced by production to those induced by perception at various cognitive levels (e.g., conceptual, word, or phonological levels). Because spontaneous speech errors are relatively rare, a picture naming and halt paradigm can be used to evoke them...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281676/the-effect-of-lexical-factors-on-recall-from-working-memory-generalizing-the-neighborhood-size-effect
#8
Lesley S Derraugh, Ian Neath, Aimée M Surprenant, Olivia Beaudry, Jean Saint-Aubin
The word-length effect, the finding that lists of short words are better recalled than lists of long words, is 1 of the 4 benchmark phenomena that guided development of the phonological loop component of working memory. However, previous work has noted a confound in word-length studies: The short words used had more orthographic neighbors (valid words that can be made by changing a single letter in the target word) than long words. The confound is that words with more neighbors are better recalled than otherwise comparable words with fewer neighbors...
June 9, 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27050628/computerized-working-memory-training-for-children-with-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Natalie Lynette Phillips, Anna Mandalis, Suzanne Benson, Louise Parry, Adrienne Epps, Angie Morrow, Suncica Lah
Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) places children at risk for deficits in working memory (WM; comprising a central executive [CE], and two storage systems: phonological loop [PL] and visuospatial sketchpad [VSSP]), which is strongly related to attention and academic skills in childhood. This study aimed to examine whether different components of WM can be improved following adaptive WM training (Cogmed) and whether improvements in WM generalize to other cognitive (attention) and academic skills (reading and mathematics) in children with TBI...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26980059/computerized-working-memory-training-for-children-following-arterial-ischemic-stroke-a-pilot-study-with-long-term-follow-up
#10
Megan Eve, Fiadhnait O'Keeffe, Simren Jhuty, Vijeya Ganesan, Gary Brown, Tara Murphy
Cognitive deficits in the domains of working memory (WM) and executive function are well documented following childhood arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). However, there are currently no evidence-based cognitive interventions for this population. Computerized, implicit WM training has been demonstrated to generate generalized cognitive gains for children with WM and attention deficits and for adults following brain injury. This study used a pilot design to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of such an intervention program (Cogmed WM Training) for a childhood AIS population...
October 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26855554/evidence-based-reading-and-writing-assessment-for-dyslexia-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#11
Kathleen Nielsen, Robert Abbott, Whitney Griffin, Joe Lott, Wendy Raskind, Virginia W Berninger
The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word reading and spelling skills below the population mean and ability to use oral language to express thinking. These working memory predictor measures were given and used to predict reading and writing achievement: Coding (storing and processing) heard and spoken words (phonological coding), read and written words (orthographic coding), base words and affixes (morphological coding), and accumulating words over time (syntax coding); Cross-Code Integration (phonological loop for linking phonological name and orthographic letter codes and orthographic loop for linking orthographic letter codes and finger sequencing codes), and Supervisory Attention (focused and switching attention and self-monitoring during written word finding)...
2016: Learning Disabilities (Pittsburgh, Pa.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26647359/compensating-arithmetic-ability-with-derived-fact-strategies-in-broca-s-aphasia-a-case-report
#12
Kalaiyashni Puvanendran, Ann Dowker, Nele Demeyere
We investigated derived fact strategy use in RR, an aphasic patient with severely impaired working memory (no phonological loop), and 16 neurologically healthy matched controls. Participants were tested on derived fact strategy use in multi-digit addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. RR's accuracy only differed from controls in multiplication. He was as quick as controls in addition and subtraction when able to use the strategies, though significantly slower in addition, division, and multiplication without strategies...
2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26518533/neurorehabilitation-applied-to-specific-learning-disability-study-of-a-single-case
#13
Giovanni Bilancia, Moreno Marazzi, Davide Filippi
BACKGROUND: Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) therefore represent chronic, not temporary disorders with varying degrees of expression throughout life. The beginning of imaging, anatomy and genetics studies have made it possible to investigate the brain organization of individuals suffering from SLD (Deheane, 2009). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper is to describe a treatment method for reading and writing disorders through an intervention based on the integration of a sublexical method and a neuropsychological approach, with assistive technologies in the study of a single case...
2015: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26397711/working-memory-outcomes-following-traumatic-brain-injury-in-children-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#14
Natalie Lynette Phillips, Louise Parry, Anna Mandalis, Suncica Lah
The aim of this review is to systematically examine the literature concerning multicomponent working memory (WM)-comprising a central executive (CE), two storage components (phonological loop, PL and visuo-spatial sketchpad, VSSP), and episodic buffer (EB)-in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Electronic searches were conducted of MEDLINE, PsychINFO and EMBASE up to October 2014 with the inclusion criteria of children and adolescents with TBI, and quantitative methods to assess at least one component of WM...
September 23, 2015: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26374330/semantic-and-phonological-contributions-to-short-term-repetition-and-long-term-cued-sentence-recall
#15
Jed A Meltzer, Nathan S Rose, Tiffany Deschamps, Rosie C Leigh, Lilia Panamsky, Alexandra Silberberg, Noushin Madani, Kira A Links
The function of verbal short-term memory is supported not only by the phonological loop, but also by semantic resources that may operate on both short and long time scales. Elucidation of the neural underpinnings of these mechanisms requires effective behavioral manipulations that can selectively engage them. We developed a novel cued sentence recall paradigm to assess the effects of two factors on sentence recall accuracy at short-term and long-term stages. Participants initially repeated auditory sentences immediately following a 14-s retention period...
February 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26232551/phonological-short-term-memory-in-logopenic-variant-primary-progressive-aphasia-and-mild-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Aaron M Meyer, Sarah F Snider, Rachael E Campbell, Rhonda B Friedman
It has been argued that individuals with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA) have an impairment of the phonological loop, which is a component of the short-term memory (STM) system. In contrast, this type of impairment is not thought to be present in mild typical Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, one would predict that people with lvPPA would score significantly lower than a matched AD group on tasks that require phonological STM. In the current study, an lvPPA group was compared with a mild AD group that was matched on age, education, and general cognitive functioning...
October 2015: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26209929/the-electrophysiological-correlates-of-the-working-memory-subcomponents-evidence-from-high-density-eeg-and-coherence-analysis
#17
Veronika Rutar Gorišek, Aleš Belič, Christina Manouilidou, Blaž Koritnik, Grega Repovš, Jure Bon, Janez Žibert, Janez Zidar
Synchronization between prefrontal (executive) and posterior (association) cortices seems a plausible mechanism for temporary maintenance of information. However, while EEG studies reported involvement of (pre)frontal midline structures in synchronization, functional neuroimaging elucidated the importance of lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) in working memory (WM). Verbal and spatial WM rely on lateralized subsystems (phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad, respectively), yet only trends for hemispheric dissociation of networks supporting rehearsal of verbal and spatial information were identified by EEG...
December 2015: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26147431/intracranial-recordings-reveal-transient-response-dynamics-during-information-maintenance-in-human-cerebral-cortex
#18
Niv Noy, Stephan Bickel, Elana Zion-Golumbic, Michal Harel, Tal Golan, Ido Davidesco, Catherine A Schevon, Guy M McKhann, Robert R Goodman, Charles E Schroeder, Ashesh D Mehta, Rafael Malach
Despite an extensive body of work, it is still not clear how short term maintenance of information is implemented in the human brain. Most prior research has focused on "working memory"-typically involving the storage of a number of items, requiring the use of a phonological loop and focused attention during the delay period between encoding and retrieval. These studies largely support a model of enhanced activity in the delay interval as the central mechanism underlying working memory. However, multi-item working memory constitutes only a subset of storage phenomena that may occur during daily life...
October 2015: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26105056/consensus-paper-revisiting-the-symptoms-and-signs-of-cerebellar-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Florian Bodranghien, Amy Bastian, Carlo Casali, Mark Hallett, Elan D Louis, Mario Manto, Peter Mariën, Dennis A Nowak, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Mariano Serrao, Katharina Marie Steiner, Michael Strupp, Caroline Tilikete, Dagmar Timmann, Kim van Dun
The cerebellum is involved in sensorimotor operations, cognitive tasks and affective processes. Here, we revisit the concept of the cerebellar syndrome in the light of recent advances in our understanding of cerebellar operations. The key symptoms and signs of cerebellar dysfunction, often grouped under the generic term of ataxia, are discussed. Vertigo, dizziness, and imbalance are associated with lesions of the vestibulo-cerebellar, vestibulo-spinal, or cerebellar ocular motor systems. The cerebellum plays a major role in the online to long-term control of eye movements (control of calibration, reduction of eye instability, maintenance of ocular alignment)...
June 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26095321/inter-individual-differences-in-how-presentation-modality-affects-verbal-learning-performance-in-children-aged-5-to-16
#20
Celeste Meijs, Petra P M Hurks, Renske Wassenberg, Frans J M Feron, Jelle Jolles
This study examines inter-individual differences in how presentation modality affects verbal learning performance. Children aged 5 to 16 performed a verbal learning test within one of three presentation modalities: pictorial, auditory, or textual. The results indicated that a beneficial effect of pictures exists over auditory and textual presentation modalities and that this effect increases with age. However, this effect is only found if the information to be learned is presented once (or at most twice) and only in children above the age of 7...
2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
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