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phonological loop

Freya Watkins, Robin L Thompson
Unlike the phonological loop in spoken language monitoring, sign language users' own production provides mostly proprioceptive feedback and only minimal visual feedback. Here we investigate whether sign production influences sign comprehension by exploiting hand dominance in a picture-sign matching task performed by left-handed signers and right-handed signers. Should all signers perform better to right-handed input, this would suggest that a frequency effect in sign perception drives comprehension. However, if signers perform better to congruent-handed input, this would implicate the production system's role in comprehension...
April 17, 2017: Cognition
Wenson Fung, H Lee Swanson
The purpose of this study was to assess whether the differential effects of working memory (WM) components (the central executive, phonological loop, and visual-spatial sketchpad) on math word problem-solving accuracy in children (N = 413, ages 6-10) are completely mediated by reading, calculation, and fluid intelligence. The results indicated that all three WM components predicted word problem solving in the nonmediated model, but only the storage component of WM yielded a significant direct path to word problem-solving accuracy in the fully mediated model...
April 4, 2017: Memory & Cognition
Costanza Papagno, Alessandro Comi, Marco Riva, Alberto Bizzi, Mirta Vernice, Alessandra Casarotti, Enrica Fava, Lorenzo Bello
The cortical and subcortical neural correlates underlying item and order information in verbal short-term memory (STM) were investigated by means of digit span in 29 patients with direct electrical stimulation during awake surgery for removal of a neoplastic lesion. Stimulation of left Broca's area interfered with span, producing significantly more item than order errors, as compared to the stimulation of the supramarginal/angular gyrus, which also interfered with span but, conversely, produced more order than item errors...
March 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Kelly Farquharson, Tiffany P Hogan, John E Bernthal
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the role of working memory processes as a possible cognitive underpinning of persistent speech sound disorders (SSD). METHOD: Forty school-aged children were enrolled; 20 children with persistent SSD (P-SSD) and 20 typically developing children. Children participated in three working memory tasks - one to target each of the components in Baddeley's working memory model: phonological loop, visual spatial sketchpad and central executive...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Amy Henderson, Hana Kim, Stephen Kintz, Nicole Frisco, Heather Harris Wright
Evidence suggests that persons with aphasia (PWAs) present with working memory impairments that affect a variety of language tasks. Most of these studies have focused on the phonological loop component of working memory and little attention has been paid to the episodic buffer component. The episodic buffer, as a limited capacity, multimodal system that binds and integrates information from the phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and long-term memory would likely be involved in discourse processing. The purposes of this article were to (1) review discourse level deficits associated with aphasia, (2) describe how a deficit at the level of the episodic buffer could cause such deficits, (3) to review discourse treatment approaches for PWAs, and (4) present preliminary results from a novel discourse treatment study for PWAs...
February 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
Elizabeth A Sanders, Virginia W Berninger, Robert D Abbott
Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 ( N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling (dyslexia, n = 60), or oral and written language (oral and written language learning disabilities, n = 18). That is, SLDs are defined on the basis of cascading level of language impairment (subword, word, and syntax/text)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Satu Korpela, Anna Nyman, Petriina Munck, Annarilla Ahtola, Jaakko Matomäki, Tapio Korhonen, Riitta Parkkola, Leena Haataja
The aim of this study is to investigate the working memory (WM) of very-low-birthweight (VLBW, ≤ 1500 g) children at the age of 11 years using Baddeley's WM model. A regional cohort of 95 VLBW children was assessed for the domains of the WM model (central executive [CE], visuospatial sketchpad [VS], and phonological loop [PL]) using subtests from the Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). VLBW children were categorized into three groups according to their degree of brain pathology (normal, minor, or major) in neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging at the term age, and the WM performance was compared between groups to test norms...
December 1, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Veronika Rutar Gorišek, Vlasta Zupanc Isoski, Aleš Belič, Christina Manouilidou, Blaž Koritnik, Jure Bon, Nuška Pečarič Meglič, Matej Vrabec, Janez Žibert, Grega Repovš, Janez Zidar
Broca's region and adjacent cortex presumably take part in working memory (WM) processes. Electrophysiologically, these processes are reflected in synchronized oscillations. We present the first study exploring the effects of a stroke causing Broca's aphasia on these processes and specifically on synchronized functional WM networks. We used high-density EEG and coherence analysis to map WM networks in ten Broca's patients and ten healthy controls during verbal WM task. Our results demonstrate that a stroke resulting in Broca's aphasia also alters two distinct WM networks...
September 12, 2016: Brain and Language
Christian A Kell, Maritza Darquea, Marion Behrens, Lorenzo Cordani, Christian Keller, Susanne Fuchs
Phonetic detail and lateralization of inner speech during covert sentence reading as well as overt reading in 32 right-handed healthy participants undergoing 3T fMRI were investigated. The number of voiceless and voiced consonants in the processed sentences was systematically varied. Participants listened to sentences, read them covertly, silently mouthed them while reading, and read them overtly. Condition comparisons allowed for the study of effects of externally versus self-generated auditory input and of somatosensory feedback related to or independent of voicing...
January 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Hefziba Lifshitz, Esther Kilberg, Eli Vakil
BACKGROUND: Integrative research review infers generalizations about a substantive subject, summarizes the accumulated knowledge that research has left unresolved and generates a new framework on these issues. Due to methodological issues emerging from working memory (WM) studies in the population with non-specific intellectual disability (NSID) (N=64) between 1990-2014, it is difficult to conclude on WM performance in this population. AIM: This integrative research review aimed to resolve literature conflicts on WM performance among individuals with NSID and to identify the conditions/moderators that govern their WM performance compared to controls with Typical development...
December 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Claudia Maehler, Kirsten Schuchardt
BACKGROUND: Given the well-known relation between intelligence and school achievement we expect children with normal intelligence to perform well at school and those with intelligence deficits to meet learning problems. But, contrary to these expectations, some children do not perform according to these predictions: children with normal intelligence but sub-average school achievement and children with lower intelligence but average success at school. Yet, it is an open question how the unexpected failure or success can be explained...
November 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Andrei Alexandru Puiu
The current study investigates the effects of age, cognitive load, optimal time-of-day testing, and irrelevant background noise suppression on mental processing. One hundred and seventy-eight young (M = 22.97 years) and 114 old adults (M = 56.38 years) were assessed for implicit learning and speed of information processing under irrelevant sound interference early during daytime (7AM-2.30PM) or in the afternoons (3PM-midnight). No direct effect of irrelevant speech effect was found on implicit learning...
May 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Bernd J Kröger, Eric Crawford, Trevor Bekolay, Chris Eliasmith
Production and comprehension of speech are closely interwoven. For example, the ability to detect an error in one's own speech, halt speech production, and finally correct the error can be explained by assuming an inner speech loop which continuously compares the word representations induced by production to those induced by perception at various cognitive levels (e.g., conceptual, word, or phonological levels). Because spontaneous speech errors are relatively rare, a picture naming and halt paradigm can be used to evoke them...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Lesley S Derraugh, Ian Neath, Aimée M Surprenant, Olivia Beaudry, Jean Saint-Aubin
The word-length effect, the finding that lists of short words are better recalled than lists of long words, is 1 of the 4 benchmark phenomena that guided development of the phonological loop component of working memory. However, previous work has noted a confound in word-length studies: The short words used had more orthographic neighbors (valid words that can be made by changing a single letter in the target word) than long words. The confound is that words with more neighbors are better recalled than otherwise comparable words with fewer neighbors...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
Natalie Lynette Phillips, Anna Mandalis, Suzanne Benson, Louise Parry, Adrienne Epps, Angie Morrow, Suncica Lah
Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) places children at risk for deficits in working memory (WM; comprising a central executive [CE], and two storage systems: phonological loop [PL] and visuospatial sketchpad [VSSP]), which is strongly related to attention and academic skills in childhood. This study aimed to examine whether different components of WM can be improved following adaptive WM training (Cogmed) and whether improvements in WM generalize to other cognitive (attention) and academic skills (reading and mathematics) in children with TBI...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Megan Eve, Fiadhnait O'Keeffe, Simren Jhuty, Vijeya Ganesan, Gary Brown, Tara Murphy
Cognitive deficits in the domains of working memory (WM) and executive function are well documented following childhood arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). However, there are currently no evidence-based cognitive interventions for this population. Computerized, implicit WM training has been demonstrated to generate generalized cognitive gains for children with WM and attention deficits and for adults following brain injury. This study used a pilot design to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of such an intervention program (Cogmed WM Training) for a childhood AIS population...
October 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Kathleen Nielsen, Robert Abbott, Whitney Griffin, Joe Lott, Wendy Raskind, Virginia W Berninger
The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word reading and spelling skills below the population mean and ability to use oral language to express thinking. These working memory predictor measures were given and used to predict reading and writing achievement: Coding (storing and processing) heard and spoken words (phonological coding), read and written words (orthographic coding), base words and affixes (morphological coding), and accumulating words over time (syntax coding); Cross-Code Integration (phonological loop for linking phonological name and orthographic letter codes and orthographic loop for linking orthographic letter codes and finger sequencing codes), and Supervisory Attention (focused and switching attention and self-monitoring during written word finding)...
2016: Learning Disabilities (Pittsburgh, Pa.)
Kalaiyashni Puvanendran, Ann Dowker, Nele Demeyere
We investigated derived fact strategy use in RR, an aphasic patient with severely impaired working memory (no phonological loop), and 16 neurologically healthy matched controls. Participants were tested on derived fact strategy use in multi-digit addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. RR's accuracy only differed from controls in multiplication. He was as quick as controls in addition and subtraction when able to use the strategies, though significantly slower in addition, division, and multiplication without strategies...
2016: Neurocase
Giovanni Bilancia, Moreno Marazzi, Davide Filippi
BACKGROUND: Specific Learning Disorders (SLD) therefore represent chronic, not temporary disorders with varying degrees of expression throughout life. The beginning of imaging, anatomy and genetics studies have made it possible to investigate the brain organization of individuals suffering from SLD (Deheane, 2009). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper is to describe a treatment method for reading and writing disorders through an intervention based on the integration of a sublexical method and a neuropsychological approach, with assistive technologies in the study of a single case...
2015: NeuroRehabilitation
Natalie Lynette Phillips, Louise Parry, Anna Mandalis, Suncica Lah
The aim of this review is to systematically examine the literature concerning multicomponent working memory (WM)-comprising a central executive (CE), two storage components (phonological loop, PL and visuo-spatial sketchpad, VSSP), and episodic buffer (EB)-in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Electronic searches were conducted of MEDLINE, PsychINFO and EMBASE up to October 2014 with the inclusion criteria of children and adolescents with TBI, and quantitative methods to assess at least one component of WM...
September 23, 2015: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
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