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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713237/effective-instruction-for-persisting-dyslexia-in-upper-grades-adding-hope-stories-and-computer-coding-to-explicit-literacy-instruction
#1
Robert Thompson, Steve Tanimoto, Ruby Dawn Lyman, Kira Geselowitz, Kristin Kawena Begay, Kathleen Nielsen, William Nagy, Robert Abbott, Marshall Raskind, Virginia Berninger
Children in grades 4 to 6 ( N =14) who despite early intervention had persisting dyslexia (impaired word reading and spelling) were assessed before and after computerized reading and writing instruction aimed at subword, word, and syntax skills shown in four prior studies to be effective for treating dyslexia. During the 12 two-hour sessions once a week after school they first completed HAWK Letters in Motion© for manuscript and cursive handwriting, HAWK Words in Motion© for phonological, orthographic, and morphological coding for word reading and spelling, and HAWK Minds in Motion© for sentence reading comprehension and written sentence composing...
May 2018: Education and information technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441037/the-integration-of-realistic-episodic-memories-relies-on-different-working-memory-processes-evidence-from-virtual-navigation
#2
Gaën Plancher, Valérie Gyselinck, Pascale Piolino
Memory is one of the most important cognitive functions in a person's life as it is essential for recalling personal memories and performing many everyday tasks. Although a huge number of studies have been conducted in the field, only a few of them investigated memory in realistic situations, due to methodological issues. The various tools that have been developed using virtual environments (VEs) have gained popularity in cognitive psychology and neuropsychology because they enable to create naturalistic and controlled situations, and are thus particularly adapted to the study of episodic memory (EM), for which an ecological evaluation is of prime importance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415645/shared-processing-of-language-and-music
#3
Ryan P Atherton, Quin M Chrobak, Frances H Rauscher, Aaron T Karst, Matt D Hanson, Steven W Steinert, Kyra L Bowe
The present study sought to explore whether musical information is processed by the phonological loop component of the working memory model of immediate memory. Original instantiations of this model primarily focused on the processing of linguistic information. However, the model was less clear about how acoustic information lacking phonological qualities is actively processed. Although previous research has generally supported shared processing of phonological and musical information, these studies were limited as a result of a number of methodological concerns (e...
January 2018: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280107/neural-response-to-working-memory-demand-predicts-neurocognitive-deficits-in-hiv
#4
Ronald A Cohen, S Siegel, J M Gullett, E Porges, A J Woods, H Huang, Y Zhu, K Tashima, M-Z Ding
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to have adverse effects on cognition and the brain in many infected people, despite a reduced incidence of HIV-associated dementia with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Working memory is often affected, along with attention, executive control, and cognitive processing speed. Verbal working memory (VWM) requires the interaction of each of the cognitive component processes along with a phonological loop for verbal repetition and rehearsal. HIV-related functional brain response abnormalities during VWM are evident in functional MRI (fMRI), though the neural substrate underlying these neurocognitive deficits is not well understood...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174050/phonological-working-memory-and-foxp2
#5
Katrin Schulze, Faraneh Vargha-Khadem, Mortimer Mishkin
The discovery and description of the affected members of the KE family (aKE) initiated research on how genes enable the unique human trait of speech and language. Many aspects of this genetic influence on speech-related cognitive mechanisms are still elusive, e.g. if and how cognitive processes not directly involved in speech production are affected. In the current study we investigated the effect of the FOXP2 mutation on Working Memory (WM). Half the members of the multigenerational KE family have an inherited speech-language disorder, characterised as a verbal and orofacial dyspraxia caused by a mutation of the FOXP2 gene...
January 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172587/entra%C3%A3-nement-de-la-m%C3%A3-moire-de-travail-effets-sur-la-performance-en-math%C3%A3-matiques
#6
Camille Charest-Girard, Véronique Parent
The main components of working memory (WM; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974), central executive, phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad, are related to mathematics skills (Friso-van den Bos, Van der Ven, Kroesbergen, & Van Luit, 2013). Different studies have shown that WM training can increase WM capacity (Randall & Tyldesley, 2016). In that context, this research seeks to verify the effects of WM training on the components of WM as well as on performance in arithmetic and in problem solving among students in the firsts grades of primary school (6 to 8 years of age)...
November 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102838/correlations-between-working-memory-impairment-and-neurometabolites-of-prefrontal-cortex-and-lenticular-nucleus-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#7
Yanyan Shan, Yanbin Jia, Shuming Zhong, Xueguo Li, Hui Zhao, Junhao Chen, Qianyi Lu, Lu Zhang, Zhinan Li, Shunkai Lai, Ying Wang
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of working memory (WM) impairment in MDD remains unclear. We aimed to find out the mechanism by using neuropsychological tests and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). METHODS: 31 MDD patients and 31 healthy controls were recruited in our study. The WM performance and neurometabolite ratios of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and lenticular nucleus (LN) between two groups were evaluated and compared. And the correlations between abnormal neurometabolite ratios and WM dysfunction were computed...
February 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964281/working-memory-span-in-persian-speaking-children-with-speech-sound-disorders-and-normal-speech-development
#8
Mohamad Reza Afshar, Ali Ghorbani, Vahid Rashedi, Nahid Jalilevand, Mohamad Kamali
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare working memory span in Persian-speaking preschool children with speech sound disorder (SSD) and their typically speaking peers. Additionally, the study aimed to examine Non-Word Repetition (NWR), Forward Digit Span (FDS) and Backward Digit Span (BDS) in four groups of children with varying severity levels of SSD. METHODS: The participants in this study comprised 35 children with SSD and 35 typically developing (TD) children -matched for age and sex-as a control group...
October 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832812/relation-between-arithmetic-performance-and-phonological-working-memory-in-children
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Kelly da Silva, Patrícia Aparecida Zuanetti, Vanessa Trombini Ribeiro Borcat, Raphaela Barroso Guedes-Granzotti, Rita Cristina Sadako Kuroishi, Daniele Ramos Domenis, Marisa Tomoe Hebihara Fukuda
Purpose: To compare the results of Loop Phonological Working Memory (LPWM) in children without global learning alterations, with lower and average/higher arithmetic performance. Methods: The study was conducted with 30 children, between the ages of seven and nine years old, who attended the second or third grade of elementary school in the public network. Exclusion criteria were children with suggestive signs of hearing loss, neurological disorders, poor performance in the reading comprehension test or in speech therapy...
August 17, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654032/assessing-working-memory-in-children-the-comprehensive-assessment-battery-for-children-working-memory-cabc-wm
#10
Kathryn Cabbage, Shara Brinkley, Shelley Gray, Mary Alt, Nelson Cowan, Samuel Green, Trudy Kuo, Tiffany P Hogan
The Comprehensive Assessment Battery for Children - Working Memory (CABC-WM) is a computer-based battery designed to assess different components of working memory in young school-age children. Working memory deficits have been identified in children with language-based learning disabilities, including dyslexia1 , 2 and language impairment3 , 4 , but it is not clear whether these children exhibit deficits in subcomponents of working memory, such as visuospatial or phonological working memory. The CABC-WM is administered on a desktop computer with a touchscreen interface and was specifically developed to be engaging and motivating for children...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567009/anatomical-modularity-of-verbal-working-memory-functional-anatomical-evidence-from-a-famous-patient-with-short-term-memory-deficits
#11
Eraldo Paulesu, Tim Shallice, Laura Danelli, Maurizio Sberna, Richard S J Frackowiak, Chris D Frith
Cognitive skills are the emergent property of distributed neural networks. The distributed nature of these networks does not necessarily imply a lack of specialization of the individual brain structures involved. However, it remains questionable whether discrete aspects of high-level behavior might be the result of localized brain activity of individual nodes within such networks. The phonological loop of working memory, with its simplicity, seems ideally suited for testing this possibility. Central to the development of the phonological loop model has been the description of patients with focal lesions and specific deficits...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554850/the-role-of-working-memory-sub-components-in-food-choice-and-dieting-success
#12
Victoria Whitelock, Arie Nouwen, Olga van den Akker, Suzanne Higgs
Evidence suggests a role for self-reported working memory (WM) in self-reported food intake, but it is not known which WM sub-components are involved. It is also important to consider how individual differences in dietary restraint and disinhibition influence WM and the impact of this on food choice. The current study assessed the relationship between WM sub-components and food choice, using computerised measures of WM sub-components and a direct assessment of food intake. The role of dieting success (measured by restraint and disinhibition) as a distal predictor of food choice that influences food choices via WM, and the role of WM more generally in dieting success were investigated...
May 26, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515265/clinical-marker-for-alzheimer-disease-pathology-in-logopenic-primary-progressive-aphasia
#13
Lucia A A Giannini, David J Irwin, Corey T McMillan, Sharon Ash, Katya Rascovsky, David A Wolk, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Edward B Lee, John Q Trojanowski, Murray Grossman
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether logopenic features of phonologic loop dysfunction reflect Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology in primary progressive aphasia (PPA). METHODS: We performed a retrospective case-control study of 34 patients with PPA with available autopsy tissue. We compared baseline and longitudinal clinical features in patients with primary AD neuropathology to those with primary non-AD pathologies. We analyzed regional neuroanatomic disease burden in pathology-defined groups using postmortem neuropathologic data...
June 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491042/disentangling-working-memory-functioning-in-mood-states-of-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Carolina Soraggi-Frez, Flávia H Santos, Pedro B Albuquerque, Leandro F Malloy-Diniz
Working memory (WM) deficits are often reported in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD). However, it is not clear about the nature of these WM deficits (update or serial order processes) and their association with each BD states (euthymic, mania, and depressive). This review investigated the association between BD patient's states and the functioning of WM components. For this purpose, we carried out a systematic review fulfilling a search in the databases Medline, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science using specific terms in the abstracts of the articles that generated 212 outcomes in the restricted period from 2005 to 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427030/the-relationship-between-sign-production-and-sign-comprehension-what-handedness-reveals
#15
Freya Watkins, Robin L Thompson
Unlike the phonological loop in spoken language monitoring, sign language users' own production provides mostly proprioceptive feedback and only minimal visual feedback. Here we investigate whether sign production influences sign comprehension by exploiting hand dominance in a picture-sign matching task performed by left-handed signers and right-handed signers. Should all signers perform better to right-handed input, this would suggest that a frequency effect in sign perception drives comprehension. However, if signers perform better to congruent-handed input, this would implicate the production system's role in comprehension...
July 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378297/working-memory-components-that-predict-word-problem-solving-is-it-merely-a-function-of-reading-calculation-and-fluid-intelligence
#16
Wenson Fung, H Lee Swanson
The purpose of this study was to assess whether the differential effects of working memory (WM) components (the central executive, phonological loop, and visual-spatial sketchpad) on math word problem-solving accuracy in children (N = 413, ages 6-10) are completely mediated by reading, calculation, and fluid intelligence. The results indicated that all three WM components predicted word problem solving in the nonmediated model, but only the storage component of WM yielded a significant direct path to word problem-solving accuracy in the fully mediated model...
July 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321956/mapping-the-brain-network-of-the-phonological-loop
#17
Costanza Papagno, Alessandro Comi, Marco Riva, Alberto Bizzi, Mirta Vernice, Alessandra Casarotti, Enrica Fava, Lorenzo Bello
The cortical and subcortical neural correlates underlying item and order information in verbal short-term memory (STM) were investigated by means of digit span in 29 patients with direct electrical stimulation during awake surgery for removal of a neoplastic lesion. Stimulation of left Broca's area interfered with span, producing significantly more item than order errors, as compared to the stimulation of the supramarginal/angular gyrus, which also interfered with span but, conversely, produced more order than item errors...
June 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306339/working-memory-in-school-age-children-with-and-without-a-persistent-speech-sound-disorder
#18
Kelly Farquharson, Tiffany P Hogan, John E Bernthal
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the role of working memory processes as a possible cognitive underpinning of persistent speech sound disorders (SSD). METHOD: Forty school-aged children were enrolled; 20 children with persistent SSD (P-SSD) and 20 typically developing children. Children participated in three working memory tasks - one to target each of the components in Baddeley's working memory model: phonological loop, visual spatial sketchpad and central executive...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201836/working-memory-in-aphasia-considering-discourse-processing-and-treatment-implications
#19
Amy Henderson, Hana Kim, Stephen Kintz, Nicole Frisco, Heather Harris Wright
Evidence suggests that persons with aphasia (PWAs) present with working memory impairments that affect a variety of language tasks. Most of these studies have focused on the phonological loop component of working memory and little attention has been paid to the episodic buffer component. The episodic buffer, as a limited capacity, multimodal system that binds and integrates information from the phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and long-term memory would likely be involved in discourse processing. The purposes of this article were to (1) review discourse level deficits associated with aphasia, (2) describe how a deficit at the level of the episodic buffer could cause such deficits, (3) to review discourse treatment approaches for PWAs, and (4) present preliminary results from a novel discourse treatment study for PWAs...
February 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199175/sequential-prediction-of-literacy-achievement-for-specific-learning-disabilities-contrasting-in-impaired-levels-of-language-in-grades-4-to-9
#20
Elizabeth A Sanders, Virginia W Berninger, Robert D Abbott
Sequential regression was used to evaluate whether language-related working memory components uniquely predict reading and writing achievement beyond cognitive-linguistic translation for students in Grades 4 through 9 ( N = 103) with specific learning disabilities (SLDs) in subword handwriting (dysgraphia, n = 25), word reading and spelling (dyslexia, n = 60), or oral and written language (oral and written language learning disabilities, n = 18). That is, SLDs are defined on the basis of cascading level of language impairment (subword, word, and syntax/text)...
March 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
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