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Boye L Jensen
The Acta Physiologica Prize winners Grill et al.1 address a fundamental issue in renal and circulatory physiology, namely how the kidneys accomplish maintenance of extracellular fluid volume (ECV) by conservation of the freely filtered solutes Na+ and Cl-. In an elegant comprehensive investigation in mice, they show that the chloride channel ClC-K2 is necessary for ECV homeostasis. The study sheds light on how the human kidneys regain 20 moles or 0.5 kg of chloride ions per day. Maintenance of ECV is essential for effective circulating volume, constant perfusion pressure and adequate organ perfusion...
April 20, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Jin Qian, Kun Li, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Jingjing Liu, Xin Tian, Bianhe Lu, Wenyi Guan
Engineered nano-TiO2 (Enano-TiO2 ) have inevitably discharged into aquatic sediments that resulted from their widespread use. The physicochemical characteristics of sediments might be changed because of remarkable properties of Enano-TiO2 and affected by the aging of sediments, thereby altering the environmental behavior and bioavailability of other pollutants such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in sediments. Here, adsorption behavior and mechanism of PFOS on aging aquatic sediments spiked with Enano-TiO2 at a weight ratio of 5...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sohei Harada, Yoshikazu Ishii, Tomoo Saga, Kotaro Aoki, Kazuhiro Tateda
Although severe infections caused by hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, such as K1 isolates belonging to sequence type (ST) 23, have been a significant problem in Asian countries, epidemiology of these isolates in Japan remains unclear. We performed a nationwide molecular epidemiological study of K. pneumoniae K1 and K2 isolates in Japan. Of the 259K. pneumoniae isolates collected, 14 and 16 isolates were identified as capsular genotypes K1 and K2, respectively. All K1 isolates were ST23 or its closely related clones and showed high genetic similarity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and the DiversiLab system (DL)...
March 20, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Laurence Hopkinson, Ken J Rutt, Petra Kristova
This study presents the first account of the near-infrared (NIR) spectra of the alkali carbonates: [Cs2 CO3 ] [Rb2 CO3 ] [K2 CO3 ] [Na2 CO3 ] and [Li2 CO3 ]. Seven NIR bands (labelled [A] to [G] inclusive) within the [4000-6000cm-1 ] (2.5-1.66μm) region of interest are common to the five spectra examined, of which six bands [A-C] and [E-G] proved amenable to quantitative study. The first three occur in the range 4067-4493cm-1 (2.458-2.226μm) and are assigned to a [CO3 2- ] 3v3 overtone, Bands [E] and [F] are centred at ca 4902cm-1 (2...
April 11, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Xiulan Song, Chao Wang, Meiqin Liu, Miao Zhang
Advanced treatment of biologically treated coking wastewater (BTCW) using persulfate (PS) oxidation with magnetic activated carbon composite (CuFe2 O4 :AC w/w ratio of 1:1.5, denoted as 1.5-MACC) as a green catalyst was evaluated at ambient temperature (30 °C). Effects of PS (K2 S2 O8 ) and 1.5-MACC doses on PS decomposition and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in BTCW were also studied during 360 min. The results showed that the 1.5-MACC/PS system has a much better performance on TOC removal in BTCW than only 1...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Mohammed Ali Abu Ameerh, Muawyah Dawoud Al Bdour, Maha Al-Till, Muhannad Al Faouri
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of trans-epithelial corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) with Iontophoresis among patients with progressive keratoconus. METHODS: It is a prospective interventional study, which is based on 41 eyes of 23 patients, suffering from progressive keratoconus and treated with trans-epithelial corneal cross-linking, using iontophoresis with ETDA and trometamol-enriched riboflavin 5 phosphates 0.1% hypotonic solution (Ricrolin+, Soot Italia SpA, Italy)...
April 19, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Y Yamamoto, T Murayama, J Jiang, T Yasui, M Shibuya
In the presence of 5 mol% Pd(OAc)2 , 1 equiv. of norbornene, and K2 CO3 , the reaction of 4-iodo-2-quinolones with tertiary o -bromobenzylic alcohols produced the desired benzopyran-fused 2-quinolones in moderate to high yields. A Catellani-type mechanism involving vinylic C-H cleavage is proposed based on the results of control experiments and density functional theory calculations.
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Peng Guo, Nan Xu, Duo Li, Xinxing Huangfu, Zuling Li
Crop soil is inevitably contaminated by the excess of phosphate (P) fertilizers. A large amount of nanoparticle titanium dioxide (nTiO2 ) entered soils as well due to the wide use of engineered nanomaterials. It is of great urgency and a high priority to investigate the mechanisms of nTiO2 deposition with the presence of P in crop soils. This study investigated the transport behavior of (1.0 g L-1 ) rutile nTiO2 with two representative clay particles (montmorillonite or diatomite) in the presence of P through the saturated quartz sand...
April 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Eda Marie Barsalote, Hoa Thi Pham, Stela Lazarova, Vlada Peneva, Jingwu Zheng
Longidorus cheni sp. n ., an amphimictic species recovered from the rhizosphere of Larix principis-rupprechtii and Pyracantha fortuneana in Shanxi and Beijing, China, is described and illustrated. The taxonomic position of L. cheni sp. n. among other species within the genus was elucidated using morphometric and molecular data, and phylogenetic relationships were inferred using D2-D3 expansion domains of 28S and 18S rRNA genes by Bayesian Inference (BI) method. The new species is characterised by females with a medium body size (L = 4...
2018: ZooKeys
Yan Yang, Ke Sun, Lanfang Han, Jie Jin, Haoran Sun, Yu Yang, Baoshan Xing
The stability of biochar is a major determinant of its potential for carbon sequestration. In previous studies, the biochar stability was evaluated by analyzing the oxidation resistance property of biochar, for which, K2 Cr2 O7 /H2 O2 oxidation and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were widely used to measure the high oxidation resistance of biochars. In this study, rice straw (RI)- and swine manure (SW)-derived biochars produced at different heating treatment temperatures (HTTs) and their corresponding de-ashed biochars and iron-biochars were selected to investigate the effect of minerals on these biochars stability...
April 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Shuanghui Deng, Xuebin Wang, Jiaye Zhang, Zihan Liu, Hrvoje Mikulčić, Milan Vujanović, Houzhang Tan, Neven Duić
Biomass combustion under the oxy-fuel conditions (Oxy-biomass combustion) is one of the approaches achieving negative CO2 emissions. KCl, K2 CO3 and K2 SO4 , as the major potassium species in biomass ash, can catalytically affect biomass combustion. In this paper, the catalysis of the representative potassium salts on oxy-biomass combustion was studied using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Effects of potassium salt types (KCl, K2 CO3 and K2 SO4 ), loading concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, 8 wt%), replacing N2 by CO2 , and O2 concentrations (5, 20, 30 vol%) on the catalysis degree were discussed...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Ibtissem Djinni, Warda Djoudi, Samiha Souagui, Farida Rabia, Sihem Rahmouni, Ines Mancini, Mouloud Kecha
Streptomyces thermoviolaceus SRC3, a newly isolated actinobacterial strain from Algerian river sediments, exhibited a broad activity against various bacterial and yeast human pathogens (Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028, Vibrio cholerae ATCC 14035, MRSA ATCC 43300 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231). The strain SRC3 was selected from thirty nine actinobacterial isolates and identified as S. thermoviolaceus based on morphology, cultural properties, physiological analyses and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Culture parameters for the antibiotic production were optimized by sequential statistical strategy including Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM)...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Yan Huang, Zhiping Hu
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury plays a significant role in the development of multi-subcellular organelles injury after ischemic stroke. UBIAD1 was discovered originally as a potential tumor suppressor protein. Recently, analysis of UBIAD1 has indicated it is a prenyltransferase enzyme for both non-mitochondrial CoQ10 and vitamin K2 production. Further, UBIAD1 has been localized to multiple subcellular organelles. Particularly, UBIAD1 plays an important role in the regulation of oxidative stress, apoptosis and cell proliferation, cholesterol and lipid metabolism, which was closely associated with the cerebral ischemic/reperfusion mechanism...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Zhen Li, Harish Jangra, Quan Chen, Peter Mayer, Armin R Ofial, Hendrik Zipse, Herbert Mayr
The kinetics of epoxide formation by Darzens condensation of aliphatic ketones 1 with arylsulfonyl-substituted chloromethyl anions 2 (ArSO2 CHCl- ) have been determined photometrically in DMSO solution at 20 °C. The reactions proceed via nucleophilic attack of the carbanions at the carbonyl group to give intermediate halohydrin anions 4, which subsequently cyclize with formation of the oxiranes 3. Protonation of the reaction mixture obtained in THF solution at low temperature allowed the intermediates to be trapped and the corresponding halohydrins 4-H to be isolated...
April 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Anis Irmawati, Nadira Jasmin, Sidarningsih
Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of moderate exercise on the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Materials and Methods: Eighteen Mus musculus strain Swiss Webster (Balb/c) were divided into three groups (n=6). K1 and K2 had contact with water 3 times/week for 12 weeks, while the members of the K3 group swam 3 times/week for 12 weeks while carrying load weighed 3% of their body weight. After 5 weeks, they were induced with 0.04 ml oleum olivarum (K1), 0...
February 2018: Veterinary World
Wei-Qing Xu, Long-Quan Xu, De-Guang Qi, Tao Chen, Ya-Wei Liu, Lin-Fan Zhu
The differential cross sections and generalized oscillator strengths for the low-lying excitations of the valence-shell 1eg orbital electron in ethane have been measured for the first time at a high incident electron energy of 1500 eV and a scattering angular range of 1.5°-10°. A weak feature, termed X here, with a band center of about 7.5 eV has been observed, which was also announced by the previous experimental and theoretical studies. The dynamic behaviors of the generalized oscillator strengths for the 3s (8...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Kuo Zeng, Qing Yang, Yang Zhang, Yanyang Mei, Xianhua Wang, Haiping Yang, Jingai Shao, Jiashuo Li, Hanping Chen
The study presented an approach to introduce Mg-based additives into cotton stalk for strengthening deoxygenation effect during torrefaction. Then catalytic pyrolysis of torrefied feedstock with Mg-based additives residue as catalyst was performed at 550 °C for 10 min in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of torrefaction temperature (200, 230, 260, 290, 320, 350 °C), type of Mg-based additive (MgO and MgO-K2 CO3 ), mass ratio of additive to biomass (0.5, 1 and 2) on pyrolysis were investigated. The results indicated that yields of bio-char and bio-oil significantly increased and decreased with torrefaction temperature rising to 350 °C...
March 29, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Kanu Shil, Sudipta Pal
Background: Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], an environmental pollutant that originates mostly from anthropogenic sources, is a serious threat to human health. After entering into cells, Cr(VI) is capable of producing excessive free radicals and causing tissue damage. The present study aims to reveal the toxic manifestation of Cr(VI) on the metabolic activity of renal tissue. Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated orally with potassium dichromate (K2 Cr2 O7 ) at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for a period of 30 days...
April 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
Steven Tilley, Wojciech Zbijewski, Jeffrey H Siewerdsen, J Webster Stayman
Material decomposition in CT has the potential to reduce artifacts and improve quantitative accuracy by utilizing spectral models and multi-energy scans. In this work we present a novel Model-Based Material Decomposition (MBMD) method based on an existing iterative reconstruction algorithm derived from a general non-linear forward model. A digital water phantom with inserts containing different concentrations of calcium was scanned on a kV switching system. We used the presented method to simultaneously reconstruct water and calcium material density images, and compared the results to an image domain and a projection domain decomposition method...
March 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
Krisztina M Papp-Wallace, Nhu Q Nguyen, Michael R Jacobs, Christopher R Bethel, Melissa D Barnes, Vijay Kumar, Saralee Bajaksouzian, Susan D Rudin, Philip N Rather, Satish Bhavsar, Tadiparthi Ravikumar, Prasad K Deshpande, Vijay Patil, Ravindra Yeole, Sachin S Bhagwat, Mahesh V Patel, Focco van den Akker, Robert A Bonomo
Limited treatment options exist to combat infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram negative bacteria possessing broad-spectrum β-lactamases. The design of novel β-lactamase inhibitors is of paramount importance. Here, three novel diazabicyclooctanes (DBOs), WCK 5153, zidebactam (WCK 5107), and WCK 4234 (compounds 1-3) were synthesized and biochemically characterized against clinically important bacteria. Compound 3 inhibited class A, C and D β-lactamases with unprecedented k2/K values against OXA carbapenemases...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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