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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26692870/an-efficient-strategy-for-establishing-a-model-of-sensorineural-deafness-in-rats
#1
Long Ma, Hai-Jin Yi, Fen-Qian Yuan, Wei-Wei Guo, Shi-Ming Yang
Ototoxic drugs can be used to produce a loss of cochlear hair cells to create animal models of deafness. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on the establishment of a rat deafness model through the combined application of aminoglycosides and loop diuretics. The aim of this study was to use single or combined administration of furosemide and kanamycin sulfate to establish rat models of deafness. The rats received intravenous injections of different doses of furosemide and/or intramuscular injections of kanamycin sulfate...
October 2015: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26582731/novel-probes-establish-mas-related-g-protein-coupled-receptor-x1-variants-as-receptors-with-loss-or-gain-of-function
#2
Daniel Heller, Jamie R Doyle, Venkata S Raman, Martin Beinborn, Krishna Kumar, Alan S Kopin
The Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor X1 (MrgprX1) is a human seven transmembrane-domain protein with a putative role in nociception and pruritus. This receptor is expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons and is activated by a variety of endogenous peptides, including bovine adrenal medulla peptide (BAM) and γ2-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (γ2-MSH). In the present work, we study how naturally occurring missense mutations alter the activity of MrgprX1. To characterize selected receptor variants, we initially used the endogenous peptide ligand BAM8-22...
February 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25467980/npas1-represses-the-generation-of-specific-subtypes-of-cortical-interneurons
#3
Amelia Stanco, Ramón Pla, Daniel Vogt, Yiran Chen, Shyamali Mandal, Jamie Walker, Robert F Hunt, Susan Lindtner, Carolyn A Erdman, Andrew A Pieper, Steven P Hamilton, Duan Xu, Scott C Baraban, John L R Rubenstein
Little is known about genetic mechanisms that regulate the ratio of cortical excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We show that NPAS1 and NPAS3 transcription factors (TFs) are expressed in progenitor domains of the mouse basal ganglia (subpallium, MGE, and CGE). NPAS1(-/-) mutants had increased proliferation, ERK signaling, and expression of Arx in the MGE and CGE. NPAS1(-/-) mutants also had increased neocortical inhibition (sIPSC and mIPSC) and generated an excess of somatostatin(+) (SST) (MGE-derived) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide(+) (VIP) (CGE-derived) neocortical interneurons, but had a normal density of parvalbumin(+) (PV) (MGE-derived) interneurons...
December 3, 2014: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24127297/notable-plesiomorphies-and-notable-specializations-head-structure-of-the-primitive-tongue-moth-acanthopteroctetes-unifascia-lepidoptera-acanthopteroctetidae
#4
Niels P Kristensen, Jadranka Rota, Stefan Fischer
The Acanthopteroctetidae are one of the first-originated family-group lineages within "tongue moths" (Lepidoptera-Glossata). The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive account (based on whole mount preparations, serial sections, and Scanning electron microscopy) of the cephalic structure of an adult exemplar of the family, to supplement the sparse available information. Notable plesiomorphies include the retention of frontal retractors of the narrow labrum, a high supraocular index linked to strong development of cranio-mandibular ad- and abductors, and perhaps the unusually short but still coilable (just ca...
February 2014: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23904607/neuropeptide-y-gates-a-stress-induced-long-lasting-plasticity-in-the-sympathetic-nervous-system
#5
Qian Wang, Manqi Wang, Matthew D Whim
Acute stress evokes the fight-or-flight reflex, which via release of the catecholamine hormones affects the function of every major organ. Although the reflex is transient, it has lasting consequences that produce an exaggerated response when stress is reexperienced. How this change is encoded is not known. We investigated whether the reflex affects the adrenal component of the sympathetic nervous system, a major branch of the stress response. Mice were briefly exposed to the cold-water forced swim test (FST) which evoked an increase in circulating catecholamines...
July 31, 2013: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23483451/atoh1-induces-auditory-hair-cell-recovery-in-mice-after-ototoxic-injury
#6
Shannon Kraft, Chi Hsu, Douglas E Brough, Hinrich Staecker
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the ability of the Ad28.gfap.atoh1 to promote hair cell regeneration and hearing recovery in cochlea injured with kanamycin and furosemide. STUDY DESIGN: In vivo model of hair cell ablation and subsequent treatment with Atoh1. METHODS: The hair cells of C57BL/6 mice were ablated with systemic administration of kanamycin and furosemide. The left ears were treated with Ad28.gfap.atoh1. The right ears were not treated...
April 2013: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22262907/injury-dependent-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-and-ganglion-cell-reprogramming-during-tissue-regeneration-requires-apobec2a-and-apobec2b
#7
Curtis Powell, Fairouz Elsaeidi, Daniel Goldman
Unlike mammals, adult zebrafish are able to regenerate multiple tissues including those of the CNS. In the zebrafish retina, injury stimulates Müller glia dedifferentiation into a multipotent retinal progenitor that is capable of regenerating all lost cell types. This dedifferentiation is driven by the reactivation of gene expression programs that share many characteristics with those that operate during early development. Although the mechanisms underlying the reactivation of these programs remain unknown, it is likely that changes in DNA methylation play a significant role...
January 18, 2012: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21800309/progenitor-cell-capacity-of-neurod1-expressing-globose-basal-cells-in-the-mouse-olfactory-epithelium
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Adam Packard, Maryann Giel-Moloney, Andrew Leiter, James E Schwob
The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD1 is expressed in embryonic and adult mouse olfactory epithelium (OE), as well as during epithelial regeneration, suggesting that it plays an important role in olfactory neurogenesis. We characterized NEUROD1-expressing progenitors, determined their progeny in the adult OE, and identified a subtle phenotype in ΔNeuroD1-knockout mice. All olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) derive from a NeuroD1-expressing progenitor as shown by recombination-mediated lineage tracing, as do other sensory receptors of the nose, including vomeronasal, nasal septal, and Grunenberg ganglion neurons...
December 1, 2011: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21312230/organogenesis-in-the-budding-process-of-the-freshwater-bryozoan-cristatella-mucedo-cuvier-1798-bryozoa-phylactolaemata
#9
Thomas Schwaha, Stephan Handschuh, Emanuel Redl, Manfred G Walzl
The phylogenetic position of bryozoans has been disputed for decades, and molecular phylogenetic analyzes have not unequivocally clarified their position within the Bilateria. As probably the most basal bryozoans, Phylactolaemata is the most promising taxon for large-scale phylogenetic comparisons. These comparisons require extending the morphological and developmental data by investigating different phylactolaemate species to identify basal characters and resolve in-group phylogeny. Accordingly, we analyzed the bud development and the organogenesis of the freshwater bryozoan Cristatella mucedo, with special focus on the formation of the digestive tract and differentiation of the coelomic compartments...
March 2011: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20702711/mkp1-is-a-c-jun-target-gene-that-antagonizes-jnk-dependent-apoptosis-in-sympathetic-neurons
#10
Mark Kristiansen, Rosie Hughes, Pritika Patel, Thomas S Jacques, Andrew R Clark, Jonathan Ham
Developing sympathetic neurons depend on NGF for survival. When sympathetic neurons are deprived of NGF in vitro, a well documented series of events, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway activation, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, and caspase activation, culminates in the death of the neuron by apoptosis within 24-48 h. This process requires de novo gene expression, suggesting that increased expression of specific genes activates the cell death program. Using rat gene microarrays, we found that NGF withdrawal induces the expression of many genes, including mkp1, which encodes a MAPK phosphatase that can dephosphorylate JNKs...
August 11, 2010: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19494571/gene-therapy-in-the-inner-ear-using-adenovirus-vectors
#11
REVIEW
Jacob Husseman, Yehoash Raphael
Therapies for the protection and regeneration of auditory hair cells are of great interest given the significant monetary and lifestyle impact of hearing loss. The past decade has seen tremendous advances in the use of adenoviral vectors to achieve these aims. Preliminary data demonstrated the functional capacity of this technique as adenoviral-induced expression of neurotrophic and growth factors protected hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons from ototoxic insults. Subsequent efforts confirmed the feasibility of adenoviral transfection of cells in the auditory neuroepithelium via cochleostomy into the scala media...
2009: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19386638/dlx1-2-and-mash1-transcription-factors-control-mge-and-cge-patterning-and-differentiation-through-parallel-and-overlapping-pathways
#12
Jason E Long, Inma Cobos, Greg B Potter, John L R Rubenstein
Here we define the expression of approximately 100 transcription factors (TFs) in progenitors and neurons of the developing mouse medial and caudal ganglionic eminences, anlage of the basal ganglia and pallial interneurons. We have begun to elucidate the transcriptional hierarchy of these genes with respect to the Dlx homeodomain genes, which are essential for differentiation of most gamma-aminobutyric acidergic projection neurons of the basal ganglia. This analysis identified Dlx-dependent and Dlx-independent pathways...
July 2009: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19204094/prolyl-hydroxylase-inhibitors-depend-on-extracellular-glucose-and-hypoxia-inducible-factor-hif-2alpha-to-inhibit-cell-death-caused-by-nerve-growth-factor-ngf-deprivation-evidence-that-hif-2alpha-has-a-role-in-ngf-promoted-survival-of-sympathetic-neurons
#13
David J Lomb, Lynette A Desouza, James L Franklin, Robert S Freeman
Neurotrophins are critical for the survival of neurons during development and insufficient access to neurotrophins later in life may contribute to the loss of neurons in neurodegenerative disease, spinal cord injury, and stroke. The prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) and dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) were shown to inhibit cell death in a model of neurotrophin deprivation that involves depriving sympathetic neurons of nerve growth factor (NGF). Here we show that treatment with DMOG or DHB reverses the decline in 2-deoxyglucose uptake caused by NGF withdrawal and suppresses the NGF deprivation-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species...
May 2009: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19093008/reprogramming-chick-rpe-progeny-cells-to-differentiate-towards-retinal-neurons-by-ash1
#14
Weiming Mao, Run-Tao Yan, Shu-Zhen Wang
PURPOSE: Harnessing a cell culture of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to give rise to retinal neurons may offer a source of developing neurons for cell-replacement studies. This study explores the possibility of reprogramming RPE progeny cells to differentiate toward retinal neurons with achaete-scute homolog 1 (ash1), a proneural gene that is expressed in progenitor cells in the developing retina and promotes amacrine cell production when overexpressed in the chick retina. METHODS: Replication Competent Avian Splice (RCAS) retrovirus was used to drive the ectopic expression of ash1 in cell cultures of dissociated RPE isolated from day 6 chick embryos...
2008: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17234174/a-molecular-analysis-of-neurogenic-placode-and-cranial-sensory-ganglion-development-in-the-shark-scyliorhinus-canicula
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
P O'Neill, R B McCole, C V H Baker
In order to gain insight into the evolution of the genetic control of the development of cranial neurogenic placodes and cranial sensory ganglia in vertebrates, we cloned and analysed the spatiotemporal expression pattern of six transcription factor genes in a chondrichthyan, the shark Scyliorhinus canicula (lesser-spotted dogfish/catshark). As in other vertebrates, NeuroD is expressed in all cranial sensory ganglia. We show that Pax3 is expressed in the profundal placode and ganglion, strongly supporting homology between the separate profundal ganglion of elasmobranchs and basal actinopterygians and the ophthalmic trigeminal placode-derived neurons of the fused amniote trigeminal ganglion...
April 1, 2007: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17074884/spatial-codes-in-dendritic-bc1-rna
#16
Ilham A Muslimov, Anna Iacoangeli, Jürgen Brosius, Henri Tiedge
BC1 RNA is a dendritic untranslated RNA that has been implicated in local translational control mechanisms in neurons. Prerequisite for a functional role of the RNA in synaptodendritic domains is its targeted delivery along the dendritic extent. We report here that the targeting-competent 5' BC1 domain carries two dendritic targeting codes. One code, specifying somatic export, is located in the medial-basal region of the 5' BC1 stem-loop structure. It is defined by an export-determinant stem-bulge motif. The second code, specifying long-range dendritic delivery, is located in the apical part of the 5' stem-loop domain...
November 6, 2006: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17017549/getting-around-and-communicating-with-the-environment-visual-cognition-and-language-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
I Bodis-Wollner, M Y Jo
Vision in PD. In PD an impairment of dopaminergic neurons of the preganglionic retina and a defect of the retinal nerve fibers (axons of the retinal ganglion cells) has been demonstrated and a correlation of loss of spatial contrast sensitivity, with the progression of motor impairment in PD has been described. These low level visual deficits contribute but do not directly explain behavioural visual deficits in PD involving spatial cognition, internal representation, space navigation and visual categorization...
2006: Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16979618/pax6-controls-cerebral-cortical-cell-number-by-regulating-exit-from-the-cell-cycle-and-specifies-cortical-cell-identity-by-a-cell-autonomous-mechanism
#18
Jane C Quinn, Michael Molinek, Ben S Martynoga, Paulette A Zaki, Andrea Faedo, Alessandro Bulfone, Robert F Hevner, John D West, David J Price
Many cerebral cortical neurons and glia are produced by apical progenitors dividing at the ventricular surface of the embryonic dorsal telencephalon. Other neurons are produced by basal progenitor cells, which are derived from apical progenitors, dividing away from the ventricular surface. The transcription factor Pax6 is expressed in apical progenitors and is downregulated in basal progenitors, which upregulate the transcription factor Tbr2. Here we show that Pax6(-/-) cells are under-represented in the cortex of Pax6(+/+)<-->Pax6(-/-) chimeras early in corticogenesis, indicating that Pax6 is required for the production of normal numbers of cortical cells...
February 1, 2007: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16919185/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-writer-s-cramp
#19
Xing-yue Hu, Li Wang, Hai Liu, Shi-zheng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Writer's cramp is a type of task specific idiopathic focal dystonia and has an incompletely understood pathophysiology. The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate what type of brain activity correlates with writer's cramp and its physiological mechanism. METHODS: Ten patients with writer's cramp were age and gender matched with ten healthy control subjects in a block design. Subjects were scanned by fMRI while performing three consecutive, visually instructive, tasks with MR Vision 2000: (1) suppositional writing, (2) writing with finger and (3) writing with a pencil...
August 5, 2006: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16820013/taurine-elevates-dopamine-levels-in-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens-antagonism-by-strychnine
#20
Mia Ericson, Anna Molander, Rosita Stomberg, Bo Söderpalm
The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system, projecting from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (nAcc), is involved in reward-related behaviours and addictive processes, such as alcoholism and drug addiction. It was recently suggested that strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors (GlyR) in the nAcc regulate both basal and ethanol-induced mesolimbic DA activity via a neuronal loop involving endogenous activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in the VTA. However, as the nAcc appears to contain few glycine-immunoreactive cell bodies or fibres, the question as to what may be the endogenous ligand for GlyRs in this brain region remains open...
June 2006: European Journal of Neuroscience
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