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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690727/-clinical-experience-and-next-generation-sequencing-analysis-of-encephalitis-caused-by-pseudorabies-virus
#1
W L Zhao, Y H Wu, H F Li, S Y Li, S Y Fan, H L Wu, Y J Li, Y L Lü, J Han, W C Zhang, Y Zhao, G L Li, X D Qiao, H T Ren, Y C Zhu, B Peng, L Y Cui, H Z Guan
Objective: To detect potential pathogens including pseudorabies virus in patients with encephalitis of unknown etiology in China and describe novel encephalitic entities. Methods: Patients with clinically suspected infectious encephalitis were enrolled in a multicenter study to identify the pathogens in PUMCH Encephalitis Program.Next-generation sequencing(NGS) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was used in patients with encephalitis of unknown etiology enrolled from 2016 to 2017.The patients diagnosed as PRV encephalitis were studied to describe this novel entity...
April 17, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682070/capsuloganglionic-germinoma-a-rare-site-for-uncommon-childhood-tumor
#2
Kuntal Kanti Das, Jeena Joseph, Amit Kumar Singh, Pradeep Sharma, Jayesh Sardhara, Kamlesh Singh Bhaisora, Anant Mehrotra, Arun Kumar Srivastava, Sushila Jaiswal, Rabi Narayan Sahu, Awadhesh Kumar Jaiswal, Sanjay Behari
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare intracranial tumors with a strong predilection for children. Commonly, these tumors arise either in the suprasellar or the pineal region. The basal ganglia-thalamus complex represents a rare site of nonmidline intracranial GCTs. Such basal ganglionic GCTs have been reported to produce certain interesting clinico-radiological features, the knowledge of which may provide important diagnostic clues preoperatively. We present the case of a 9.5-year-old boy who presented with right hemiparesis and precocious puberty...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672451/spinal-protein-kinase-c-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-signal-pathway-mediates-hyperalgesia-priming
#3
Wei-Hsin Chen, Ya-Ting Chang, Yong-Cyuan Chen, Sin-Jhong Cheng, Chien-Chang Chen
Chronic pain can be initiated by one or more acute stimulations to sensitize neurons into the primed state. In the primed state, the basal nociceptive thresholds of the animal are normal, but, in response to another hyperalgesic stimulus, the animal develops enhanced and prolonged hyperalgesia. The exact mechanism of how primed state is formed is not completely understood. Here, we showed that spinal protein kinase C (PKC)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal pathway is required for neuronal plasticity change, hyperalgesic priming formation, and the development of chronic hyperalgesia using acid-induced muscle pain model in mice...
May 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664111/morphological-and-functional-changes-in-trpm8-expressing-corneal-cold-thermoreceptor-neurons-during-aging-and-their-impact-on-tearing-in-mice
#4
Ignacio Alcalde, Almudena Íñigo-Portugués, Omar González-González, Laura Almaraz, Enol Artime, Cruz Morenilla-Palao, Juana Gallar, Félix Viana, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, Carlos Belmonte
Morphological and functional alterations of peripheral somatosensory neurons during the aging process lead to a decline of somatosensory perception. Here, we analyze the changes occurring with aging in trigeminal ganglion (TG), TRPM8-expressing cold thermoreceptor neurons innervating the mouse cornea, which participate in the regulation of basal tearing and blinking and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of dry eye disease (DED). TG cell bodies and axonal branches were examined in a mouse line (TRPM8BAC -EYFP) expressing a fluorescent reporter...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649050/temporal-bone-histopathology-in-cockayne-syndrome
#5
Ophir Handzel, Joseph B Nadol
: Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome resulting in defective DNA repair. Its features include cachectic dwarfism, hearing loss, skin hypersensitivity to sunlight, premature aging, and dementia. Presented is a right temporal bone of a patient who died at the age of 29 years. The clinical course was compatible with type 1 CS, the classical form. Homozygous missense variant in the ERCC6 gene (Excision Repair Cross-Complementation group 6) was found, compatible with CS complementation group B...
April 11, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615095/loss-of-xbp1-accelerates-age-related-decline-in-retinal-function-and-neurodegeneration
#6
Todd McLaughlin, Marek Falkowski, Jae Whan Park, Stephen Keegan, Michael Elliott, Joshua J Wang, Sarah X Zhang
BACKGROUND: Aging is the strongest risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and extended age results in neuronal degeneration and functional decline in the visual system. Among many contributing factors to age-related deterioration of neurons is an insufficient activation of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in response to cellular stress. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is a major component of the UPR and is essential for maintaining protein homeostasis and reducing cellular stresses...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546709/preservation-sectioning-and-staining-of-schwann-cell-cultures-for-transmission-electron-microscopy-analysis
#7
Vania W Almeida, Margaret L Bates, Mary Bartlett Bunge
The transmission electron microscope (TEM) enables a unique and valuable examination of cellular and extracellular elements in tissue in situ, in cultured cells, or in pellets derived from suspensions of cells or other materials such as nanoparticles. Here we focus on the preparation of cultured Schwann cells or Schwann cell-containing dorsal root ganglion cultures. To gain as life-like as possible views of the cellular details, it is imperative to achieve excellent preservation of the cellular structure. The steps in the preparation of cultures described in this chapter represent the results of many years of accumulated TEM images to find the best methods of preservation for Schwann cells, myelin, and basal lamina components...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545351/endothelin-type-a-receptors-mediate-pain-in-a-mouse-model-of-sickle-cell-disease
#8
Brianna Marie Lutz, Shaogen Wu, Xiyao Gu, Fidelis E Atianjoh, Zhen Li, Brandon M Fox, David M Pollock, Yuan-Xiang Tao
Sickle cell disease is associated with acute painful episodes and chronic intractable pain. Endothelin-1, a known pain inducer, is elevated in the blood plasma of both sickle cell patients and mouse models of sickle cell disease. We show here that the levels of endothelin-1 and its endothelin type A receptor are increased in the dorsal root ganglia of a mouse model of sickle cell disease. Pharmacologic inhibition or neuron-specific knockdown of endothelin type A receptors in primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglion alleviated basal and post-hypoxia evoked pain hypersensitivities in sickle cell mice...
March 15, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377906/enhanced-susceptibility-to-stress-and-seizures-in-gad65-deficient-mice
#9
Jin Qi, Minjung Kim, Russell Sanchez, Saba M Ziaee, Jhumku D Kohtz, Sookyong Koh
Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition has been implicated in both anxiety and epilepsy. GAD65-/- (NOD/LtJ) mice have significantly decreased basal GABA levels in the brain and a lowered threshold for seizure generation. One fifth of GAD65 -/- mice experienced stress-induced seizures upon exposure to an open field at 4 weeks of age. In each successive week until 8 weeks of age, the latency to seizures decreased with prior seizure experience. 100% of GAD65-/- mice exhibited stress-induced seizures by the end of 8 weeks...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373236/hyperechogenicity-of-lenticulostriate-vessels-a-poor-prognosis-or-a-normal-variant-a-seven-year-retrospective-study
#10
Candice Fabre, Barthélémy Tosello, Estelle Pipon, Catherine Gire, Kathia Chaumoitre
BACKGROUND: Lenticulostriate vasculopathy (LSV) is a hyperechogenicity of the lenticulostriate branches of the basal ganglia and/or thalamus' middle cerebral arteries and is frequently seen in neonatology. Our study primarily describes the perinatal data and long-term follow-up of newborns with lenticulostriate vessel hyperechoic degeneration. Secondly, it describes the cerebral imaging data as a function of perinatal factors and neurodevelopmental follow-up of these newborns. METHODS: This retrospective study assesses the outcome of newborns with LSV hyperechogenicity on cerebral ultrasound (two grades)...
January 6, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366807/bioactivity-and-gene-expression-profiles-of-hipsc-generated-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-mt-nd4-mutated-leber-s-hereditary-optic-neuropathy
#11
You-Ren Wu, An-Guor Wang, Yan-Ting Chen, Aliaksandr A Yarmishyn, Waradee Buddhakosai, Tien-Chun Yang, De-Kuang Hwang, Yi-Ping Yang, Chia-Ning Shen, Hsin-Chen Lee, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Chi-Hsien Peng, Shih-Jen Chen
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the maternally inherited mitochondrial disease caused by homoplasmic mutations in mitochondrial electron transport chain Complex I subunit genes. The mechanism of its incomplete penetrance is still largely unclear. In this study, we created the patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from MT-ND4 mutated LHON-affected patient, asymptomatic mutation carrier and healthy control, and differentiated them into retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). We found the defective neurite outgrowth in affected RGCs, but not in the carrier RGCs which had significant expression of SNCG gene...
February 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351450/cardiac-vanilloid-receptor-1-afferent-depletion-enhances-stellate-ganglion-neuronal-activity-and-efferent-sympathetic-response-to-cardiac-stress
#12
Koji Yoshie, Pradeep S Rajendran, Louis Massoud, OhJin Kwon, Vasudev Tadimeti, Siamak Salavatian, Jeffrey Laurence Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Olujimi A Ajijola
Afferent fibers expressing the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) channel are implicated in cardiac nociception, however, their role in modulating reflex responses to cardiac stress is not well-understood. We evaluated this role in Yorkshire pigs by percutaneous epicardial application of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a toxic activator of the VR1 channel, resulting in depletion of cardiac VR1-expressing afferents. Hemodynamics, epicardial activation recovery intervals (ARIs), and in vivo activity of stellate ganglion (SG) neurons (SGNs) were recorded in control and RTX-treated animals...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351171/spinal-pkc-erk-signal-pathway-mediates-hyperalgesia-priming
#13
Wei-Hsin Chen, Ya-Ting Chang, Yong-Cyuan Chen, Sin-Jhong Cheng, Chien-Chang Chen
Chronic pain can be initiated by one or more acute stimulations to sensitize neurons into the primed state. In the primed state, the basal nociceptive thresholds of the animal are normal, but in response to another hyperalgesic stimulus, the animal develops enhanced and prolonged hyperalgesia. The exact mechanism of how primed state is formed is not completely understood. Here we showed that spinal PKC/ERK signal pathway is required for neuronal plasticity change, hyperalgesic priming formation and the development of chronic hyperalgesia using acid-induced muscle pain (AIMP) model in mice...
January 18, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340763/the-retinal-projection-to-the-nucleus-lentiformis-mesencephali-in-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata-and-anna-s-hummingbird-calypte-anna
#14
Cristian Gutierrez-Ibanez, Andrea H Gaede, Max R Dannish, Douglas L Altshuler, Douglas R Wylie
In birds, the nucleus of the basal optic root (nBOR) and the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (LM) are retinal recipient nuclei involved in the analysis of optic flow and the generation of the optokinetic response. In both pigeons and chickens, retinal inputs to the nBOR arise from displaced ganglion cells (DGCs), which are found at the margin of the inner nuclear and inner plexiform layers. The LM receives afferents from retinal ganglion cells, but whether DGCs also project to LM is a matter of debate. Previous work in chickens had concluded that DGCs do not project to LM, but a recent study in pigeons found that both retinal ganglion cells and DGCs project to LM...
April 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333621/characterization-of-mouse-neuro-urological-dynamics-in-a-novel-decerebrate-arterially-perfused-mouse-dapm-preparation
#15
Hiroki Ito, Marcus J Drake, Christopher H Fry, Anthony J Kanai, Anthony E Pickering
AIM: To develop the decerebrate arterially perfused mouse (DAPM) preparation, a novel voiding model of the lower urinary tract (LUT) that enables in vitro-like access with in vivo-like neural connectivity. METHODS: Adult male mice were decerebrated and arterially perfused with a carbogenated, Ringer's solution to establish the DAPM. To allow distinction between central and peripheral actions of interventions, experiments were conducted in both the DAPM and in a "pithed" DAPM which has no brainstem or spinal cord control...
January 15, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280053/cd200fc-attenuates-retinal-glial-responses-and-rgcs-apoptosis-after-optic-nerve-crush-by-modulating-cd200-cd200r1-interaction
#16
Rong Huang, Qianqian Lan, Lifei Chen, Haibin Zhong, Ling Cui, Li Jiang, Hui Huang, Li Li, Siming Zeng, Min Li, Xin Zhao, Fan Xu
To explore the hypothesis that CD200Fc, a CD200R1 agonist with anti-inflammatory properties, will inhibit retinal glial cells hyperactivation and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) apoptosis after optic nerve injury. CD200Fc was immediately administered after optic nerve crush (ONC) once by intravitreal injection. Rats were euthanized at 5 days after ONC. The density of RGCs was counted by immunostaining of retina flat mounts for Brn3a. TUNEL assay, immunoblotting analysis of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1(iba1) (microglia marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (astrocytes and Müller cells marker), RT-PCR analysis of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10, ELISA measure protein levels of inflammatory cytokines and western blot analysis of CD200 and CD200R1 were evaluated...
February 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279712/case-report-migrainous-infarct-without-aura
#17
Kamesh Gupta, Anurag Rohatgi, Shivani Handa
Background: Stroke in a migraine with aura has been documented in several cases, even deserving the merit of a classification as complicated migraine. Herein, we present a rare case of migrainous infarct without aura. The diagnosis was challenging due to lack of risk factors. The patient was unique in not having any other comorbidities. Case Presentation: The case is of a 21-year-old female presenting with right-sided hemiplegia and facial drooping. She had had an index presentation of throbbing headaches for the past 2 years, typical of a migraine but not preceded by any aura symptoms...
September 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187664/-clinical-characteristics-of-hemichorea-associated-with-non-ketotic-hyperglycemia-in-3-patients-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Yacen Hu, Yafang Zhou, Fang Yi, Lingyan Yao, Hongwei Xu, Lin Zhou
To investigate the pathophysiology, clinical manifestation and neuroimaging characteristics and therapeutic experiences for hemichore associated with non-ketotic hyperglycemia (HC-NH).
 Methods: Clinical data of three patients with HC-NH from Xiangya Hospital, Central South University were analyzed retrospectively, and the related literature was reviewed.
 Results: The core clinical features of HC-NH were characterized by acute/subacute onset of hemichorea with non-ketotic hyperglycemia in the elderly females...
November 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159432/comparison-of-the-neuroprotective-effects-of-brimonidine-tartrate-and-melatonin-on-retinal-ganglion-cells
#19
Deniz Marangoz, Elif Guzel, Signem Eyuboglu, Asli Gumusel, Ismail Seckin, Ferda Ciftci, Bayram Yilmaz, Ilgaz Yalvac
PURPOSE: We aimed to compare the neuroprotective effects of brimonidine tartrate (BRT) and melatonin (MEL) on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a rat glaucoma model. METHODS: Thirty-six adult Wistar albino rats were allocated into six groups: control (C), glaucoma (G), BRT, MEL, G + BRT and G + MEL. After establishing the glaucoma model, intraocular pressure (IOP) of all animals measured at day 4 and day 30 was compared statistically with day 0 and day 4, respectively...
November 20, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145285/degeneration-of-paramedian-nuclei-in-the-thalamus-induces-holmes-tremor-in-a-case-of-artery-of-percheron-infarction
#20
Tz-Shiang Wei, Chun-Sheng Hsu, Yu-Chun Lee, Shin-Tsu Chang
RATIONALE: Holmes' tremor is an uncommon neurologic disorder following brain insults, and its pathogenesis is undefined. The interruption of the dento-rubro-thalamic tract and secondary deterioration of the nigrostriatal pathway are both required to initiate Holmes' tremor. We used nuclear medicine imaging tools to analyze a patient with concurrent infarction in different zones of each side of the thalamus. Finding whether the paramedian nuclear groups of the thalamus were injured was a decisive element for developing Holmes' tremor...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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