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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629852/bioelectronic-block-of-paravertebral-sympathetic-nerves-mitigates-post-myocardial-infarction-ventricular-arrhythmias
#1
Ray W Chui, Una Buckley, Pradeep S Rajendran, Tina Vrabec, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Jeffrey L Ardell
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysfunction contributes to induction of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT). OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of charge-balanced direct current (CBDC), applied to the T1-T2 segment of the paravertebral sympathetic chain, on VT inducibility post-myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: In a porcine model, CBDC was applied in acute animals (n=7) to optimize stimulation parameters for sympathetic blockade and in chronic MI animals (n=7) to evaluate the potential for VTs...
June 16, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620864/adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells-adsc-express-oligodendrocyte-and-myelin-markers-but-they-do-not-function-as-oligodendrocytes
#2
Lara Vellosillo, Maria Paz Muñoz, Carlos Luis Paíno
Mesenchymal cells cultured from the vasculo-stromal fraction of adipose tissue (ADSC) show adult stem cell characteristics and several groups have claimed generating neural cells from them. However, we have observed that many markers commonly used for the identification of neural cells are spontaneously expressed by ADSC in culture. In the present study, we have examined the expression of characteristic oligodendrocyte molecules in cultured ADSC, aiming to test if myelinating cells could be generated from accessible non-neural adult tissues...
June 15, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598580/neuroanatomy-of-the-pig-cardiac-ventricles-a-stereomicroscopic-confocal-and-electron-microscope-study
#3
Neringa Pauziene, Kristina Rysevaite-Kyguoliene, Paulius Alaburda, Audrys G Pauza, Monika Skukauskaite, Aiste Masaityte, Goda Laucaityte, Inga Saburkina, Hermanas Inokaitis, Jurgita Plisiene, Dainius H Pauza
Although the pig is a model for heart disease, the neuroanatomy of cardiac ventricles (CV) in this species remains undetailed. We aimed to define the innervation pattern of pig CV, combining histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase, immunofluorescent labeling and electron microscopy. Forty nine examined pig hearts show that the major nerves supplying the ventral side of CV descend from the venous part of the heart hilum. Fewer in number and smaller in size, epicardial nerves supply the dorsal half of the CV...
June 9, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546339/bmp-induced-reprograming-of-the-retina-into-rpe-requires-wnt-signalling-in-the-developing-chick-optic-cup
#4
Jörg Steinfeld, Ichie Steinfeld, Alexander Bausch, Nicola Coronato, Meggi-Lee Hampel, Heike Depner, Paul G Layer, Astrid Vogel-Höpker
In vertebrates, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptors of the neural retina (NR) comprise a functional unit required for vision. During vertebrate eye development, a conversion of the RPE into NR can be induced by growth factors in vivo at optic cup stages, but the reverse process, the conversion of NR tissue into RPE has not been reported. Here, we show that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signalling can reprogram the NR into RPE at optic cup stages in chick. Shortly after BMP application, expression of Microphthalmia associated transcription factor (Mitf) is induced in the NR and selective cell death on the basal side of the NR induces an RPE-like morphology...
May 25, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545362/insight-into-the-role-of-photoreception-and-light-intervention-for-sleep-and-neuropsychiatric-behaviour-in-the-elderly
#5
Katharina Wulff, Russell G Foster
Light exerts influences on many physiological and behavioural functions in humans. These functions can be described as image-forming (IF) and non-image forming (NIF) visual processes, both originating in the retina of the eye. Image-forming refers to vision; the process of detecting and distinguishing shapes and colour of objects. Non-image forming refers to detecting level of light intensity or brightness of ambient space, which affects basal physiology such as cycles of rest and activity or the endocrine system...
May 22, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538229/treatment-outcome-in-patients-with-primary-central-nervous-system-germ-cell-tumour-clinical-experience-from-a-regional-cancer-centre-in-north-india
#6
Ahitagni Biswas, Pramod Kumar Julka, Sameer Bakhshi, Manmohan Singh, Goura Kishor Rath
BACKGROUND: Primary intracranial germ cell tumour is a rare entity and constitutes 2-3% of all paediatric brain tumours in Western countries. We herein intend to report the clinical features and treatment outcome of patients with primary central nervous system germ cell tumour treated at our institute. METHODS: Clinical data were collected by retrospective chart review from 2006 to 2012. Histopathology slides were reviewed and relevant immunohistochemistry stains were done...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488043/organization-and-evolution-of-the-proboscis-musculature-in-avian-parasites-of-the-genus-apororhynchus-acanthocephala-apororhynchida
#7
Holger Herlyn
The highly enlarged proboscis in adult thorny-headed worms of the genus Apororhynchus suggests that its inner organization might be specialized as well. However, what kind of changes occurred in the stem line of monogeneric Apororhynchida is widely unknown and there are different conceptions regarding the presence/absence of several muscles. To expand our knowledge on this topic, I examined ethanol-fixed specimens, whole mounts, and semi-thin sections of three Apororhynchus species using the light microscope...
July 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467898/distinct-corticostriatal-gabaergic-neurons-modulate-striatal-output-neurons-and-motor-activity
#8
Sarah Melzer, Mariana Gil, David E Koser, Magdalena Michael, Kee Wui Huang, Hannah Monyer
The motor cortico-basal ganglion loop is critical for motor planning, execution, and learning. Balanced excitation and inhibition in this loop is crucial for proper motor output. Excitatory neurons have been thought to be the only source of motor cortical input to the striatum. Here, we identify long-range projecting GABAergic neurons in the primary (M1) and secondary (M2) motor cortex that target the dorsal striatum. This population of projecting GABAergic neurons comprises both somatostatin-positive (SOM(+)) and parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) neurons that target direct and indirect pathway striatal output neurons as well as cholinergic interneurons differentially...
May 2, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416395/the-early-history-of-manganese-and-the-recognition-of-its-neurotoxicity-1837-1936
#9
Paul D Blanc
The history of the biomedical recognition manganese-caused neurotoxicity mirrors changing technologies as much as it does the ontology of parkinsonism. The initial 1837 report of manganese-induced neurologic injury was made by John Couper, a university-based physician in Scotland. He made clear that the outbreak occurred among workers at the Charles Tennant bleach manufactory in the environs of Glasgow. The relatively new technology of chlorine generation using manganese accounted for the novel exposure involved...
April 14, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416285/atypical-pkc-and-notch-inhibition-differentially-modulate-cortical-interneuron-subclass-fate-from-embryonic-stem-cells
#10
David J Tischfield, Junho Kim, Stewart A Anderson
Recent studies indicate that the location of neurogenesis within the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) critically influences the fate determination of cortical interneuron subgroups, with parvalbumin (Pv) interneurons originating from subventricular zone divisions and somatostatin (Sst) interneurons primarily arising from apical divisions. The aPKC-CBP and Notch signaling pathways regulate the transition from apical to basal progenitor and their differentiation into post-mitotic neurons. We find that aPKC inhibition enhances intermediate neurogenesis from stem cell-derived MGE progenitors, resulting in a markedly increased ratio of Pv- to Sst-expressing interneurons...
April 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385570/-why-is-it-important-to-differentiate-trichoblastic-carcinomas-ct-from-basal-cell-carcinomas-cbc-about-21-cases
#11
M Thomas, C Bruant-Rodier, F Bodin, B Cribier, M Huther, C Dissaux
Trichoblastic carcinoma is a rare epithelial malignant epithelial tumor, its diagnosis is difficult and the therapeutic management is non-consensual. This retrospective study, carried out between 2009 and 2015, covered 21 cases and analyzed the diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics of trichoblastic carcinomas. Sex ratio is 2. Trichoblastic carcinoma predominated in the face (65% of cases), particularly in perinasal (30% of cases). Its clinical presentation is in 95% of cases as basal cell carcinoma, which is the first clinical diagnosis evoked...
April 3, 2017: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374239/radiological-imaging-findings-of-dyke-davidoff-masson-syndrome
#12
Erkan Gökçe, Murat Beyhan, Recep Sade
Radiological findings of Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) in patients with different etiologies are presented in our study. The study included 12 patients (seven females, five males) for whom radiological examinations were requested due to reasons such as epilepsy, mental retardation, and/or hemiplegia. CT was performed in 12, MRI in 6, MRA in 1, and DSA in 1 patient. Following imaging findings were evaluated: cerebral and cerebellar involvement (laterality, encephalomalacia), affected territories, ventricular enlargement, sulcal enlargement, calvarial thickening, and paranasal sinus enlargement hyperaeration...
April 3, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304075/steroid-intracochlear-distribution-differs-by-administration-method-systemic-versus-intratympanic-injection
#13
Jong Joo Lee, Jeong Hun Jang, Oak-Sung Choo, Hye Jin Lim, Yun-Hoon Choung
OBJECTIVE: Steroids have been widely used to treat inner-ear diseases such as sudden sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and Meniere's disease. They can be given via either systemic or intratympanic (IT) injection. The purpose of the present study was to explore differences in intracochlear steroid distribution by the administration method employed (systemic vs. IT injection). STUDY DESIGN: Animal study. METHODS: Twenty-three Sprague-Dawley rats were given fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dexamethasone (FITC-DEX) three times (on successive days) via intraperitoneal (IP) or IT injection...
March 17, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303376/parkinson-s-disease-diagnostic-utility-of-volumetric-imaging
#14
Wei-Che Lin, Kun-Hsien Chou, Pei-Lin Lee, Nai-Wen Tsai, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Ai-Ling Hsu, Meng-Hsiang Chen, Yung-Cheng Huang, Ching-Po Lin, Cheng-Hsien Lu
PURPOSE: This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of structural imaging as an aid in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: High-resolution T 1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 72 patients with idiopathic PD (mean age, 61.08 years) and 73 healthy subjects (mean age, 58.96 years). The whole brain was parcellated into 95 regions of interest using composite anatomical atlases, and region volumes were calculated. Three diagnostic classifiers were constructed using binary multiple logistic regression modeling: the (i) basal ganglion prior classifier, (ii) data-driven classifier, and (iii) basal ganglion prior/data-driven hybrid classifier...
March 16, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302372/experiences-during-newborn-screening-for-glutaric-aciduria-type-1-diagnosis-treatment-genotype-phenotype-and-outcomes
#15
Fang-Chih Tsai, Han-Jui Lee, An-Guor Wang, Shu-Chen Hsieh, Yung-Hsiu Lu, Ming-Che Lee, Ju-Shan Pai, Tzu-Hung Chu, Chia-Feng Yang, Ting-Rong Hsu, Chih-Jou Lai, Ming-Tzu Tsai, Ping-Hsun Ho, Min-Chieh Lin, Ling-Yee Cheng, Ya-Chin Chuang, Dau-Ming Niu
BACKGROUND: Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA-1) is an organic acidemia with potentially severe neurological sequelae. In Taiwan, newborn screening (NBS) for GA-1 began in 2001, but large-scale reporting is lacking. This study describes Taiwan's largest newborn screening population to date. METHODS: Between 2001 and 2015, 1,490,636 newborns were screened for GA-1. Confirmatory examinations included the carnitine loading test. Confirmed patients were treated with a low lysine diet, carnitine, and high-energy intake during illness...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259830/six-month-delivery-of-gdnf-from-plga-vitamin-e-biodegradable-microspheres-after-intravitreal-injection-in-rabbits
#16
Cristina García-Caballero, Esther Prieto-Calvo, Patricia Checa-Casalengua, Elena García-Martín, Vicente Polo-Llorens, Julián García-Feijoo, Irene Teresa Molina-Martínez, Irene Bravo-Osuna, Rocío Herrero-Vanrell
Local long-term delivery of glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) from vitamin E/poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres (MSs) protects retinal ganglion cells in an animal model of glaucoma for up to 11weeks. However, the pharmacokinetics of GDNF after intravitreal injection of MSs is not known. We evaluated the GDNF levels after a single intravitreal injection of GDNF/VitE MSs. Biodegradable MSs were prepared by the solid-oil-in-water emulsion-solvent evaporation technique and characterized...
March 1, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228074/lenticulostriate-artery-and-lenticulostriate-artery-neural-complex-new-concept-for-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#17
Rong Hu, Hua Feng
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the poorest prognosis of all stroke subtypes with a high mortality and morbidity. Although considerable progress has been made, no intervention is currently available to alter the outcome of patients with ICH, suggesting a new concept directing ICH study is urgently needed. METHODS: Most ICH occurs in the deep area of the brain, the basal ganglion, whose blood supply is mainly from lenticulostriate arteries (LSAs)...
February 20, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190643/left-habenula-mediates-light-preference-behavior-in-zebrafish-via-an-asymmetrical-visual-pathway
#18
Bai-Bing Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Yao, He-Fei Zhang, Koichi Kawakami, Jiu-Lin Du
Habenula (Hb) plays critical roles in emotion-related behaviors through integrating inputs mainly from the limbic system and basal ganglia. However, Hb also receives inputs from multiple sensory modalities. The function and underlying neural circuit of Hb sensory inputs remain unknown. Using larval zebrafish, we found that left dorsal Hb (dHb, a homolog of mammalian medial Hb) mediates light-preference behavior by receiving visual inputs from a specific subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) through eminentia thalami (EmT)...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168232/radiographic-basal-ganglia-abnormalities-secondary-to-nonketotic-hyperglycemia-with-unusual-clinical-features
#19
Ju Young Choi, Joon Min Park, Kyung Hwan Kim, Jun Seok Park, Dong Wun Shin, Hoon Kim, Woo Chan Jeon, Hyun Jong Kim
A 77-year-old woman was admitted to a local clinic for altered consciousness and presented with a suspected basal ganglion hemorrhage detected on brain computed tomography. The patient was stuporous, but her vital signs were stable. Her initial blood glucose was 607 mg/dL, and a hyperdense lesion was found in the right basal ganglion on brain computed tomography. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed high signal intensity in the right basal ganglion. Electroencephalography showed no seizure activity...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163920/risk-factors-for-the-delayed-onset-of-neuropsychologic-sequelae-following-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#20
Takeshi Kitamoto, Masanobu Tsuda, Masaki Kato, Fukuki Saito, Yoshito Kamijo, Toshihiko Kinoshita
AIM: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning often manifests delayed neuropsychological sequelae. The risks and preventive factors for the development of delayed neuropsychological sequelae are controversial at present. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the risk factors for this condition. METHOD: We studied 81 patients with CO poisoning admitted to the Critical Care and Emergency Medicine Center at the Kansai Medical University from 2006 to 2012. All patients (64 males and 17 females; average age, 45...
October 2016: Acute Medicine & Surgery
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