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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026661/tenth-case-of-bilateral-hemifacial-spasm-treated-by-microvascular-decompression-review-of-the-pathophysiology
#1
REVIEW
Warley Carvalho da Silva Martins, Lucas Alverne Freitas de Albuquerque, Gervásio Teles Cardoso de Carvalho, Jules Carlos Dourado, Marcos Dellaretti, Atos Alves de Sousa
BACKGROUND: Bilateral hemifacial spasm (BHFS) is a rare neurological syndrome whose diagnosis depends on excluding other facial dyskinesias. We present a case of BHFS along with a literature review. METHODS: A 64-year-old white, hypertense male reported involuntary left hemiface contractions in 2001 (aged 50). In 2007, right hemifacial symptoms appeared, without spasm remission during sleep. Botulinum toxin type A application produced partial temporary improvement...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957750/comparing-abnormalities-of-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-multiple-system-atrophy-and-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease-measured-with-resting-state-fmri
#2
Na Wang, Elliot Kale Edmiston, XiaoGuang Luo, HuaGuang Yang, Miao Chang, Fei Wang, GuoGuang Fan
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) show overlapping clinical manifestations with different treatment and prognosis. However, the shared and distinct underlying neural substrates are not yet understood, which needs to be explored between MSA and IPD. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 29 MSA patients, 17 IPD patients and 25 healthy controls (HC) and the Amplitude of Low-Frequency Fluctuations (ALFF) was compared. Lower ALFF in bilateral basal ganglion, bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and right amygdala, as well as higher ALFF in parieto-temporo-occipital cortex and right cerebellum was shared between both patient groups to compare with HC...
September 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893864/the-beach-protein-lrba-is-required-for-hair-bundle-maintenance-in-cochlear-hair-cells-and-for-hearing
#3
Christian Vogl, Tanvi Butola, Natja Haag, Torben J Hausrat, Michael G Leitner, Michel Moutschen, Philippe P Lefèbvre, Carsten Speckmann, Lillian Garrett, Lore Becker, Helmut Fuchs, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Sandor Nietzsche, Michael M Kessels, Dominik Oliver, Matthias Kneussel, Manfred W Kilimann, Nicola Strenzke
Lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) belongs to the enigmatic class of BEACH domain-containing proteins, which have been attributed various cellular functions, typically involving intracellular protein and membrane transport processes. Here, we show that LRBA deficiency in mice leads to progressive sensorineural hearing loss. In LRBA knockout mice, inner and outer hair cell stereociliary bundles initially develop normally, but then partially degenerate during the second postnatal week...
September 11, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882644/postsynaptic-n-type-or-p-q-type-calcium-channels-mediate-long-term-potentiation-by-group-i-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-the-trigeminal-oralis
#4
Haein Weon, Tae Wan Kim, Dong-Ho Youn
AIMS: Both N-type and P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) are involved in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), the long-lasting increase of synaptic strength, in the central nervous system. To provide further information on the roles of N-type and P/Q-type VGCCs in the induction of LTP at excitatory synapses of trigeminal primary afferents in the spinal trigeminal subnucleus oralis (Vo), we investigated whether they contribute to the induction of LTP by activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs)...
November 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860974/striatal-distribution-and-cytoarchitecture-of-dopamine-receptor-subtype-1-and-2-evidence-from-double-labeling-transgenic-mice
#5
Keke Ren, Baolin Guo, Chunqiu Dai, Han Yao, Tangna Sun, Xia Liu, Zhantao Bai, Wenting Wang, Shengxi Wu
As the main input nucleus of the basal ganglion, the striatum executes different functions, including motivation, reward and attention. The functions of the striatum highly rely on its subregions that receive projections from various cortical areas and the distribution of striatonigral neurons that express D1 dopamine (DA) receptors (or D1 medium-sized spiny neurons, D1 MSNs) and striatopallidal neurons that express D2 DA receptors (or D2 MSNs). Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice, several studies have recently been performed on the spatial distribution of D1 and D2 MSNs...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859106/local-inner-ear-application-of-dexamethasone-in-cochlear-implant-models-is-safe-for-auditory-neurons-and-increases-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-chronic-electrical-stimulation
#6
Verena Scheper, Roland Hessler, Mareike Hütten, Maciej Wilk, Claude Jolly, Thomas Lenarz, Gerrit Paasche
Dexamethasone (DEX) can reduce fibrous tissue growth as well as loss of residual hearing which may occur after cochlear implantation. Little is known about the effect of local inner ear DEX treatment on the spiral ganglion neurons (SGN), which are the target of the electrical stimulation with a cochlear implant (CI). Three different clinically relevant strategies of DEX-delivery into the inner ear were used. DEX was either eluted from the electrode carriers' silicone, released from a reservoir by passive diffusion, or actively applied using a pump based system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837644/prickle1-regulates-neurite-outgrowth-of-apical-spiral-ganglion-neurons-but-not-hair-cell-polarity-in-the-murine-cochlea
#7
Tian Yang, Jennifer Kersigo, Shu Wu, Bernd Fritzsch, Alexander G Bassuk
In the mammalian organ of Corti (OC), the stereocilia on the apical surface of hair cells (HCs) are uniformly organized in a neural to abneural axis (or medial-laterally). This organization is regulated by planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling. Mutations of PCP genes, such as Vangl2, Dvl1/2, Celsr1, and Fzd3/6, affect the formation of HC orientation to varying degrees. Prickle1 is a PCP signaling gene that belongs to the prickle / espinas / testin family. Prickle1 protein is shown to be asymmetrically localized in the HCs of the OC, and this asymmetric localization is associated with loss of PCP in Smurf mutants, implying that Prickle1 is involved in HC PCP development in the OC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836453/readability-of-the-most-commonly-accessed-online-patient-education-materials-pertaining-to-pathology-of-the-hand
#8
Sheriff D Akinleye, Garret Garofolo-Gonzalez, Michael Montuori, Maya Deza Culbertson, Jennifer Hashem, David Marc Edelstein
BACKGROUND: The American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommend that patient education materials be written at no higher than a sixth-grade reading level. METHODS: We examined 100 online educational materials for the 10 hand conditions most commonly treated by hand surgeons, as reported by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. The listed conditions were carpal tunnel syndrome, basal joint arthritis of the thumb, de Quervain syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, ganglion cysts, hand fractures, trigger finger, extensor tendon injuries, flexor tendon injuries, and mallet finger...
August 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828403/stress-increases-peripheral-axon-growth-and-regeneration-through-glucocorticoid-receptor-dependent-transcriptional-programs
#9
Jessica K Lerch, Jessica K Alexander, Kathryn M Madalena, Dario Motti, Tam Quach, Akhil Dhamija, Alicia Zha, John C Gensel, Jeanette Webster Marketon, Vance P Lemmon, John L Bixby, Phillip G Popovich
Stress and glucocorticoid (GC) release are common behavioral and hormonal responses to injury or disease. In the brain, stress/GCs can alter neuron structure and function leading to cognitive impairment. Stress and GCs also exacerbate pain, but whether a corresponding change occurs in structural plasticity of sensory neurons is unknown. Here, we show that in female mice (Mus musculus) basal GC receptor (Nr3c1, also known as GR) expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons is 15-fold higher than in neurons in canonical stress-responsive brain regions (M...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762041/neuroinfluenza-evaluation-of-seasonal-influenza-associated-severe-neurological-complications-in-children-a-multicenter-study
#10
Muhammet Sukru Paksu, Kerim Aslan, Tanil Kendirli, Basak Nur Akyildiz, Nazik Yener, Riza Dincer Yildizdas, Mehmet Davutoglu, Ayhan Yaman, Sedat Isikay, Gulnar Sensoy, Haydar Ali Tasdemir
PURPOSE: Although influenza primarily affects the respiratory system, in some cases, it can cause severe neurological complications. Younger children are especially at risk. Pediatric literature is limited on the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of influenza-related neurological complications. The aim of the study was to evaluate children who suffered severe neurological manifestation as a result of seasonal influenza infection. METHODS: The medical records of 14 patients from six hospitals in different regions of the country were evaluated...
July 31, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760342/induction-of-%C3%AE-6-and-%C3%AE-1-integrins-by-acupuncture-stimulation-in-rats
#11
Hwa Chul Shin, Ji-Yeun Park, Hee Don Lim, Uk Namgung
Acupuncture therapy is performed by applying the needle insertion at discrete cutaneous locations and used for the treatments of diverse symptoms and disorders. In order to elucidate mechanistic basis on how acupuncture stimulation (AS) produces therapeutic effects, it is primarily important to understand tissue responses locally at the acupuncture site (acupoint). Here, we investigated integrin protein as molecular target responding to and integrating AS. Signals of α6 and β1 integrins were clearly induced at zusanli acupoint 24 h after AS in areas of nuclear clusters around the needle track...
September 23, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744915/characterization-of-glcci1-expression-in-a-subpopulation-of-lateral-ganglionic-eminence-progenitors-in-the-mouse-telencephalon
#12
Vikram Kohli, Diana Nardini, Lisa A Ehrman, Ronald R Waclaw
BACKGROUND: The lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) in the ventral telencephalon is a diverse progenitor domain subdivided by distinct gene expression into a dorsal region (dLGE) that gives rise to olfactory bulb and amygdalar interneurons and a ventral region (vLGE) that gives rise to striatal projection neurons. The homeobox gene, Gsx2, is an enriched marker of the LGE and is expressed in a high dorsal to low ventral gradient in the ventricular zone (VZ) as development proceeds. Aside from Gsx2, markers restricted to the VZ in the dLGE and/or vLGE remain largely unknown...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736339/tfos-dews-ii-pain-and-sensation-report
#13
REVIEW
Carlos Belmonte, Jason J Nichols, Stephanie M Cox, James A Brock, Carolyn G Begley, David A Bereiter, Darlene A Dartt, Anat Galor, Pedram Hamrah, Jason J Ivanusic, Deborah S Jacobs, Nancy A McNamara, Mark I Rosenblatt, Fiona Stapleton, James S Wolffsohn
Pain associated with mechanical, chemical, and thermal heat stimulation of the ocular surface is mediated by trigeminal ganglion neurons, while cold thermoreceptors detect wetness and reflexly maintain basal tear production and blinking rate. These neurons project into two regions of the trigeminal brain stem nuclear complex: ViVc, activated by changes in the moisture of the ocular surface and VcC1, mediating sensory-discriminative aspects of ocular pain and reflex blinking. ViVc ocular neurons project to brain regions that control lacrimation and spontaneous blinking and to the sensory thalamus...
July 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698219/the-transcription-factor-c-ebp%C3%AE-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglion-contributes-to-peripheral-nerve-trauma-induced-nociceptive-hypersensitivity
#14
Zhisong Li, Yuanyuan Mao, Lingli Liang, Shaogen Wu, Jingjing Yuan, Kai Mo, Weihua Cai, Qingxiang Mao, Jing Cao, Alex Bekker, Wei Zhang, Yuan-Xiang Tao
Changes in gene transcription in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after nerve trauma contribute to the genesis of neuropathic pain. We report that peripheral nerve trauma caused by chronic constriction injury (CCI) increased the abundance of the transcription factor C/EBPβ (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β) in the DRG. Blocking this increase mitigated the development and maintenance of CCI-induced mechanical, thermal, and cold pain hypersensitivities without affecting basal responses to acute pain and locomotor activity...
July 11, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693284/%C3%AE-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-secreting-intracranial-germ-cell-tumor-associated-with-high-testosterone-in-an-adult-man-a-case-report
#15
Wen-Ping Yang, Hung-Yu Chien, Yi-Chun Lin
A 38-year-old male patient presented with general weakness, polydipsia and a body weight loss of 10 kg in two years. Hypopituitarism with central hypothyroidism and central adrenal insufficiency were noted at Taipei City Hospital (Taipei, Taiwan). However, hypogonadotropic hypergonadism was also observed. The patient was diagnosed with an intracranial β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) secreting germ-cell tumor, and brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tumor involved the pineal gland, stalk, posterior pituitary gland, right basal ganglion, hypothalamus, corpus callosum and posterior hippocampus...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688830/differential-effects-of-renal-denervation-on-arterial-baroreceptor-function-in-goldblatt-hypertension-model
#16
Gisele S Lincevicius, Caroline G Shimoura, Erika E Nishi, Tales Oliveira, Juliana G Cespedes, Cássia T Bergamaschi, Ruy R Campos
Sympathetic vasomotor activity is significantly increased in renovascular hypertension. Renal denervation (DnX) has emerged as a novel therapy for resistant hypertension to drug therapy. However, the underlying mechanisms regarding the reduction in blood pressure (BP) after DnX remain unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of DnX of a clipped kidney on the baseline and baroreceptor reflex control of post-ganglionic sympathetic activity to the contralateral kidney (rSNA) and lumbar (lSNA) nerves in Goldblatt hypertensive rats (2K1C)...
June 21, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681758/basal-ganglia-their-role-in-complex-cognitive-procedures-in-experimental-models-and-in-clinical-practice
#17
Rita Moretti, Paola Caruso, Elena Crisman, Silvia Gazzin
Apart from the well known role of the basal ganglia (BG) in motor control, their important role in regulating the cognitive functions is emerging. This article traces the scientific work that explores this role of BG in reinforcement learning, perceptual decision making, and other nonmotor pathways (speech fluency, cognition, attention and behaviour). It also highlights the important role played by the BG networks in determining the development of a child's brain. It retraces the various pathways and connections of the BG with the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and other regions that may be utilized in the establishment of complex cognitive procedures...
July 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658884/post-stroke-psychosis-following-lesions-in-basal-ganglion
#18
Shruti Srivastava, Mukul P Agarwal, Ankur Gautam
Stroke is the second most common cause of death and fourth leading cause of disability worldwide. Post stroke behavioural manifestations are often not recognized, undiagnosed and hence remain untreated. They may even suffer from misdiagnosis of functional disorders before coming at conclusion of organic pathology. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment helps in lowering the overall morbidity related to stroke and improves quality of life of these patients with rare manifestations. Here, we report two cases of elderly female patients presenting with delusions and hallucinations subsequent to stroke, with lesions in basal ganglia detected on neuro-imaging...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637841/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-%C3%AE-mediates-the-sema3a-induced-cortical-basal-dendritic-arborization-through-the-activation-of-fyn-tyrosine-kinase
#19
Fumio Nakamura, Takako Okada, Maria Shishikura, Noriko Uetani, Masahiko Taniguchi, Takeshi Yagi, Yoichiro Iwakura, Toshio Ohshima, Yoshio Goshima, Stephen M Strittmatter
Leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR) class protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are critical for axonal guidance; however, their relation to specific guidance cues is poorly defined. We here show that PTP-3, a LAR homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans, is involved in axon guidance regulated by Semaphorin-2A-signaling. PTPδ, one of the vertebrate LAR class PTPs, participates in the Semaphorin-3A (Sema3A)-induced growth cone collapse response of primary cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons from Mus musculus embryos...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629852/bioelectronic-block-of-paravertebral-sympathetic-nerves-mitigates-post-myocardial-infarction-ventricular-arrhythmias
#20
Ray W Chui, Una Buckley, Pradeep S Rajendran, Tina Vrabec, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Jeffrey L Ardell
BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysfunction contributes to induction of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT). OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of charge-balanced direct current (CBDC), applied to the T1-T2 segment of the paravertebral sympathetic chain, on VT inducibility post-myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: In a porcine model, CBDC was applied in acute animals (n = 7) to optimize stimulation parameters for sympathetic blockade and in chronic MI animals (n = 7) to evaluate the potential for VTs...
June 16, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
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