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basal ganglionic

I Bernátová, P Bališ, R Goga, M Behuliak, J Zicha, I Sekaj
This study investigated the contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to blood pressure regulation in conscious adult male Wistar rats exposed to acute stress. Role of ROS was investigated in rats with temporally impaired principal blood pressure regulation systems using ganglionic blocker pentolinium (P, 5 mg/kg), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (C, 10 mg/kg), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (L, 30 mg/kg) and superoxide dismutase mimeticum tempol (T, 25 mg/kg). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured by the carotid artery catheter and inhibitors were administered intravenously...
October 24, 2016: Physiological Research
Josef Donnerer, Ingrid Liebmann
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, mustard oil, 50-200 µmol/l), depending on specific dosages, inhibited the cholinergic twitch response in the longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus (LMMP) strip of the guinea-pig ileum. AITC also induced short-lasting contractile responses, and decreases of the basal tone of the LMMP strip at low concentrations and increases at high concentrations. Hexamethonium, a blocker of nicotinic ganglionic transmission, was able to prevent the AITC-evoked inhibitory effect, an effect that was also observed with the opioid antagonist naloxone...
October 19, 2016: Pharmacology
Tomofumi Oga, Tsuguhisa Okamoto, Ichiro Fujita
Neurons in the mammalian primary visual cortex (V1) are systematically arranged across the cortical surface according to the location of their receptive fields (RFs), forming a visuotopic (or retinotopic) map. Within this map, the foveal visual field is represented by a large cortical surface area, with increasingly peripheral visual fields gradually occupying smaller cortical areas. Although cellular organization in the retina, such as the spatial distribution of ganglion cells, can partially account for the eccentricity-dependent differences in the size of cortical representation, whether morphological differences exist across V1 neurons representing different eccentricities is unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Chiun-Chieh Yu, Meng-Hsiang Chen, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Yung-Cheng Huang, Hsiu-Ling Chen, Nai-Wen Tsai, Hung-Chen Wang, I-Hsiao Yang, Shau-Hsuan Li, Wei-Che Lin
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most second common neurodegenerative movement disorder. Neuroinflammation due to systemic inflammation and elevated oxidative stress is considered a major factor promoting the pathogenesis of PD, but the relationship of structural brain imaging parameters to clinical inflammatory markers has not been well studied. Our aim was to evaluate the association of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures with inflammatory markers. Blood samples were collected from 33 patients with newly diagnosed PD and 30 healthy volunteers...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
B B Xie, H W Li, C F Dai
Objective: To identify the targets of the infrared laser stimulating on the cochlea of guinea pig which evoked auditory brainstem response (oABR), and explore the mechanisms of the infrared neurostimulation. Methods: A polished optical fiber with 200 μm diameter (NA=0.22) was planted into the scala tympani of guinea pigs to stimulate the cochlea of both the normal hearing and acute deafened guinea pigs. The direction of the fiber distal was changed to radiate different regions of the scala tympani, recording the oABR respectively...
September 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Hiromi Tamada, Hiroshi Kiyama
Adult neurogenesis rarely occurs in the enteric nervous system (ENS). In this study, we demonstrated that, after intestinal myenteric plexus (MP) ablation with benzalkonium chloride (BAC), adult neurogenesis in the ENS was significantly induced in c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice (W/W(v)). Almost all neurons and fibers in the MP disappeared after BAC treatment. However, 1 week after ablation, substantial penetration of nerve fibers from the non-damaged area was observed in the MP, longitudinal muscle and subserosal layers in both wildtype and W/W(v) mice...
2016: Scientific Reports
Clemens Honeder, Chengjing Zhu, Hanna Schöpper, Julia Clara Gausterer, Manuel Walter, Lukas David Landegger, Nodir Saidov, Dominik Riss, Roberto Plasenzotti, Franz Gabor, Christoph Arnoldner
It has been shown that glucocorticoids reduce the hearing threshold shifts associated with cochlear implantation. Previous studies evaluated the administration of glucocorticoids immediately before surgery or the repeated pre- or perioperative systemic application of glucocorticoids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a sustained release dexamethasone hydrogel in hearing preservation cochlear implantation. To address this issue, a guinea pig model of cochlear implantation was used. 30 normal hearing pigmented guinea pigs were randomized into a group receiving a single dose of a dexamethasone/poloxamer407 hydrogel one day prior to surgery, a second group receiving the hydrogel seven days prior to surgery and a control group...
August 9, 2016: Hearing Research
Markus Loibl, Siegmund Lang, Lena-Marie Dendl, Michael Nerlich, Peter Angele, Sebastian Gehmert, Michaela Huber
A positive effect of intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection has been discussed for osteoarthritic joint conditions in the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PRP injection into the trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint. We report about ten patients with TMC joint osteoarthritis (OA) that were treated with 2 intra-articular PRP injections 4 weeks apart. PRP was produced using the Double Syringe System (Arthrex Inc., Naples, Florida, USA). A total volume of 1.47 ± 0.25 mL PRP was injected at the first injection and 1...
2016: BioMed Research International
Yan Chen, Wenyan Li, Wen Li, Renjie Chai, Huawei Li
The enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (Ezh2) is a histone-lysine Nmethyltransferase enzyme that participates in DNA methylation. Ezh2 has also been reported to play crucial roles in stem cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the detailed expression profile of Ezh2 during mouse cochlear development has not been investigated. Here, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of Ezh2 in the cochlea during embryonic and postnatal development. Ezh2 expression began to be observed in the whole otocyst nuclei at embryonic day 9...
September 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
Kouko Tatsumi, Hiroaki Okuda, Shoko Morita-Takemura, Tatsuhide Tanaka, Ayami Isonishi, Takeaki Shinjo, Yuki Terada, Akio Wanaka
Changes in astrocyte morphology are primarily attributed to the fine processes where intimate connections with neurons form the tripartite synapse and participate in neurotransmission. Recent evidence has shown that neurotransmission induces dynamic synaptic remodeling, suggesting that astrocytic fine processes may adapt their morphologies to the activity in their environment. To illustrate such a neuron-glia relationship in morphological detail, we employed a double transgenic Olig2(CreER/WT); ROSA26-GAP43-EGFP mice, in which Olig2-lineage cells can be visualized and traced with membrane-targeted GFP...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Michael Perny, Marta Roccio, Denis Grandgirard, Magdalena Solyga, Pascal Senn, Stephen L Leib
UNLABELLED: Hearing loss is an important sequela of pneumococcal meningitis (PM), occurring in up to 30% of survivors. The role of the severity of infection on hearing function and pathomorphological consequences in the cochlea secondary to PM have not been investigated to date. Using a well-established model of PM, we systematically investigated the functional hearing outcome and the long-term fate of neurosensory cells in the cochlea, i.e., hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), with a focus on their tonotopic distribution...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Lixiong Gao, Xi Chen, Yuxiao Zeng, Qiyou Li, Ting Zou, Siyu Chen, Qian Wu, Caiyun Fu, Haiwei Xu, Zheng Qin Yin
The vertebrate retina is a highly multilayered nervous tissue with a large diversity of cellular components. With the development of stem cell technologies, human retinas can be generated in three-dimensional (3-D) culture in vitro. However, understanding the factors modulating key productive processes and the way that they influence development are far from clear. Oxygen, as the most essential element participating in metabolism, is a critical factor regulating organic development. In this study, using 3-D culture of human stem cells, we examined the effect of intermittent high oxygen treatment (40% O2) on the formation and cellular behavior of neural retinas (NR) in the embryonic body (EB)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Nabil Benzina, Luc Mallet, Eric Burguière, Karim N'Diaye, Antoine Pelissolo
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder featuring obsessions (intrusive thoughts) and compulsions (repetitive behaviors performed in the context of rigid rituals). There is strong evidence for a neurobiological basis of this disorder, involving limbic cortical regions and related basal ganglion areas. However, more research is needed to lift the veil on the precise nature of that involvement and the way it drives the clinical expression of OCD. Altered cognitive functions may underlie the symptoms and thus draw a link between the clinical expression of the disorder and its neurobiological etiology...
September 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Noriomi Suzuki, Makoto Hosoya, Naoki Oishi, Hideyuki Okano, Masato Fujioka, Kaoru Ogawa
Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder of the neuroendocrine system, known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy and Deafness) syndrome, and considered an endoplasmic reticulum disease. Patients show mutations in WFS1, which encodes the 890 amino acid protein wolframin. Although Wfs1 knockout mice develop diabetes, their hearing level is completely normal. In this study, we examined the expression of wolframin in the cochlea of a nonhuman primate common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) to elucidate the discrepancy in the phenotype between species and the pathophysiology of Wolfram syndrome-associated deafness...
August 3, 2016: Neuroreport
Mohamed A Labib, Mitesh Shah, Amin B Kassam, Ronald Young, Lloyd Zucker, Anthony Maioriello, Gavin Britz, Charles Agbi, J D Day, Gary Gallia, Robert Kerr, Gustavo Pradilla, Richard Rovin, Charles Kulwin, Julian Bailes
BACKGROUND: Subcortical injury resulting from conventional surgical management of intracranial hemorrhage may counteract the potential benefits of hematoma evacuation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and potential benefits of a novel, minimally invasive approach for clot evacuation in a multicenter study. METHODS: The integrated approach incorporates 5 competencies: (1) image interpretation and trajectory planning, (2) dynamic navigation, (3) atraumatic access system (BrainPath, NICO Corp, Indianapolis, Indiana), (4) extracorporeal optics, and (5) automated atraumatic resection...
June 17, 2016: Neurosurgery
Philippe Debruyne
Syncope is frequently neurally mediated and can seriously affect quality of life. Different ablation strategies have been successfully performed. These approaches have not gained wide acceptance and are quite extensive and complex, exposing patients to significant risks. This article reports the case of a 16-year-old girl who was severely affected by frequent and prolonged episodes of syncope and was treated by tailored ablation of the anterior right ganglionated plexus with a multielectrode irrigated catheter...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Vijaya Prakash Krishnan Muthaiah, Dalian Ding, Richard Salvi, Jerome A Roth
Carbaryl, a widely used carbamate-based insecticide, is a potent anticholinesterase known to induce delayed neurotoxicity following chronic exposure. However, its potential toxic effects on the cochlea, the sensory organ for hearing that contains cholinergic efferent neurons and acetylcholine receptors on the hair cells (HC) and spiral ganglion neurons has heretofore not been evaluated. To assess ototoxic potential of carbaryl, cochlear organotypic cultures from postnatal day 3 rats were treated with doses of carbaryl ranging from 50 to 500 μM for 48 h up to 96 h...
June 14, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Medine Kara, Hakan Türkön, Turan Karaca, Oğuz Güçlü, Sema Uysal, Mehmet Türkyılmaz, Selim Demirtaş, Fevzi Sefa Dereköy
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effects of hesperetin as a flavanon both histopathologically and immunohistochemically on cochlear apoptosis in a rat model of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity (CIO). The evaluation of the effects of hesperetin on cisplatin-induced hearing loss was performed using distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE). METHODS: Twenty-eight wistar albino rats were used in the current study. The rats were randomly divided into four groups with seven rats in each group...
June 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Qi Dai, Zhicun Zhang, Quan Liu, Hongmeng Yu
CONCLUSIONS: Transplantation of OECs into the cochlea may protect and increase the survival of SGCs. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of the transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) on injured spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) in rats. METHODS: OECs were transplanted into the cochlea in rats with SGCs that were injured by kanamycin sulfate (KM). An equal volume of D-Hanks was injected into the cochlea of control rats...
May 26, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Ming-Jun Tsai, Ming-Wei Lin, Yaw-Bin Huang, Yu-Min Kuo, Yi-Hung Tsai
Animal and clinical studies have revealed that hyperglycemia during ischemic stroke increases the stroke's severity and the infarct size in clinical and animal studies. However, no conclusive evidence demonstrates that acute hyperglycemia worsens post-stroke outcomes and increases infarct size in lacunar stroke. In this study, we developed a rat model of lacunar stroke that was induced via the injection of artificial embolic particles during full consciousness. We then used this model to compare the acute influence of hyperglycemia in lacunar stroke and diffuse infarction, by evaluating neurologic behavior and the rate, size, and location of the infarction...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
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