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Davide Tonduti, Federica Invernizzi, Celeste Panteghini, Lorenzo Pinelli, Silvia Battaglia, Elisa Fazzi, Giovanna Zorzi, Isabella Moroni, Barbara Garavaglia, Luisa Chiapparini, Nardo Nardocci
Encephalopathies with neostriatal involvement constitute a heterogeneous group of acquired and genetically inherited conditions that include Bilateral Striatal Necrosis (BSN) and other Striatal Lesions (SL) (Tonduti et al). We describe two new patients suffering from BSN due to biallelic SLC19A3 mutations. In the first patient vitamin supplementation was started early on, resulting in the remission of the clinical picture, and an almost complete normalization of the neuroradiological findings. In the second one treatment was started late, compliance was irregular and the resulting clinical outcome was poor...
March 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Abraham Rosas-Arellano, Carlos Tejeda-Guzmán, Enrique Lorca-Ponce, Lourdes Palma-Tirado, Carola A Mantellero, Patricio Rojas, Fanis Missirlis, Maite A Castro
GABA is a widely distributed inhibitory neurotransmitter. GABA-A receptors are hetero-pentameric channels assembled in multiple combinations from 19 available subunits; this diversity mediates phasic and tonic inhibitory synaptic potentials. Whereas GABA-A phasic receptors are located within the synaptic cleft, GABA-A tonic receptors are found peri- or extra-synaptically, where they are activated by diffusion of synaptic GABA release. In the neostriatum, GABA-A tonic subunits are present in the D2 medium-size spiny neurons...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Ivan Grbatinić, Nebojša Milošević, Bojana Krstonošić
AIMS: The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of the neuromorphotopological clustering of neostriate interneurons (NSIN) and their consequent classification into caudate (CIN) and putaminal neuron type (PIN), according to the nuclear localization of the neurons. It tends to discover whether these two topological neuron types are morphologically different. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The binary images of adult human NSIN are used for the purposes of the analysis...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Arnold Gutierrez, Sarah A Jablonski, Robyn M Amos-Kroohs, Anna C Barnes, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
Severe stress potentiates methamphetamine (MA) neurotoxicity. However, whether moderate stress increases or decreases the neurotoxic effects of MA is unknown. We assessed the effects of MA (4 × 10 mg/kg at 2 h intervals) in combination with prior barren-cage housing in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats on monoamines and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) in one cohort and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze in another cohort. MA reduced dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the neostriatum and nucleus accumbens, 5-HT in the hippocampus, and increased GFAP in neostriatum and nucleus accumbens compared with saline controls...
July 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Jaerin Sohn, Megumu Takahashi, Shinichiro Okamoto, Yoko Ishida, Takahiro Furuta, Hiroyuki Hioki
Visualization of neurons is indispensable for the investigation of neuronal circuits in the central nervous system. Virus vectors have been widely used for labeling particular subsets of neurons, and the adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector has gained popularity as a tool for gene transfer. Here, we developed a single AAV vector Tet-Off platform, AAV-SynTetOff, to improve the gene-transduction efficiency, specifically in neurons. The platform is composed of regulator and response elements in a single AAV genome...
2017: PloS One
Susanne Nikolaus, Markus Beu, Maria Angelica de Souza Silva, Joseph P Huston, Christina Antke, Hans-Wilhelm Müller, Hubertus Hautzel
PURPOSE: The present study assessed the influence of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol and the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline on neostriatal dopamine D2 receptor binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors in the rat. METHODS: D2 receptor binding was measured in baseline and after challenge with either 1mg/kg muscimol or 1mg/kg bicuculline. In additional rats, D2 receptor binding was measured after injection of saline. After treatment with muscimol, bicuculline and saline, motor and exploratory behaviors were assessed for 30min in an open field prior to administration of [(123)I]S-3-iodo-N-(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl-2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzamide ([(123)I]IBZM)...
February 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Daniel Reyes-Haro, José Antonio Hernández-Santos, Ricardo Miledi, Ataúlfo Martínez-Torres
The neostriatum plays a central role in motor coordination where nerve cells operate neuronal inhibition through GABAergic transmission. The neostriatum expresses a wide range of GABA-A subunits, including GABAρ1 and ρ2 which are restricted to a fraction of GABAergic interneurons and astrocytes. Spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) evoked by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) were recorded from neurones of the dorsal neostriatum, and their frequency was reduced > 50% by the selective GABAρ antagonist (1,2,5,6-Tetrahydropyridine-4-yl) methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA)...
February 2017: Neuropharmacology
Thomas W Faust, Maxime Assous, James M Tepper, Tibor Koós
UNLABELLED: Synchronous optogenetic activation of striatal cholinergic interneurons ex vivo produces a disynaptic inhibition of spiny projection neurons composed of biophysically distinct GABAAfast and GABAAslow components. This has been shown to be due, at least in part, to activation of nicotinic receptors on GABAergic NPY-neurogliaform interneurons that monosynaptically inhibit striatal spiny projection neurons. Recently, it has been proposed that a significant proportion of this inhibition is actually mediated by activation of presynaptic nicotinic receptors on nigrostriatal terminals that evoke GABA release from the terminals of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ioan Opris, Mikhail A Lebedev, Randall J Nelson
This study investigated how the activity of neostriatal neurons is related to the kinematics of movement when monkeys performed visually and vibratory cued wrist extensions and flexions. Single-unit recordings of 142/236 neostriatal neurons showed pre-movement activity (PMA) in a reaction time task with unpredictable reward. Monkeys were pseudo-randomly (75%) rewarded for correct performance. A regression model was used to determine whether the correlation between neostriatal neuronal activity and the kinematic variables (position, velocity, and acceleration) of wrist movement changes as a function of reward contingency, sensory cues, and movement direction...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Davide Tonduti, Luisa Chiapparini, Isabella Moroni, Anna Ardissone, Giovanna Zorzi, Federica Zibordi, Sergio Raspante, Celeste Panteghini, Barbara Garavaglia, Nardo Nardocci
Neostriatal abnormalities can be observed in a very large number of neurological conditions clinically dominated by the presence of movement disorders. The neuroradiological picture in some cases has been described as "bilateral striatal necrosis" (BSN). BSN represents a condition histo-pathologically defined by the involvement of the neostriata and characterized by initial swelling of putamina and caudates followed by degeneration and cellular necrosis. After the first description in 1975, numerous acquired and hereditary conditions have been associated with the presence of BSN...
June 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Susanne Nikolaus, Markus Beu, Maria A de Souza Silva, Joseph P Huston, Hubertus Hautzel, Claudia Mattern, Christina Antke, Hans-Wilhelm Müller
PURPOSE: The present study assessed the influence of L-DOPA administration on neostriatal dopamine (DA) D2 receptor binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors in the rat. METHODS: D2 receptor binding was measured in baseline, after challenge with the aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor benserazide, and after challenge with either 5 or 10 mg/kg L-DOPA plus benserazide. Additional rats received injections of saline. For baseline and challenges, striatal equilibrium ratios (V[Formula: see text]) were computed as estimation of the binding potential...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Ana M Daugherty, Naftali Raz
Accumulation of non-heme iron is believed to play a major role in neurodegeneration of the basal ganglia. In healthy aging, however, the temporal relationship between change in brain iron content and age-related volume loss is unclear. Here, we present the first long-term longitudinal multi-occasion investigation of changes in iron content and volume in the neostriatum in a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults (N=32; ages 49-83years at baseline). Iron content, estimated via R2* relaxometry, increased in the putamen, but not the caudate nucleus...
March 2016: NeuroImage
Samantha J Podurgiel, Samantha E Yohn, Kristina Dortche, Merce Correa, John D Salamone
Tetrabenazine (TBZ) is prescribed for the treatment of chorea associated with Huntington's disease. Via inhibition of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT-2), TBZ blocks dopamine (DA) storage and depletes striatal DA; this drug also has been shown to induce Parkinsonian motor side effects in patients. Recently, TBZ was shown to induce tremulous jaw movements (TJMs) in rats and mice. TJMs are an oral tremor that has many of the characteristics of Parkinsonian tremor in humans. The present study focused upon the ability of the well-established antiparkinsonian agent deprenyl to attenuate the behavioral and neurochemical effects of 2...
February 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Marta Subirà, Marta Cano, Stella J de Wit, Pino Alonso, Narcís Cardoner, Marcelo Q Hoexter, Jun Soo Kwon, Takashi Nakamae, Christine Lochner, João R Sato, Wi Hoon Jung, Jin Narumoto, Dan J Stein, Jesus Pujol, David Mataix-Cols, Dick J Veltman, José M Menchón, Odile A van den Heuvel, Carles Soriano-Mas
BACKGROUND: Frontostriatal and frontoamygdalar connectivity alterations in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been typically described in functional neuroimaging studies. However, structural covariance, or volumetric correlations across distant brain regions, also provides network-level information. Altered structural covariance has been described in patients with different psychiatric disorders, including OCD, but to our knowledge, alterations within frontostriatal and frontoamygdalar circuits have not been explored...
March 2016: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Dae-Jin Kim, Elysia Poggi Davis, Curt A Sandman, Olaf Sporns, Brian F O'Donnell, Claudia Buss, William P Hetrick
Recent structural and functional neuroimaging studies of adults suggest that efficient patterns of brain connectivity are fundamental to human intelligence. Specifically, whole brain networks with an efficient small-world organization, along with specific brain regions (i.e., Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory, P-FIT) appear related to intellectual ability. However, these relationships have not been studied in children using structural network measures. This cross-sectional study examined the relation between non-verbal intellectual ability and structural network organization in 99 typically developing healthy preadolescent children...
January 1, 2016: NeuroImage
Jonathan M Wilson, Ann Marie L Ogden, Sally Loomis, Gary Gilmour, Anthony J Baucum, Teri L Belecky-Adams, Kalpana M Merchant
Studies described here tested the hypothesis that phosphodiesterase 10A inhibition by a selective antagonist, MP-10, activates the dopamine D2 receptor expressing medium spiny neurons to a greater extent than the D1 receptor expressing neurons. We used regional pattern of c-Fos induction in the neostriatal subregions of rodents and direct assessment of D1-positive and -negative neurons in the DRd1a-tdTomato mice for the purpose. MP-10 (1, 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg, PO) dose-dependently increased c-Fos immunopositive nuclei in all regions of neostriatum...
December 2015: Neuropharmacology
Kine S N Dervola, Espen B Johansen, S Ivar Walaas, Frode Fonnum
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are present as ortho- and non-ortho-substituted PCBs, with most of the ortho-substituted congeners being neurotoxic. The present study examined effects of the ortho-substituted PCB 153 on dopamine, serotonin and amino acid neurotransmitters in the neostriatum of both male and female Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) genotypes. PCB 153 exposure at p8, p14 and p20 had no effects on levels of these transmitters when examined at p55, but led to increased levels of both homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, the degradation products of dopamine and serotonin, respectively, in all groups except the female SHR...
September 2015: Neurotoxicology
Osvaldo Ibáñez-Sandoval, Harry S Xenias, James M Tepper, Tibor Koós
The recent electrophysiological characterization of TH-expressing GABAergic interneurons (THINs) in the neostriatum revealed an unexpected degree of diversity of interneurons in this brain area (Ibáñez-Sandoval et al., 2010, Unal et al., 2011, 2015). Despite being relatively few in number, THINs may play a significant role in transmitting and distributing extra- and intrastriatal neuromodulatory signals in the striatal circuitry. Here we investigated the dopaminergic and cholinergic regulation of THINs in vitro...
August 2015: Neuropharmacology
Thomas W Faust, Maxime Assous, Fulva Shah, James M Tepper, Tibor Koós
Previous work suggests that neostriatal cholinergic interneurons control the activity of several classes of GABAergic interneurons through fast nicotinic receptor-mediated synaptic inputs. Although indirect evidence has suggested the existence of several classes of interneurons controlled by this mechanism, only one such cell type, the neuropeptide-Y-expressing neurogliaform neuron, has been identified to date. Here we tested the hypothesis that in addition to the neurogliaform neurons that elicit slow GABAergic inhibitory responses, another interneuron type exists in the striatum that receives strong nicotinic cholinergic input and elicits conventional fast GABAergic synaptic responses in projection neurons...
July 2015: European Journal of Neuroscience
Charles V Vorhees, Devon L Graham, Robyn M Amos-Kroohs, Amanda A Braun, Curtis E Grace, Tori L Schaefer, Matthew R Skelton, Keith M Erikson, Michael Aschner, Michael T Williams
Developmental exposure to manganese (Mn) or stress can each be detrimental to brain development. Here, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to two housing conditions and Mn from postnatal day (P)4-28. Within each litter two males and 2 females were assigned to the following groups: 0 (vehicle), 50, or 100 mg/kg Mn by oral gavage every other day. Half the litters were reared in cages with standard bedding and half with no bedding. One pair/group in each litter had an acute shallow water stressor before tissue collection (i...
2014: Toxicology Reports
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