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luteinizing hormones

Sunmin Park, Da Sol Kim, Eun Seon Kang, Da Bin Kim, Suna Kang
We evaluated the effects of intracerebroventricular administration(ICV) of brain estrogen and progesterone on menopausal symptoms and their effects on the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) and luteinizing hormone(LH) in estrogen-deficient rats. Three weeks after ovariectomy(OVX) or Sham-operation, OVX rats were given ICV infusions of either 17β-estradiol(4 μg/day; ICV-E), progesterone(0.8 μg/day; ICV-P), or vehicle(control) for 4 weeks. OVX rats in the positive-control group were orally provided 150 μg 17β-estradiol/kg bw/day...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Hong-Quan Luo, Wei-Wang Gu, Li-Wen Huang, Li-Hong Wu, Yu-Guang Tian, Chun-Hua Zheng, Min Yue
Obesity is a public health problem in both developed and developing countries, and the negative effects of obesity on reproductive physiology have been highlighted recently. We evaluated the effects of porcine obesity index, sex hormones, and peptide hormones on litter size in various breeds of minipigs. Blood samples were collected from sedated 8-,10-, and 12-mo-old minipigs to measure preovulatory levels of sex hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and prolactin) and peptide hormones (insulin-like growth factor, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, insulin, and leptin)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Marta Venturelli, Giorgia Guaitoli, Claudia Omarini, Luca Moscetti
Endocrine treatment represents the cornerstone of endocrine-sensitive premenopausal early breast cancer. The estrogen blockade plays a leading role in the therapeutic management of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer together with surgery, radiotherapy, and selective antiestrogen treatments. For several years, selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as tamoxifen, have represented the mainstay of therapy. The role of amenorrhea has been extensively elucidated in the past year: the benefit observed with chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea has strengthened its therapeutic role...
2018: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Yan-Guang Wu, David H Barad, Vitaly A Kushnir, Qi Wang, Lin Zhang, Sarah K Darmon, David F Albertini, Norbert Gleicher
BACKGROUND: Highly Individualized Egg Retrieval (HIER), defined as age-specific early oocyte retrieval (ER), has been demonstrated to avoid premature luteinization in women ≥43. We here investigated whether HIER also applies to younger women with premature ovarian aging (POA), and what best lead follicle size should be for administration of ovulation-triggers. METHODS: Fifty-six women ≥43, and 37 POA patients underwent IVF cycles. Granulosa cells (GCs) were isolated, cultures were established, RNA was extracted and real-time PCR analyses performed, with gene expressions at mRNA level investigated for FSH receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCPR), P450 aromatase (CYP19a1) and progesterone receptor (PGR)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
Irene E G van Hellemond, Ingeborg J H Vriens, Petronella G M Peer, Astrid C P Swinkels, Carolien H Smorenburg, Caroline M Seynaeve, Maurice J C van der Sangen, Judith R Kroep, Hiltje de Graaf, Aafke H Honkoop, Frans L G Erdkamp, Franchette W P J van den Berkmortel, Jos J E M Kitzen, Maaike de Boer, Wïlfred K de Roos, Sabine C Linn, Alexander L T Imholz, Vivianne C G Tjan-Heijnen
Background: Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are given as adjuvant therapy for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women, also to those with chemotherapy-induced ovarian function failure. The current analysis reports on endocrine data of patients with chemotherapy-induced ovarian function failure who were included in the phase III DATA study assessing different durations of adjuvant anastrozole after tamoxifen. Methods: We identified all patients with chemotherapy-induced ovarian function failure...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
K M J Menon, Bindu Menon, Thippeswamy Gulappa
The expression of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) in the mammalian ovary is regulated in response to changes in the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone by the anterior pituitary, at least in part, through posttranscriptional mechanisms. The steady-state levels of LHR mRNA are maintained by controlling its rate of degradation by an RNA-binding protein designated as LHR mRNA-binding protein (LRBP). LRBP forms a complex with LHR mRNA and targets it for degradation in the p bodies...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
António M Galvão, Dariusz Skarzynski, Graça Ferreira-Dias
Successful pregnancy establishment demands optimal luteal function in mammals. Nonetheless, regression of the corpus luteum (CL) is absolutely necessary for normal female cyclicity. This dichotomy relies on intricate molecular signals and rapidly activated biological responses, such as angiogenesis, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, or programmed cell death. The CL establishment and growth after ovulation depend not only on the luteinizing hormone-mediated endocrine signal but also on a number of auto-, paracrine interactions promoted by cytokines and growth factors like fibroblast growth factor 2, vascular endothelial growth factor A, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF), which coordinate vascularigenesis and ECM reorganization as well as steroidogenesis...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Sheena L P Regan, Phil G Knight, John L Yovich, Yee Leung, Frank Arfuso, Arun Dharmarajan
Primordial germ cells migrate to the fetal gonads and proliferate during gestation to generate a fixed complement of primordial follicles, the so-called ovarian reserve. Primordial follicles comprise an oocyte arrested at the diplotene stage of meiosis, surrounded by a layer of pregranulosa cells. Activation of primordial follicles to grow beyond this arrested stage is of particular interest because, once activated, they are subjected to regulatory mechanisms involved in growth, selection, maturation, and ultimately, ovulation or atresia...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Jill Bennett-Toomey, Carlos Stocco
GATA4 and GATA6 are the sole GATA factors expressed in the ovary during embryonic development and adulthood. Up today, GATA4 and GATA6 are the only transcription factors that have been conditionally deleted during ovarian development and at each major stage of follicle maturation. The evidence from these transgenic mice revealed that GATA4 and GATA6 are crucial for follicles assembly, granulosa cell differentiation, postnatal follicle growth, and luteinization. Thus, conditional knockdown of both factors in the granulosa cells at any stage of development leads to female infertility...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Fumio Otsuka
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system in the ovary plays a physiological role as a luteinization inhibitor in growing follicles. BMP-6 secreted from oocytes and granulosa cells can exert an inhibitory effect on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) actions by suppressing adenylate cyclase activity downstream of the FSH receptor. The inhibition of FSH-induced progesterone production by BMP-6 is impaired by melatonin treatment in granulosa cells. Intracellular Smad signaling induced by BMP-6 is suppressed by melatonin, suggesting that melatonin has a regulatory role in BMP receptor signaling in granulosa cells...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Leticia Wietcovsky, David Til, Rafael Alonso Salvador, Nicole Louise Lângaro Amaral, Alfred Paul Senn, Vera Lucia Lângaro Amaral
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficiency of ovarian tissue heterotopic autografting after vitrification in prepubertal rats. METHODS: Fragments of excised ovaries from prepubertal rats were used after assessing post-warming cellular viability, to determine the best vitrification protocol prior to retroauricular autografting. Pre-pubertal females (N=24) were castrated and divided into three group: Group 1 - fresh ovarian tissue transplantation; Group 2 - vitrified/warmed tissue transplantation; Group 3 - bilateral oophorectomy without transplantation...
March 15, 2018: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
Francesca Mossa, Daniela Bebbere, Antonello Ledda, Giovanni P Burrai, Imane Chebli, Elisabetta Antuofermo, Sergio Ledda, Antonello Cannas, Francesco Fancello, Alberto S Atzori
Maternal nutrition during critical gestation periods impacts on offspring in later life; effects of high-starch maternal diet on testicular development in lambs were addressed. Dairy ewes were fed diets providing either 27% (Starch, S) or 11% (Fiber, F) of starch from mating to lambing (∼147 days; S147, F147) or for the last 75 days of gestation (S75, F75). Testes of single male lambs were measured and then sampled for histological and gene expression analyses at selected ages. Testicular dimensions and weight were similar among groups, but the total area of seminiferous tubules increased with age and tended to be higher (P = 0...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Yudi Geng, Qiaohong Lai, Yang Xun, Lei Jin
OBJECTIVE: To explore factors causing a premature rise in luteinizing hormone among high ovarian responders undergoing the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol. METHODS: The present retrospective study included healthy women undergoing fresh cycles using a fixed GnRH antagonist protocol with a predicted high response and antral follicle count (AFC) of at least 15 at the Reproductive Medicine Center of Tongji Hospital, China, between January 1 and December 31, 2016...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Ji Yong Choi, Cheol Young Choi
This study was conducted to identify the possible effect of recombinant vertebrate ancient long (VAL) opsin as a non-visual "photoreceptor" in the deep brain of goldfish, Carassius auratus. In addition, we investigated the effects of green-wavelength light on the predictable reproductive function of VAL-opsin as a green-sensitive pigment in the deep brain. To determine this, we quantified changes in gonadotropin hormone (GTH) [GTHα, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)] and estrogen receptor (ER; ERα and ERβ) mRNA expression levels associated with goldfish reproduction as well as changes in plasma FSH, LH, and 17β-estradiol (E2 ) activities after injection of recombinant VAL-opsin protein in two concentrations (0...
March 14, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Jin-Chun Lu, Jun Jing, Li Chen, Yi-Feng Ge, Rui-Xiang Feng, Yuan-Jiao Liang, Bing Yao
BACKGROUND: Many factors may lead to sperm DNA damage. However, it is little known that the correlations of sperm DNA damage with obesity-associated markers, and reproductive hormones and lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma. METHODS: In our prospective study, a total of 1 010 subfertile men, aged from 18 to 50 years old, were enrolled from August 2012 through June 2015. Their obesity-associated markers, semen parameters, sperm acrosomal enzyme activity, seminal plasma biochemical markers, and reproductive hormones and lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma were detected...
March 14, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Philippa Melamed, Majd Haj, Yahav Yosefzon, Sergei Rudnizky, Andrea Wijeweera, Lilach Pnueli, Ariel Kaplan
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates the expression of multiple genes in the pituitary gonadotropes, most notably to induce synthesis of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), but also to ensure the appropriate functioning of these cells at the center of the mammalian reproductive endocrine axis. Aside from the activation of gene-specific transcription factors, GnRH stimulates through its membrane-bound receptor, alterations in the chromatin that facilitate transcription of its target genes...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Xiaowei Wen, Jun Xie, Lixia Zhou, Yong Fan, Baofeng Yu, Qiuju Chen, Yonglun Fu, Zheng Yan, Haiyan Guo, Qifeng Lyu, Yanping Kuang, Weiran Chai
Medroxyprogesterone 17-acetate (MPA) combined with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) has been effectively used for ovarian stimulation in clinical practice. However, the molecular mechanism of MPA + hMG treatment in follicular development is poorly described. Here we performed a study to investigate the impact of MPA + hMG on ovarian stimulation utilizing a mouse model in vivo. Forty female BALB/C mice were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each and treated during ciestrus stage and continued for 5 days: control group, MPA group, hMG group, and MPA + hMG group...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiao Wang, Huarong Wang, Wei Liu, Zhiyuan Zhang, Yanhao Zhang, Wenqiang Zhang, Zijiang Chen, Guoliang Xia, Chao Wang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by hyperandrogenism, is a complex endocrinopathy that affects the fertility of 9%-18% of reproductive-age women. However, the exact mechanism of PCOS, especially hyperandrogen-induced anovulation, is largely unknown to date. Physiologically, the natriuretic peptide type C/natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (CNP/NPR2) system is essential for sustaining oocyte meiotic arrest until the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. We therefore hypothesized that the CNP/NPR2 system is also involved in PCOS and contributes to arresting oocyte meiosis and ovulation...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Alexander J Riordan, Ari W Schaler, Jenny Fried, Tracie A Paine, Janice E Thornton
The cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are poorly understood and difficult to treat. Estrogens may mitigate these symptoms via unknown mechanisms. To examine these mechanisms, we tested whether increasing estradiol (E) or decreasing luteinizing hormone (LH) could mitigate short-term episodic memory loss in a phencyclidine (PCP) model of schizophrenia. We then assessed whether changes in cortical or hippocampal GABA may underlie these effects. Female rats were ovariectomized and injected subchronically with PCP...
February 27, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Fabian Probst, Jessika Golle, Vanda Lory, Janek S Lobmaier
The relation between testosterone and aggression has been relatively well documented in men, but it is less well understood in women. Here we assessed the relationship between salivary testosterone and reactive aggression (i.e., rejection rate for unfair offers) in the Ultimatum Game. Forty naturally cycling women were tested twice, once in the late follicular phase (around ovulation) and once during the luteal phase. Ovulation was determined using urine test strips measuring luteinizing hormone levels. Salivary samples were assayed for testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol at both test sessions...
March 12, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
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