Read by QxMD icon Read


Anderson R Stolf, Diana Müller, Jaqueline B Schuch, Gláucia C Akutagava-Martins, Luciano S P Guimaraes, Claudia M Szobot, Ricardo Halpern, Felix H P Kessler, Flavio Pechansky, Tatiana Roman
BACKGROUND: This study aims to compare allele and genotype frequencies of a 30-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism of the DAT1 gene, located at intron 8, between adult crack cocaine users and nonaddicted individuals. Due to its involvement in drug addiction, this gene is a good candidate for molecular studies. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 239 current adult crack abusers or dependents from in- and outpatient clinics and 211 control individuals was collected in Brazil...
January 12, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Xuhui Zhang, Xiyu Liu, Zedong Yan, Jing Cai, Fei Kang, Shuai Shan, Pan Wang, Mingming Zhai, X Edward Guo, Erping Luo, Da Jing
Repetitive fatigue loading can induce microdamage accumulation in bone matrix, which results in impaired mechanical properties and increased fracture susceptibility. However, the spatial distribution and time-variant process of microdamage accumulation in fatigue-loaded skeleton, especially for linear microcracks which are known to initiate bone remodeling, remain not fully understood. In this study, the time-varying process of the morphology and distribution of microcracks in rat ulnae subjected to uniaxial compressive fatigue loading was investigated...
January 10, 2018: Bone
Nitika Garg, Rupa Joshi, Bikash Medhi
Epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are interconnected. It is well known that seizures are linked with cognitive impairment, and there are various shared etiologies between epilepsy and AD. The connection between hyperexcitability of neurons and cognitive dysfunction in the progression of AD or epileptogenesis plays a vital role for improving selection of treatment for both diseases. Traditionally, seizures occur less frequently and in later stages of age in patients with AD which in turn implies that neurodegeneration causes seizures...
January 12, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Hongxia Wan, Dongdong Song, Dawei Zhang, Cuiwei Du, Dake Xu, Zhiyong Liu, De Ding, Xiaogang Li
The corrosion of X80 pipeline steel in the presence of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) was studied through electrochemical and surface analyses and live/dead staining. Scanning electron microscopy and live/dead straining results showed that a number of B. cereus adhered to the X80 steel. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that B. cereus could accelerate the corrosion of X80 steel. In addition, surface morphology observations indicated that B. cereus could accelerate pitting corrosion in X80 steel. The depth of the largest pits due to B...
December 24, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
Shuming Jiao, Guowei Li, Changyuan Zhou, Wenbin Zou, Xia Li
In this paper, a special ciphertext-only attack (COA) scenario to the traditional double random phase encoding (DRPE) technique is proposed based on plaintext shifting. We assume the attacker can illegally manipulate the DRPE system to gain multiple ciphertexts from randomly shifted versions of the same plaintext. The plaintext image can be recovered when our proposed scenario is combined with a speckle correlation attacking method proposed in previous work. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed scheme can successfully crack the DRPE system even when the speckle correlation method alone fails to work in the conventional single ciphertext scenario due to the small size of the plaintext image...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Hiroyuki Iwata, Daisuke Kawaguchi, Hiroyasu Saka
Internal modification induced in Si by a permeable pulse laser was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. A laser induced modified volume (LIMV) was a cylindrical rod along the track of a laser beam with the head at the focus of the laser beam. In the LIMV, beside voids, dislocations, micro-cracks and what had been supposed to be an unidentified high-pressure phase (hpp) of Si were observed in LIMV. The so-called 'hpp' was identified mostly as diamond Si.
January 6, 2018: Microscopy
Lukas Capek, Petr Henys, Martin Kalab, Pavel Solfronk
OBJECTIVES: The number of turns at the end of a wire closure is not described or discussed in any cardiosurgical guidelines. The hands-on experience of the surgeon plays a significant role. The aim of this work was to clarify the relationship between the number of turns of the suture and the resulting strength of the sternal fixation. METHODS: The study was performed in 2 independent steps. The first step was a finite element simulation, where the stress and strain distribution of the sternal fixation was observed...
January 8, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Sungho Choi, Hwanjeong Cho, Matthew S Lindsey, Cliff J Lissenden
Elevated temperature, gamma radiation, and geometric constraints inside dry storage casks for spent nuclear fuel represent a harsh environment for nondestructive inspection of the cask and require that the inspection be conducted with a robotic system. Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) using non-contact ultrasonic transduction based on the Lorentz force to excite/receive ultrasonic waves are suited for use in the robotic inspection. Periodic permanent magnet EMATs that actuate/receive shear horizontal guided waves are developed for application to robotic nondestructive inspection of stress corrosion cracks in the heat affected zone of welds in stainless steel dry storage canisters...
January 11, 2018: Sensors
Giulio Marchese, Gloria Basile, Emilio Bassini, Alberta Aversa, Mariangela Lombardi, Daniele Ugues, Paolo Fino, Sara Biamino
Hastelloy X (HX) is a Ni-based superalloy which suffers from high crack susceptibility during the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process. In this work, the microstructure of as-built HX samples was rigorously investigated to understand the main mechanisms leading to crack formation. The microstructural features of as-built HX samples consisted of very fine dendrite architectures with dimensions typically less than 1 µm, coupled with the formation of sub-micrometric carbides, the largest ones were mainly distributed along the interdendritic regions and grain boundaries...
January 11, 2018: Materials
Madhur Mangalam, Matheus Maia Pacheco, Patrícia Izar, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Dorothy Munkenbeck Fragaszy
We analysed the patterns of coordination of striking movement and perceptuomotor control of stone hammers in wild bearded capuchin monkeys, Sapajus libidinosus as they cracked open palm nut using hammers of different mass, a habitual behaviour in our study population. We aimed to determine why these monkeys cannot produce conchoidally fractured flakes as do contemporary human knappers or as did prehistoric hominin knappers. We found that the monkeys altered their patterns of coordination of movement to accommodate changes in hammer mass...
January 2018: Biology Letters
Shoboo Salehpour, Mehdi Jonoobi, Masoud Ahmadzadeh, Valentina Siracusa, Fatemeh Rafieian, Kristiina Oksman
Biodegradable nanocomposites were prepared from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and cellulose nanofiber (CNF) by using liquid nitrogen, freeze drying and hot press techniques. The effect of CNF content on the biodegradability of the films was investigated by visual observation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), weight loss, CO2 evolution, differential scanning calorimetry, measuring the amount of mineralized carbon of the specimens buried in municipal solid waste. Ecotoxicity was evaluated by plants growth tests with cress and spinach...
January 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yang Deng, Aiqun Li, Dongming Feng
A time-dependent fatigue reliability assessment approach is proposed for welded details of orthotropic steel decks (OSDs) using long-term strain monitoring data. The fatigue reliability limit function of the welded details is established based on the Eurocode specifications. Depending on the distribution characteristics of the measured daily equivalent stress range, either the lognormal distribution or Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is selected to quantify its uncertainty. Subsequently, the fatigue reliability can be calculated using either an explicit formula or the Monte Carlo method...
January 10, 2018: Sensors
Marek Pszczola, Mariusz Jaczewski, Dawid Rys, Piotr Jaskula, Cezary Szydlowski
Low-temperature cracking is one of the most common road pavement distress types in Poland. While bitumen performance can be evaluated in detail using bending beam rheometer (BBR) or dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests, none of the normalized test methods gives a comprehensive representation of low-temperature performance of the asphalt mixtures. This article presents the Bending Beam Creep test performed at temperatures from -20 °C to +10 °C in order to evaluate the low-temperature performance of asphalt mixtures...
January 10, 2018: Materials
Baohua Nie, Zihua Zhao, Shu Liu, Dongchu Chen, Yongzhong Ouyang, Zhudong Hu, Touwen Fan, Haibo Sun
The effect of casting pores on the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) behavior of a directionally solidified (DS) Ni-base superalloy DZ4 is investigated. Casting and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) specimens were subjected to very high cycle fatigue loading in an ambient atmosphere. The results demonstrated that the continuously descending S-N curves were exhibited for both the casting and HIP specimens. Due to the elimination of the casting pores, the HIP samples had better fatigue properties than the casting samples...
January 10, 2018: Materials
Zhiqiang Yang, Zhengdong Liu, Xikou He, Shibin Qiao, Changsheng Xie
The effect of microstructure on the impact toughness and the temper embrittlement of a SA508Gr.4N steel was investigated. Martensitic and bainitic structures formed in this material were examined via scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis. The martensitic structure had a positive effect on both the strength and toughness. Compared with the bainitic structure, this structure consisted of smaller blocks and more high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs)...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Arno de Klerk
The use of zeolite catalysts for the refining of products from methanol synthesis and Fisher-Tropsch synthesis was reviewed. The focus was on fuels refining processes and differences in the application to indirect liquefaction products was compared to petroleum, which is often a case of managing different molecules. Processes covered were skeletal isomerisation of n-butenes, hydroisomerisation of n-butane, aliphatic alkylation, alkene oligomerisation, methanol to hydrocarbons, ethanol and heavier alcohols to hydrocarbons, carbonyls to hydrocarbons, etherification of alkenes with alcohols, light naphtha hydroisomerisation, catalytic naphtha reforming, hydroisomerisation of distillate, hydrocracking and fluid catalytic cracking...
January 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Izumi Morita, Hiroyuki Oyama, Yui Kanda, Mayumi Yasuo, Aya Ito, Masahiro Toyota, Yoshinori Hayashi, Takeshi Yokoyama, Norihiro Kobayashi
Ketamine (KT) is a chiral anesthetic agent, (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of which differ in their pharmacological properties. KT has become one of the most commonly used illicit drugs in the world, thus, rapid and feasible on-site testing is required to crack down on the illicit use. Although immunochemical approach with specific antibodies is promising for this purpose, in practice anti-KT antibodies are difficult to obtain. We here disclose generation of monoclonal antibodies against KT. Mice were immunized with either (a) commercially-available or (b) in-house-prepared KT-albumin conjugates...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Ning Zhang, Minghui Li, Xuetan Sun, Huizhen Jia, Wenguang Liu
Cell membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles for cancer therapy have received a burgeoning interest over the past years. However, the low drug loading and intratumoral release efficiency, and lack of precise targeting remains a big challenge; in addition, foreign carriers used may pose an expected burden in the course of metabolism. In this study, we designed and fabricated a novel NIR-responsive highly targeted carrier-free nanosystem by coating the exactly identical source of cracked cancer cell membranes (CCCMs) specifically derived from the homologous tumors onto the surface of the co-assembly nanoparticles of doxorubicin (DOX) and FDA-approved photothermal agent, indocyanine green (ICG)...
January 4, 2018: Biomaterials
N Vinod Kumar, Mary Esther Rani, R Gunaseeli, N D Kannan
Ligno-cellulosic enzymes like cellulase and xylanase have potential for modification of paper pulp characteristics. A low molecular weight cellulase - xylanase complex (14KDa) was co-produced using Escherichia coli SD5. Co-existence of these enzymes was found to be advantageous in paper pulp modification and in deinking applications. The cellulase and xylanase exhibited specific activities of 51.95 and 24.64U/mg protein of respectively. Defibrillations, crack formation and changes in functional groups was evident from the SEM and FT-IR analysis of paper pulp following the enzyme treatment...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sébastien Rigali, Sinaeda Anderssen, Aymeric Naômé, Gilles P van Wezel
The World Health Organization (WHO) describes antibiotic resistance as "one of the biggest threats to global health, food security, and development today", as the number of multi- and pan-resistant bacteria is rising dangerously. Acquired resistance phenomena also impair antifungals, antivirals, anti-cancer drug therapy, while herbicide resistance in weeds threatens the crop industry. On the positive side, it is likely that the chemical space of natural products goes far beyond what has currently been discovered...
January 5, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"