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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645068/fracture-roughness-and-phase-transformation-in-cad-cam-milling-and-subsequent-surface-treatments-of-lithium-metasilicate-disilicate-glass-ceramics
#1
Abdur-Rasheed Alao, Richard Stoll, Xiao-Fei Song, John R Abbott, Yu Zhang, Jaafar Abduo, Ling Yin
This paper studied surface fracture, roughness and morphology, phase transformations, and material removal mechanisms of lithium metasilicate/disilicate glass ceramics (LMGC/LDGC) in CAD/CAM-milling and subsequent surface treatments. LMGC (IPS e.max CAD) blocks were milled using a chairside dental CAD/CAM milling unit and then treated in sintering, polishing and glazing processes. X-ray diffraction was performed on all processed surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to analyse surface fracture and morphology...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644633/role-of-preload-in-adhesion-of-rough-surfaces
#2
L Dorogin, A Tiwari, C Rotella, P Mangiagalli, B N J Persson
Adhesion between glass and bromobutyl and polydimethylsiloxane elastomers is investigated. We show that viscoelastic energy dissipation close to the opening (or closing) crack tip, and surface roughness, strongly affect the work of adhesion. We observe strong adhesion hysteresis and we show, in contrast to the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts theory prediction for elastic solids, that this results in a pull-off force, and effective work of adhesion to be dependent on the maximum loading force.
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644382/metal-ion-loaded-nanofibre-matrices-for-calcification-inhibition-in-polyurethane-implants
#3
Charanpreet Singh, Xungai Wang
Pathologic calcification leads to structural deterioration of implant materials via stiffening, stress cracking, and other structural disintegration mechanisms, and the effect can be critical for implants intended for long-term or permanent implantation. This study demonstrates the potential of using specific metal ions (MI)s for inhibiting pathological calcification in polyurethane (PU) implants. The hypothesis of using MIs as anti-calcification agents was based on the natural calcium-antagonist role of Mg(2+) ions in human body, and the anti-calcification effect of Fe(3+) ions in bio-prosthetic heart valves has previously been confirmed...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642953/crack-tips-enriched-platinum-copper-superlattice-nanoflakes-as-highly-efficient-anode-electrocatalysts-for-direct-methanol-fuel-cells
#4
Lijun Zheng, Dachi Yang, Rong Chang, Chengwen Wang, Gaixia Zhang, Shuhui Sun
We have developed "crack-tips" and "superlattice" enriched Pt-Cu nanoflakes (NFs), benefiting from the synergetic effects of "crack-tips" and "superlattice crystals"; the Pt-Cu NFs exhibit 4 times higher mass activity, 6 times higher specific activity and 6 times higher stability than those of the commercial Pt/C catalyst, respectively. Meanwhile, the Pt-Cu NFs show more enhanced CO tolerance than the commercial Pt/C catalyst.
June 23, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642590/toughening-fe-based-amorphous-coatings-by-reinforcement-of-amorphous-carbon
#5
Wei Wang, Cheng Zhang, Zhi-Wei Zhang, Yi-Cheng Li, Muhammad Yasir, Hai-Tao Wang, Lin Liu
Toughening of Fe-based amorphous coatings meanwhile maintaining a good corrosion resistance remains challenging. This work reports a novel approach to improve the toughness of a FeCrMoCBY amorphous coating through in-situ formation of amorphous carbon reinforcement without reducing the corrosion resistance. The Fe-based composite coating was prepared by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying using a pre-mixed Fe-based amorphous/nylon-11 polymer feedstock powders. The nylon-11 powders were in-situ carbonized to amorphous carbon phase during thermal spraying process, which homogeneously distributed in the amorphous matrix leading to significant enhancement of toughness of the coating...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642460/standing-wave-effect-and-fractal-structure-in-dislocation-evolution
#6
P Li, Z F Zhang
Theoretical model required for the evolution of regular dislocation pattern should simultaneously take into account both static distribution and dynamic evolution of dislocation pattern. In principle, there exists a stable uniformly moving dislocation with both core and far field advancing at the same constant velocity, which suggests the existence of the traveling waves representing moving dislocation. Therefore, one new term "dislocation wave" is defined by simultaneously consisting of both an elastic wave and a dislocation in each wavefront...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641466/a-model-of-lipid-rearrangements-during-pore-formation-in-the-dppc-lipid-bilayer
#7
Artur Wrona, Krystian Kubica
CONTEXT: The molecular bases of pore formation in the lipid bilayer remain unclear, as do the exact characteristics of their sizes and distributions. To understand this process, numerous studies have been performed on model lipid membranes including cell-sized giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV). The effect of an electric field on DPPC GUV depends on the lipid membrane state: in the liquid crystalline phase the created pores have a cylinder-like shape, whereas in the gel phase a crack has been observed...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640925/a-novel-underwater-dam-crack-detection-and-classification-approach-based-on-sonar-images
#8
Pengfei Shi, Xinnan Fan, Jianjun Ni, Zubair Khan, Min Li
Underwater dam crack detection and classification based on sonar images is a challenging task because underwater environments are complex and because cracks are quite random and diverse in nature. Furthermore, obtainable sonar images are of low resolution. To address these problems, a novel underwater dam crack detection and classification approach based on sonar imagery is proposed. First, the sonar images are divided into image blocks. Second, a clustering analysis of a 3-D feature space is used to obtain the crack fragments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640515/carbon-dots-as-fillers-inducing-healing-self-healing-and-anticorrosion-properties-in-polymers
#9
Cheng Zhu, Yijun Fu, Changan Liu, Yang Liu, Lulu Hu, Juan Liu, Igor Bello, Hao Li, Naiyun Liu, Sijie Guo, Hui Huang, Yeshayahu Lifshitz, Shuit-Tong Lee, Zhenhui Kang
Self-healing is the way by which nature repairs damage and prolongs the life of bio entities. A variety of practical applications require self-healing materials in general and self-healing polymers in particular. Different (complex) methods provide the rebonding of broken bonds, suppressing crack, or local damage propagation. Here, a simple, versatile, and cost-effective methodology is reported for initiating healing in bulk polymers and self-healing and anticorrosion properties in polymer coatings: introduction of carbon dots (CDs), 5 nm sized carbon nanocrystallites, into the polymer matrix forming a composite...
June 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640278/china-cracks-down-on-fake-peer-reviews
#10
David Cyranoski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639560/mechanical-properties-of-decellularized-extracellular-matrix-coated-with-ticapcon-film
#11
I V Sukhorukova, A N Sheveyko, K L Firestein, Ph V Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, D Golberg, D V Shtansky
For the first time the surface of decellularized extracellular matrix (DECM) was modified via deposition of a multicomponent bioactive nanostructured film for improvement of the DECM's mechanical properties. TiCaPCON films were deposited onto the surface of intact and decellularized ulna, radius, and humerus bones by magnetron sputtering of TiC0.5 + 10%Ca3(PO4)2 and Ti targets in a gaseous mixture of Ar + N2. The film structure was studied using x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy...
June 22, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639173/numerical-modelling-of-femur-fracture-and-experimental-validation-using-bone-simulant
#12
Miguel Marco, Eugenio Giner, Ricardo Larraínzar, José Ramón Caeiro, María Henar Miguélez
Bone fracture pattern prediction is still a challenge and an active field of research. The main goal of this article is to present a combined methodology (experimental and numerical) for femur fracture onset analysis. Experimental work includes the characterization of the mechanical properties and fracture testing on a bone simulant. The numerical work focuses on the development of a model whose material properties are provided by the characterization tests. The fracture location and the early stages of the crack propagation are modelled using the extended finite element method and the model is validated by fracture tests developed in the experimental work...
June 20, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637671/are-new-hepatitis-c-drugs-all-they-re-cracked-up-to-be
#13
Nigel Hawkes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636322/spirally-structured-conductive-composites-for-highly-stretchable-robust-conductors-and-sensors
#14
Xiaodong Wu, Yangyang Han, Xinxing Zhang, Canhui Lu
Flexible and stretchable electronics are highly desirable for next generation devices. However, stretchability and conductivity are fundamentally difficult to combine for conventional conductive composites, which restricts their widespread applications especially as stretchable electronics. Here, we innovatively develop a new class of highly stretchable and robust conductive composites via a simple and scalable structural approach. Briefly, carbon nanotubes are spray-coated onto a self-adhesive rubber film, followed by rolling up the film completely to create a spirally layered structure within the composites...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633567/endogenous-bioelectric-signaling-networks-exploiting-voltage-gradients-for-control-of-growth-and-form
#15
Michael Levin, Giovanni Pezzulo, Joshua M Finkelstein
Living systems exhibit remarkable abilities to self-assemble, regenerate, and remodel complex shapes. How cellular networks construct and repair specific anatomical outcomes is an open question at the heart of the next-generation science of bioengineering. Developmental bioelectricity is an exciting emerging discipline that exploits endogenous bioelectric signaling among many cell types to regulate pattern formation. We provide a brief overview of this field, review recent data in which bioelectricity is used to control patterning in a range of model systems, and describe the molecular tools being used to probe the role of bioelectrics in the dynamic control of complex anatomy...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633459/electron-microscopy-of-voids-in-si-formed-by-permeable-pulse-laser-irradiation
#16
Hiroyuki Iwata, Daisuke Kawaguchi, Hiroyasu Saka
Voids formed in Si by permeable laser irradiation were investigated by comprehensive electron microscopy. Two types of voids were identified: Type (1): This type was formed mostly closer to the entrance surface of a laser, and a considerable volume of a non-diamond Si (DS) phase was formed in the surrounding matrix. Type (2): This type was formed at the focus of an incident laser, and none of dislocations, cracks and non-DS phase was observed in the surrounding matrix. Type (1) voids are considered to be formed to accommodate volume change resulting from transformation from DS to the non-DS...
June 17, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632478/sexual-risk-behaviors-and-predictors-of-inconsistent-condom-use-among-crack-cocaine-users-in-the-french-overseas-territories-in-the-americas
#17
Marie-Claire Parriault, Astrid Van-Melle, Célia Basurko, Larissa Valmy, Bruno Hoen, André Cabié, Marie-Thérèse Goerger-Sow, Mathieu Nacher
The French overseas territories in the Americas are the French territories most affected by HIV. Crack cocaine users are particularly impacted. The objective of this study was to describe sexual risk behaviors and inconsistent condom use among crack cocaine users. A total of 640 crack cocaine users were interviewed. The sampling method was non-probabilistic. An anonymous standardized questionnaire of 110 questions was used. Over a third of persons did not use condoms systematically with casual sex partners (36...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632385/fatigue-resistant-bioinspired-composite-from-synergistic-two-dimensional-nanocomponents
#18
Sijie Wan, Qi Zhang, Xiaohang Zhou, Dechang Li, Baohua Ji, Lei Jiang, Qunfeng Cheng
Portable and wearable electronics require much more flexible graphene-based electrode with high fatigue life, which could repeatedly bend, fold, or stretch without sacrificing its mechanical properties and electrical conductivity. Herein, a kind of ultrahigh fatigue resistant graphene-based nanocomposite via tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets is synthesized by introducing a synergistic effect with covalently cross-linking inspired by the orderly layered structure and abundant interfacial interactions of nacre...
June 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632086/life-s-greatest-secret-the-race-to-crack-the-genetic-code
#19
Nicolas Rasmussen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630909/dynamic-fracture-of-tantalum-under-extreme-tensile-stress
#20
Bruno Albertazzi, Norimasa Ozaki, Vasily Zhakhovsky, Anatoly Faenov, Hideaki Habara, Marion Harmand, Nicholas Hartley, Denis Ilnitsky, Nail Inogamov, Yuichi Inubushi, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Tetsuo Katayama, Takahisa Koyama, Michel Koenig, Andrew Krygier, Takeshi Matsuoka, Satoshi Matsuyama, Emma McBride, Kirill Petrovich Migdal, Guillaume Morard, Haruhiko Ohashi, Takuo Okuchi, Tatiana Pikuz, Narangoo Purevjav, Osami Sakata, Yasuhisa Sano, Tomoko Sato, Toshimori Sekine, Yusuke Seto, Kenjiro Takahashi, Kazuo Tanaka, Yoshinori Tange, Tadashi Togashi, Kensuke Tono, Yuhei Umeda, Tommaso Vinci, Makina Yabashi, Toshinori Yabuuchi, Kazuto Yamauchi, Hirokatsu Yumoto, Ryosuke Kodama
The understanding of fracture phenomena of a material at extremely high strain rates is a key issue for a wide variety of scientific research ranging from applied science and technological developments to fundamental science such as laser-matter interaction and geology. Despite its interest, its study relies on a fine multiscale description, in between the atomic scale and macroscopic processes, so far only achievable by large-scale atomic simulations. Direct ultrafast real-time monitoring of dynamic fracture (spallation) at the atomic lattice scale with picosecond time resolution was beyond the reach of experimental techniques...
June 2017: Science Advances
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