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Heidi M Munger Clary, Beverly M Snively, Marla J Hamberger
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess for independent association of anxiety symptoms with epilepsy localization and other epilepsy-related and demographic factors in a large tertiary care adult epilepsy population. METHODS: Among 540 adults, anxiety was measured by the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL-90R) anxiety subscale, and detailed demographics, epilepsy localization, and depression scores (SCL-90R) were collected. High anxiety was defined by SCL-90R anxiety T-score ≥ 60...
June 13, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Fiona Hollis, Ellen Siobhan Mitchell, Carles Canto, Dongmei Wang, Carmen Sandi
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are emerging as unique dietary supplements potentially relevant to improve brain dysfunctions. MCT are converted into ketones and free medium chain fatty acids that, in the brain, are highly effective energy sources to mitochondria and potentially less harmful than glucose metabolism to neurons. Given the recently established link between mitochondrial dysfunction and high anxiety and depression, we set this study to investigate the effectiveness of an MCT-enriched diet to ameliorate anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in rats...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Martin W Nicholson, Aaron Sweeney, Eva Pekle, Sabina Alam, Afia B Ali, Michael Duchen, Jasmina N Jovanovic
Benzodiazepines facilitate the inhibitory actions of GABA by binding to γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA Rs), GABA-gated chloride/bicarbonate channels, which are the key mediators of transmission at inhibitory synapses in the brain. This activity underpins potent anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and hypnotic effects of benzodiazepines in patients. However, extended benzodiazepine treatments lead to development of tolerance, a process which, despite its important therapeutic implications, remains poorly characterised...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Augusto P I Gargiulo, María P Gargiulo De Aranda, Mercedes M L Gargiulo, Angel J M Gargiulo, Andres Acuña, Gustavo C Baiardi, José V Lafuente, Adriana I Landa De Gargiulo, Manuel A Guevara, Pascual A Gargiulo
BACKGROUND: In previous studies, we have observed that specific N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonists and non-NMDA antagonists injected within the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS) induced an anxiolytic-like effect in the plus maze test in rats. In the present study, the effect of intracanalicular blockade of NMDA receptors using dizocilpine in the plus maze was studied in male rats bilaterally cannulated NAS. METHODS: Rats were divided into five groups that received either 1 μL injections of saline or dizocilpine (MK-801, [5R,10S]-[+]-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine) in different doses (0...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Claudio Ferrante, Adriano Mollica, Giorgia Macedonio, Azzurra Stefanucci, Marilisa Pia Dimmito, Szabolcs Dvorácskó, Csaba Tömböly, Luigi Brunetti, Giustino Orlando, Sheila Leone
BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is strongly involved in the regulation of anxiety and feeding behavior. RVD-hemopressin(α) [RVD-hp(α)], a N-terminally extended form of hemopressin, is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid (CB) 1 receptor and a positive allosteric modulator of CB2 receptor which has been recently reported to exert anxiolytic/antidepressant and anorexigenic effects after peripheral administration in rats. Pharmacological evidences reported a possible link between brain hypocretin/orexin, monoamine and eCB systems, as regards appetite and emotional behavior control...
February 2, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Sarah Nicolas, Joëlle Chabry, Alice Guyon, Hadi Zarif, Catherine Heurteaux, Agnès Petit-Paitel
Adiponectin (ApN) is a hormone produced by adipose tissue, yet the plasma level of ApN is decreased in overweight and obese people, as well as in people with diabetes. In the periphery, this decrease in circulating levels of ApN induces the establishment of a chronic low-grade inflammatory state and is involved in the development of insulin resistance and atheromas. Conversely, "favorable" living conditions, weight loss and regular physical exercise increase ApN blood concentration. Some forms of ApN can reach the brain parenchyma through the cerebrospinal fluid...
May 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Solomon K S Amoah, Maique W Biavatti
The leaves of the aromatic neotropical shrub Hedyosmum brasiliense are employed popularly as a sedative, aphrodisiac and as a substitute for green tea. Sesquiterpene lactones and phenolic compounds were characterized as the main compounds of its aqueous extract, and some biological investigation demonstrated its anxiolytic, antidepressant and hypnotic effects. The quantification of podoandin, onoseriolide and rosmarinic acid in its infused tea was achieved by means of ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a electronspray ionization interface and a high resolution mass detector...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Esther M Beraha, Elske Salemink, Erwin Krediet, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND: Baclofen has shown promise in the treatment of alcohol dependence. However, its precise (neuro-) psychological working mechanism is still under debate. AIMS: This study aimed to get a better understanding of baclofen's working mechanism by examining the effect of baclofen on cognitive biases. It was hypothesized that baclofen, compared to placebo, would lead to weaker cognitive biases. Furthermore, given a suggested anxiolytic effect of baclofen, we expected that anxiety would moderate this effect...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Bojan Batinić, Tamara Stanković, Michael Rajesh Stephen, Revathi Kodali, Veera V Tiruveedhula, Guanguan Li, Petra Scholze, Bojan D Marković, Aleksandar Lj Obradović, Margot Ernst, James M Cook, Miroslav M Savić
It is unclear whether GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs) that contain the α3-subunit are substantially involved in the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines (BDZs). In the present study, we tested YT-III-31, a newer BDZ ligand with functional preference for α3βγ2 GABAA Rs, in two paradigms of unconditioned anxiety, the open field and elevated plus maze in rats. The effective dose of YT-III-31 (2 mg/kg) displayed a clear anxiolytic-like profile, unhampered by sedative action, in both tests. At a higher dose (10 mg/kg), YT-III-31 induced ataxia in the rotarod and sedation in spontaneous locomotor activity test...
June 8, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jessica A Boyette-Davis, Heather R Rice, Roanne I Shoubaki, Chantal M F Gonzalez, Marcela N Kunkel, Devon A Lucero, Paige D Womble, Fay A Guarraci
Methylphenidate (MPH) and methamphetamine (METH) are two commonly abused psychomotor stimulants that impact anxiety, but in a manner that is currently unclear. This study adds to the literature by testing the effects of MPH and METH on anxiety in adult female rats, which has not previously been studied. In Experiment1, changes in anxiety-like behavior were determined using the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) following either an acute injection of saline, METH (1 mg/kg), or MPH (10 mg/kg). Changes in general locomotion were measured using the open field test...
June 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
James Oluwagbamigbe Fajemiroye, Keasling Adam, Zjawiony Jordan K, Costa Elson Alves, Adeleke Adesiyan Aderoju
The search for psychoactive plants possessing therapeutic potential in the treatment of anxiety and depression has attracted growing interest. One such plant, Nymphaea lotus (commonly known as water lily), is used in traditional medicine for analgesic and sedative effects. The present study sought to assess the anti-anxiety and antidepressant activities of crude leaf extract of N. lotus and determine possible mechanisms of action. Barbiturate sleep induction, rota-rod, light/dark box, elevated plus maze, forced swimming test (FST) and open field test (OFT) were conducted...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Raj Shilpa, T P Sreekrishnan, K P Gireesh Kumar, C M Neethu
This is a case report on a 77-year-old diabetic patient with peripheral neuropathy and paresthesias in his feet, for which he was treated with pregabalin. During the therapy, his eosinophil level was high (60.3%). Pregabalin was stopped, and after one month his differential eosinophil had dropped dramatically, to 7.3%. Based on the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction scale, it is probable that the eosinophilia was induced by pregabalin, as the Naranjo probability score was calculated to be 8. BACKGROUND: Pregabalin, a structural derivative of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma amino butyric acid, has antiepileptic, analgesic, and anxiolytic properties; therefore, it is used for painful diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain associated with spinal-cord injury and as adjunctive therapy in refractory partial seizures...
June 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Claire Dussaule, Viviane Bouilleret
Epileptic and psychiatric diseases share overlaps. Indeed, anxiety and depression are common comorbidities in epilepsy, and patients with psychiatric disease are at risk of epilepsy. Some antiepileptic drugs (AED) have psychiatric side effects; conversely, some AED could be used to treat psychiatric pathologies. Based on current literature data, the aim of this study is to determine the psychiatric effects induced by the most frequently prescribed AED in epileptic adults. Some AED will have positive mood or anxiolytic effects like sodium channel blockers, valproate and benzodiazepines; conversely, others might induce negative psychiatric effect, especially depression, anxiety or aggression, like levetiracetam, perampanel, topiramate, zonisamide, and barbiturates...
June 1, 2018: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
Mohammad Nasehi, Seyed Moslem Mousavi Nezhad, Fatemeh Khakpai, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Prolonged sleep deprivation causes cognitive deficits. In rats, for instance, sleep deprivation weakens spatial learning and long-term potentiation (LTP). We examined the effects of omega-3 on cognitive deficiency induced by REM sleep deprivation (RSD). For this purpose, we used a fear conditioning paradigm, forced swim test (FST) apparatus, and hot plate test. Intravenously omega-3 injection was performed during 3 consecutive days. Rats trained in the fear conditioning apparatus after 24 hours. During conditioning, animals were received foot shocks, either alone or paired with a sound...
June 2, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Marta Carulla-Roig, Kayoko Isomura, Ana Pérez-Vigil, Henrik Larsson, Clara Hellner, David Mataix-Cols, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz
BACKGROUND: Monitoring "real world" dispensation patterns over time is important to build the evidence base for safe and efficient use of psychotropic drugs. In this study, we aimed to comprehensively examine the patterns of psychotropic drug dispensations in patients with Tourette and chronic tic disorders (TD/CTD) in Sweden between 2005 and 2013. METHODS: A cohort of 6979 TD/CTD patients was identified through the Swedish National Patient Register. Their drug dispensation patterns, collected in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, were examined between July 1, 2005 and December 31, 2013...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Fernanda F Peres, Alvaro C Lima, Jaime E C Hallak, José A Crippa, Regina H Silva, Vanessa C Abílio
Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and dyskinesia are highly debilitating conditions linked to oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. When available, the pharmacological therapies for these disorders are still mainly symptomatic, do not benefit all patients and induce severe side effects. Cannabidiol is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa that presents antipsychotic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Although the studies that investigate the effects of this compound on movement disorders are surprisingly few, cannabidiol emerges as a promising compound to treat and/or prevent them...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
B D Sigmarsdottir, Th K Gudmundsdottir, S Zoäga, P S Gunnarsson
Aims Respiratory depression is a serious life threatening condition and a known adverse event of opioids. Little is known about the use of the opioid antidote naloxon in Iceland, and the additive effects of other potentially respiratory depressive drugs administered with opioids. The aim of the study was to review the literature on drugs that may cause respiratory depression and to assess medication use in patients receiving parenteral naloxone in Landspítali University Hospital. Methods A review and analysis of drugs that can cause respiratory depression based on information from the scientific literature, medicine databases and clinical guidelines...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Oguz Mutlu, Tomáš Páleníček, Nikola Pinterová, Klára Šíchová, Jiří Horáček, Kristina Holubová, Cyril Höschl, Aleš Stuchlík, Faruk Erden, Karel Valeš
The adipokinetic and red pigment-concentrating hormone (AKH/RPCH) family of peptides controls fat, carbohydrate and protein metabolism in insects. In our previous study, we showed that AKH possesses antidepressant, anxiolytic, and analgesic effects, causes hyperlocomotion and exerts neuroprotective effects and increased brain neurotrophic factors in mice. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Anax imperator AKH (Ani-AKH), Libellula auripennis AKH (Lia-AKH) and Phormia-Terra hypertrehalosemic hormone (Pht-HrTH) on MK-801-induced memory deterioration in the active allothetic place avoidance test (AAPA) and MK-801-induced sensorimotor gating deficit in the prepulse inhibition test (PPI)...
June 4, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Sandra L Staveski, Rita H Pickler, Li Lin, Richard J Shaw, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Andrew Redington, Martha A Q Curley
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe how pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians assess and manage delirium in patients following cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Descriptive self-report survey. SETTING: A web-based survey of pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians who are members of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society. PATIENT OR SUBJECTS: Pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians (physicians and nurses)...
June 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
D Hen-Shoval, S Amar, L Shbiro, R Smoum, Christeene G Haj, R Mechoulam, G Zalsman, A Weller, G Shoval
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cannabidiolic acid methyl ester (HU-580) was recently shown to reduce stress-induced anxiety-like behavior in rats. The aim of this study was to examine the antidepressant effect of HU-580 in two different rat models of depression. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Using the forced swim test (FST), we evaluated the effect of HU-580 in 43 Wistar - Kyoto (WKY) and 23 Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) adult male rats. KEY RESULTS: 1 mg/kg HU-580 reduced immobility and increased swimming in WKY rats, compared to vehicle-treated controls (p < 0...
May 31, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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