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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448033/environmental-enrichment-decreases-avoidance-responses-in-the-elevated-t-maze-and-delta-fosb-immunoreactivity-in-anxiety-related-brain-regions
#1
Danielle A Lopes, Thaissa M O Souza, José S de Andrade, Mariana F S Silva, Hanna K M Antunes, Luciana Le Seur Maluf, Isabel C Céspedes, Milena B Viana
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an animal management technique, which seems to improve adaptation to the experimental conditions of housing in laboratory animals. Previous studies have pointed to different beneficial effects of the procedure in the treatment of several disorders, including psychiatric conditions such as depression. The anxiolytic effects induced by EE, on the other hand, are not as clear. In fact, it has been proposed that EE acts as a mild stressor agent. To better understand the relationship of EE with anxiety-related responses, the present study exposed rats to one week of EE and subsequently tested these animals in the inhibitory avoidance and escape tasks of the elevated T-maze (ETM)...
February 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442611/relative-toxicity-of-benzodiazepines-and-hypnotics-commonly-used-for-self-poisoning-an-epidemiological-study-of-fatal-toxicity-and-case-fatality
#2
Galit Geulayov, Anne Ferrey, Deborah Casey, Claudia Wells, Alice Fuller, Clare Bankhead, David Gunnell, Caroline Clements, Navneet Kapur, Jennifer Ness, Keith Waters, Keith Hawton
The relative toxicity of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs commonly used for self-poisoning was assessed using data on suicides, prescriptions and non-fatal self-poisonings in England, 2005-2012. Data on suicide by self-poisoning were obtained from the Office for National Statistics, information on intentional non-fatal self-poisoning was derived from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England and data on prescriptions in general practice from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We used two indices of relative toxicity: fatal toxicity (the number of fatal self-poisonings relative to the number of individuals prescribed each drug) and case fatality (the number of fatal relative to non-fatal self-poisonings)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441519/trajectory-analysis-of-anxiolytic-dispensing-over-10-years-among-new-users-aged-50-and-older
#3
P Verger, B Mmadi Mrenda, S Cortaredona, M Tournier, H Verdoux
OBJECTIVE: To identify temporal trajectories of anxiolytic benzodiazepine (A-BZD) use over 10 years among new A-BZD users aged 50 and older and describe treatment patterns and demographic and clinical characteristics associated with each trajectory. METHOD: A representative cohort of the French national health insurance fund users was tracked from 2006 through 2015. We used latent class mixed models to identify the trajectories. RESULTS: We observed four trajectories among new users (no A-BZD dispensing in 2005) plus one non-use trajectory...
February 13, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438703/etizolam-attenuates-the-reduction-in-cutaneous-temperature-induced-in-mice-by-exposure-to-synthetic-predator-odor
#4
Sadaharu Miyazono, Kaede Hasegawa, Seri Miyazaki, Hikari Sakakima, Shun Konno, Saori Meguro, Hitoshi Sasajima, Tomohiro Noguchi, Kazumi Osada, Makoto Kashiwayanagi
Anxiety- and stress-related disorders can be debilitating psychiatric conditions in humans. To prevent or ameliorate these conditions, reliable animal models are needed to evaluate the effects of anxiolytic drugs. Previously, we found that a mixture of three pyrazine analogues (P-mix) that were present at high levels in wolf urine induced fear-related responses in mice, rats and deer. A change in cutaneous temperature was shown to be induced by acute stress simultaneously with changes in heart rate, arterial pressure and freezing behavior, raising the possibility that cutaneous temperature could be used as an index of stress...
February 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438489/transient-anosmia-induces-depressive-like-and-anxiolytic-like-behavior-and-reduces-amygdalar-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-a-znso4-induced-mouse-model
#5
Sangzin Ahn, Mooseok Choi, Hyunju Kim, Eunjeong Yang, Usman Mahmood, Seong-Il Kang, Hyun-Woo Shin, Dae Woo Kim, Hye-Sun Kim
Olfactory loss is known to affect both mood and quality of life. Transient anosmia was induced in mice to study the resulting changes in mood, behavior, and on a molecular level. Transient anosmia was induced by a single intranasal instillation of ZnSO4 in BALB/c mice. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and potato chip finding test were performed to confirm olfactory loss. Tail suspension, forced swim, and splash tests were performed to evaluate depression-related behavior; while the open field, and elevated plus maze tests were used to evaluate anxiety-related behavior...
February 9, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435814/alterations-in-gene-and-protein-expression-of-cannabinoid-cb-2-and-gpr55-receptors-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-of-suicide-victims
#6
María S García-Gutiérrez, Francisco Navarrete, Gemma Navarro, Irene Reyes-Resina, Rafael Franco, Jose Luis Lanciego, Salvador Giner, Jorge Manzanares
Recent studies point to the cannabinoid CB 2 receptors (CB 2 r) and the non-cannabinoid receptor GPR55 as potential key targets involved in the response to stress, anxiety, and depression. Considering the close relationship between neuropsychiatric disorders and suicide, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential alterations of CB 2 r and GPR55 in suicide victims. We analyzed gene and protein expression of both receptors by real-time PCR and western blot, respectively, in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of 18 suicide victims with no clinical psychiatric history or treatment with anxiolytics or antidepressants, and 15 corresponding controls...
February 12, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433220/coriander-coriandrum-sativum-a-promising-functional-food-toward-the-well-being
#7
REVIEW
Veda Prachayasittikul, Supaluk Prachayasittikul, Somsak Ruchirawat, Virapong Prachayasittikul
Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum) or coriander is one of the most popularly used spices in culinary worldwide, and its medicinal values has been recognized since ancient time. C. sativum contains bioactive phytochemicals that are accounted for a wide range of biological activities including antioxidant, anticancer, neuroprotective, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, analgesic, migraine-relieving, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, antimicrobial, and antiinflammatory activities. The major compound, linalool, abundantly found in seeds is remarked for its abilities to modulate many key pathogenesis pathways of diseases...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433063/effects-of-tandospirone-augmentation-in-major-depressive-disorder-patients-with-high-anxiety-a-multicenter-randomized-parallel-controlled-open-label-study
#8
Jingyu Lin, Yunai Su, Chunxia Wang, Fude Yang, Yi Xu, Yonggui Yuan, Yefeng Yuan, Xiaoping Wang, Xin Yu, Tianmei Si
BACKGROUND: High levels of anxiety symptoms are common in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Adjunctive anxiolytics are widely used in such patients; however, only a few studies have examined the strategy using tandospirone. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive tandospirone in individuals with MDD and high level of anxiety symptoms. METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, parallel-controlled, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tandospirone coupled with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in patients with MDD and high level of anxiety symptoms...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432803/learning-and-memory-is-modulated-by-cannabidiol-when-administered-during-trace-fear-conditioning
#9
A L Uhernik, Z T Montoya, C D Balkissoon, J P Smith
Cannabidiol (CBD) is thought to have therapeutic potential for treating psychiatric conditions that affect cognitive aspects of learning and memory, including anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies have shown that CBD enhances extinction of fear memory when given after conditioning. This led us to hypothesize that CBD, if administered prior to fear conditioning, might modulate cognitive learning and memory processes in additional ways that would further guide its potential use for treating PTSD...
February 9, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428604/experimental-neuropharmacology-of-gelsemium-sempervirens-recent-advances-and-debated-issues
#10
Paolo Bellavite, Clara Bonafini, Marta Marzotto
Gelsemium sempervirens L. (Gelsemium) is traditionally used for its anxiolytic-like properties and its action mechanism in laboratory models are under scrutiny. Evidence from rodent models was reported suggesting the existence of a high sensitivity of central nervous system to anxiolytic power of Gelsemium extracts and Homeopathic dilutions. In vitro investigation of extremely low doses of this plant extract showed a modulation of gene expression of human neurocytes. These studies were criticized in a few commentaries, generated a debate in literature and were followed by further experimental studies from various laboratories...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425815/computer-aided-insights-into-receptor-ligand-interaction-for-novel-5-arylhydantoin-derivatives-as-serotonin-5-ht7-receptor-agents-with-antidepressant-activity
#11
Katarzyna Kucwaj-Brysz, Rafał Kurczab, Magdalena Jastrzębska-Więsek, Ewa Żesławska, Grzegorz Satała, Wojciech Nitek, Anna Partyka, Agata Siwek, Agnieszka Jankowska, Anna Wesołowska, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz, Jadwiga Handzlik
This paper presents a computer-aided insight into the receptor-ligand interaction for novel analogs of the lead structure 5-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(2-hydroxy-3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)propyl)-5-methylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (1, MF-8), as part of the search for potent and selective serotonin 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) agents. New hydantoin derivatives (4-19) were designed and synthesized. For 5-phenyl-3-(2-hydroxy-3-(4-(2-ethoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)propyl)-5-methylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (4), its crystal structure was determined experimentally...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423894/aloysia-triphylla-in-the-zebrafish-food-effects-on-physiology-behavior-and-growth-performance
#12
Daniane C Zago, Alessandro C Santos, Carlos F C Lanes, Daniela V Almeida, Gessi Koakoski, Murilo S de Abreu, Carla C Zeppenfeld, Berta M Heinzmann, Luis F Marins, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Mauro A Cunha
Dietary supplements are commonly used by animals and humans and play key roles in diverse systems, such as the immune and reproductive systems, and in metabolism. Essential oils (EOs), which are natural substances, have potential for use in food supplementation; however, their effects on organisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we examine the effects of dietary Aloysia triphylla EO supplementation on zebrafish behavior, metabolism, stress response, and growth performance. We show that fish fed diets containing A...
February 8, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421591/voluntary-exercise-increases-resilience-to-social-defeat-stress-in-syrian-hamsters
#13
Rody C Kingston, Michael Smith, Tiara Lacey, Malcolm Edwards, Janae N Best, Chris M Markham
Exposure to social stressors can cause profound changes in an individual's well-being and can be an underlying factor in the etiology of a variety of psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In Syrian hamsters, a single social defeat experience results in behavioral changes collectively known as conditioned defeat (CD), and includes an abolishment of territorial aggression and the emergence of high levels of defensive behaviors. In contrast, voluntary exercise has been shown to promote stress resilience and can also have anxiolytic-like effects...
February 5, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417943/inhibition-of-the-g9a-glp-histone-methyltransferase-complex-modulates-anxiety-related-behavior-in-mice
#14
Dong-Yao Wang, Joel Kosowan, James Samsom, Laura Leung, Kai-Lai Zhang, Ying-Xiang Li, Yan Xiong, Jian Jin, Arturas Petronis, Gabriel Oh, Albert H C Wong
Epigenetic gene-regulation abnormalities have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and depression, as well as in the regulation of mood and anxiety. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the actions of psychiatric drugs. Current anxiolytic drugs have significant shortcomings, and development of new medications is warranted. Two proteins, G9a (also known as EHMT2 or KMT1C) and GLP (G9a-like protein, also known as EHMT1 or KMT1D), which methylate lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9), could be promising anxiolytic targets...
February 8, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414121/sacred-maya-incense-copal-protium-copal-burseraceae-has-antianxiety-effects-in-animal-models
#15
Zul Merali, Christian Cayer, Pamela Kent, Rui Liu, Victor Cal, Cory S Harris, John T Arnason
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Maya have traditionally used copal, Protium copal, as incense during ceremonies since pre-Columbian times. Anecdotally, copal (when burned as incense), is thought to elicit mentally uplifting and calming effects. The main objective of this study was to determine whether the incense elicits anxiolytic-like behavior in animal models using rats. A second objective was to characterize active constituents and discern potential mechanism(s) of action, specifically the involvement of the GABAergic and endocannabinoid (eCB) systems...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414005/evaluation-of-benzodiazepines-and-zolpidem-in-nails-and-their-stability-after-prolonged-exposure-to-chlorinated-water
#16
Matteo Moretti, Luisa Andrello, Silvia Visonà, Claudia Vignali, Angelo Groppi, Francesca Freni, Antonio Osculati, Luca Tajana, Luca Morini
The study aims the development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for the identification and quantification of benzodiazepines and zolpidem in nails as alternative keratinized matrix to hair in long-term monitoring of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs. Both fingernail and toenail samples (1-2 mm) were collected by clipping the excess overhang of the nail from volunteers and from postmortem cases. They were washed twice with organic solvents, dried under nitrogen stream, pulverized, immersed in a methanol solution (internal standard: diazepam-D5) and sonicated up to two hours...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411704/-genetic-association-analyses-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-on-anxious-phenotype
#17
Judit Lazary, Nora Eszlari, Gabriella Juhasz, Gyorgy Bagdy
BACKGROUND: Accumulating data confirmed that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in the regulation of stress response and emotional processes, therefore ECS became an important pharmacological target as a potential anxiolytic. Although unequivocal data from animal studies confirmed the relevancy of the ECS in anxious phenotype, human genetic data are poorly available in the literature in this field. In the presented studies we tested possible associations between anxious phenotype and the cannabinoid receptor 1 and the fatty acid amide hydrolase gene polymorphisms...
December 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407363/society-of-family-planning-clinical-guidelines-pain-control-in-surgical-abortion-part-1-local-anesthesia-and-minimal-sedation
#18
REVIEW
Rebecca H Allen, Rameet Singh
Satisfactory pain control for women undergoing surgical abortion is important for patient comfort and satisfaction. Clinicians ought to be aware of the safety and efficacy of different pain control regimens. This document will focus on nonpharmacologic modalities to reduce pain and pharmacologic interventions up to the level of minimal sedation. For surgical abortion without intravenous medications, a multimodal approach to pain control may combine a dedicated emotional-support person, visual or auditory distraction, administration of local anesthesia to the cervix with buffered lidocaine, and a preoperative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug...
January 30, 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407219/gabaa-receptor-positive-and-negative-allosteric-modulators
#19
REVIEW
Richard W Olsen
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission and the gene products involved were discovered during the mid-twentieth century. Historically, myriad existing nervous system drugs act as positive and negative allosteric modulators of these proteins, making GABA a major component of modern neuropharmacology, and suggesting that many potential drugs will be found that share these targets. Although some of these drugs act on proteins involved in synthesis, degradation, and membrane transport of GABA, the GABA receptors Type A (GABAAR) and Type B (GABABR) are the targets of the great majority of GABAergic drugs...
January 30, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403000/the-selective-reversible-faah-inhibitor-ssr411298-restores-the-development-of-maladaptive-behaviors-to-acute-and-chronic-stress-in-rodents
#20
Guy Griebel, Jeanne Stemmelin, Mati Lopez-Grancha, Valérie Fauchey, Franck Slowinski, Philippe Pichat, Gihad Dargazanli, Ahmed Abouabdellah, Caroline Cohen, Olivier E Bergis
Enhancing endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been considered as a potential strategy for the treatment of stress-related conditions. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) represents the primary degradation enzyme of the eCB anandamide (AEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). This study describes a potent reversible FAAH inhibitor, SSR411298. The drug acts as a selective inhibitor of FAAH, which potently increases hippocampal levels of AEA, OEA and PEA in mice. Despite elevating eCB levels, SSR411298 did not mimic the interoceptive state or produce the behavioral side-effects (memory deficit and motor impairment) evoked by direct-acting cannabinoids...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
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